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The Prokaryotes: Archaebacteria and Eubacteria

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1 The Prokaryotes: Archaebacteria and Eubacteria
KINGDOM MONERA The Prokaryotes: Archaebacteria and Eubacteria

2 Characteristics of Bacteria
Prokaryote means “before a nucleus.” They are single-celled organisms and the smallest, simplest organisms. This kingdom is subdivided into two kingdoms: Archaebacteria Eubacteria

3 i. Archaebacteria – “achaio” comes from the Greek means “ancient”
i. Archaebacteria – “achaio” comes from the Greek means “ancient”. Found in anaerobic conditions with high salt concentrations, high temperatures and a low pH. ii. Eubacteria – This group includes the true bacteria and is the largest and most successful of the two kingdoms.

4 Bacteria all share these five characteristics
-All bacteria are single-celled -All bacteria are prokaryotes. Their DNA is not surrounded by a membrane. -Cell organelles in bacteria are not surrounded by membranes. -The DNA of bacteria is made of a single chromosome. - Bacteria are the smallest organisms measuring from 1-10 micrometres.

5 Kingdom Eubacteria Unicellular (single-cell)
Prokaryotes (no membrane-bound organelles) Cell Walls contain peptidoglycan, not cellulose

6 It contains a cell wall that provides support and protection for the contents of the cell.
The cytoplasm contains ribosomes, responsible for the formation of proteins and DNA. The DNA forms a single chromosome and forms a ring. Some bacteria have a flagella that act like propellers moving the organism forward. Bacteria are classified by their shape, reaction to being stained, nutrition and respiration.

7 Shape of Eubacteria Monococcus Diplococcus Tetracoccus Streptococcus
Sarkina Streptococcus Staphylococcus Spirillum Spiral Spiroseta Vibrio Bacillus Monobacillus Diplobacillus Streptobacillus

8 Bacterial Cell Shape Bacteria can be classified by shape.
-A spherical cell is called a coccus (pl. cocci) -A rod-shaped cell is called a bacillus (pl. bacilli) -A spiral-shaped cell is called a spirillum (pl. spirilla)

9 Cocci living as separate cells are called monococci, pairs are called diplococci, chains are called streptococci, and grapelike clusters are called staphlococci. Bacilli also exist as single cells, pairs (diplobacilli), or chains (streptobacilli). Spiral bacteria exist only as single cells. Staining bacteria results in two forms: gram-positive (purple) vs. gram negative (pink).

10 Grouping Diplo- Pairs Streptos- Chains Staphylo- Clusters

11 These are the general shapes:

12 Examples of Spherical-shaped cells Coccus (sng) , cocci (pl)

13 Coccus

14 A Group of Two is referred to as: Diplo…….. This is diplococccus

15 A Cluster of cells is referred to as: Staphylo…. This is Staphylococcus

16 What a slide of Typical coccus looks like in a microscope.

17 Streptococcus aurelius

18 Strep Throat

19 Staph Infection

20 Rod-shaped cells Bacillus (sng) , Bacilli (pl)

21 Typical Bacillus

22 Bacillus

23 Typical Bacillus in a Microscope

24 Spiral-shaped cells Spirillum (sng) , Spirlli (pl)

25 Spirochetes

26 Struktur dan Fungsi Utama Sel Bakteri
Struktur dan Fungsi Sel Dinding Sel DNA Membran Plasma Sitoplasma Granula Penyimpanan Kapsul Flagelum Pilus Klorosom Vakuola Gas

27 Struktur Utama Bakteri
Membran Plasma tersusun atas fosfolipid dan protein, bersifat semipermeable. Dinding Sel tersusun atas mukopolisakarida dan peptidoglikan (protein dan polisakarida) Sitoplasma tersusun atas air, asam nukleat, protein, karbohidrat, lemak.

28 Ribosome sintesis protein DNA materi genetik Granula penyimpanan

29 Struktur Tambahan Bakteri
Kapsul tersusun atas polisakarida dan air yang berfungsi untuk membantu melekat pada permukaan sel bakteri lainnya. Cth: Streptococcus mutans Pertahanan bakteri Flagellum Monotrik : flagellum pada bakteri berjumlah satu Lofotrik : flagella pada satu sisi Amfitrik : flagella atau flagellum di kedua ujung Peritrik : flagella tersebar di seluruh permukaan sel

30 Struktur Tambahan Bakteri
Klorosom pigmen klorofil untuk proses fotosintesis. Cth: Chlorobium. Vakuola Gas terdapat pada bakteri yang hidup di air dan melakukan fotosintesis. Endospora bentuk istirahat/laten bakteri. Cth : Bacillus antracis, Clostridium tetani, Clostridium botulinum

31 Life Cycle Nutrition Aerob Respiration Hetetrof Fotoautotrof
Kemoautotrof Hetetrof Saprofit Parasit Respiration Aerob Anaerob Facultative Anaerob Obligat Anaerob Cell Wall Gram Positive Gram Negative

32 Bakteri Heterotrof Bakteri Saprofit bakteri yang memperoleh makanan dari sisa organisme lain cth: Eschericia colli, Lactobacillus bulgaricus Bakteri Parasit bakteri yang memperoleh makanan dari inangnya. Inang tempat hidup bakteri adalah tumbuhan, hewan atau manusia. Cth: Mycobacterium tuberculosis

33 Bakteri Autotrof Auto = diri, trophos = memakan
Bakteri yang mampu membuat makanan sendiri. Bakteri Fotoautotrof bakteri yang menggunakan energi cahaya matahari untuk membuat makanannya. Cth: Thiocytstis sp. Bakteri Kemoautotrof menggunakan energi kimia (proses oksidasi senyawa anorganik) untuk mensintesis makanannya. Cth: Nitrosomonas dan Nitrosococcus

34 Nutrition Most eubacteria are heterotrophs and obtain energy by breaking down organic molecules from their environment. Some are parasites, absorbing nutrients from living organisms. Others are saprobes, decomposing dead organic matter. Mode of nutrition Energy Source Carbon Source Photoautotroph Light Carbon Dioxide Chemoautotroph Inorganic Chemicals Photoheterotroph Organic Compounds Chemoheterotroph

35 Bakteri Aerob Membutuhkan oksigen bebas untuk memperoleh energinya. Cth: Nitrosomonas, Nitrosoccus. Nitrosomonas : amonia – nitrit Nitrobacter : nitrit - nitrat

36 Bakteri Anaerob Tidak Membutuhkan oksigen bebas untuk memperoleh energinya. Energi yang diperoleh bersumber dari fermentasi. Bakteri Anerob Obligat hanya dapat hidup jika tidak ada oksigen. Cth: Clostridium botulinum Bakteri Anaerob Fakultatif dapat hidup jika ada oksigen maupun tidak ada oksigen. Cth : Eschericia colli

37 Respiration If respiration requires oxygen, bacteria are termed aerobes. If oxygen is absolutely necessary for survival they are called obligate aerobes. Bacteria that carry out respiration without oxygen are called anaerobes. Presence of oxygen kills some bacteria and these are called obligate anaerobes. (example- Clostridium botulinum) Another group of bacteria can survive with or without oxygen and they are called facultative anaerobes.

38 Gram Stain A staining method to differentiate bacteria
Gram-negative refers to the inability to retain the deep violet dye Gram-positive refers to the ability to retain the deep violet dye

39 Bakteri berdasarkan Lap.Peptidoglikan pada Dinding Sel
Bakteri gram positif (dinding sel dengan lap.peptidoglikan yang tebal, berwarna ungu). Cth: Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum, Vibrio cholerae Bakteri gram negatif (dinding sel dengan lap.peptidoglikan yang tipis, berwarna merah muda). Cth: Streptococcus mutans, Eschericia coli.

40 Gram Staining

41                               Gram Negative cells Gram Positive Cells

42 Bacteria Photos Clostridium perfringes Anthrax

43 Bacteria Photos E. coli Clostridium tetani

44 Neisseria gonorrhoeae Staphylococcus aureus
Bacteria Photos Neisseria gonorrhoeae Staphylococcus aureus

45 Bacteria Photos Strep

46 Reproduction Asexual Binary Fission (pembelahan biner) Sexual
Transformasi Konjugasi Transduksi

47 Reproduction 1. By binary fission
• a bacterium may undergo fission every minutes 2. Conjugation • part of a chromosome is transferred from donor cell to recipient through pilus 3. Transformation • living cell picks up fragments of DNA released by dead cells 4. Transduction • fragments of DNA carried from one cell to another by viruses

48 [1] Asexual Reproduction
Binary Fission – cells grow in size the split in two…. Genetically identical

49 [2] Sexual Reproduction (exchanging DNA) a. Conjugation
two bacteria join together and exchange portions of DNA. Ex: E.colli

50 b. Transformation DNA is taken in by a bacterium, and then used.

51 Transduction DNA is transferred to a bacterium by a virus.

52 Endospores When environmental factors become harsh, bacteria will either die or form endospores. If bacteria have time, if the environmental changes are slow enough, they usually form endospores.

53 When growth conditions become extremely unfavourable, many bacteria form structures called endospores. Endospores are DNA and a small amount of cytoplasm enclosed in a tough cell wall. They are resistant to extremes in temperature, drying, and harsh chemicals.

54 Advantages: Disadvantages:
Widely dispersed populations can still reproduce. Cells are identical to parents and should survive well if conditions don't change. Disadvantages: Cells are identical to parents and so are vulnerable to the same environmental stresses. The characteristics of the cells change very slowly there is very little innovation in survival strategies. Unchanging cells may be slow to take advantage of new energy sources.

55 Classification of Eubacteria
Proteobacteria Cyanobacteria Spirochetes Chlamydias

56 Proteobacteria Proteobacteria bersifat fotoautotrof (bakteri ungu) : memiliki klorofil, beberapa spesies merupakan anaerob obligat, hidup di endapan kolam, danau atau lumpur. Cth: Chromatin Proteobacteria bersifat kemoheterotrof Cth: Rhizobium, E.Colli

57 Cyanobacteria Ganggang hijau biru berlendir
Lendir berfungsi membantu gerakan secara meluncur Ukuran 1-60 miikrometer Hidup soliter Pigmen tambahan : fikosianin (biru), fikoeritrin (merah) Memiliki vakuola gas, fotoautotrof menghasilkan O2 Sexual reproduction : Asexual reproduction: pembelahan biner, fragmentasi dan pembentukan spora (akinet) Ex: Nostoc bersimbiosis dengan jamur – lumut kerak (lichenes) Anabaena azollae hidup di daun tumbuhan paku air Azolla pinata

58 Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic autotrophs that produce carbohydrates and oxygen tend to cling together in chains or colonies contain enzymes that allow them to “fix” atmospheric nitrogen


60 Filamentous: Chain of cells

61 Oscillatoria

62 Anabaena _ jpg

63 Some filamentous cyanobacteria have Heterocysts, which are Nitrogen-fixing structures

64 Spirochetes Berbentuk spiral dengan panjang 5-250 mikrometer
Bakteri gram negatif Ukuran miikrometer Memiliki filamen aksial Habitat : lumpur, air Sexual reproduction : Treponema pallidum

65 Archaebacteria Archaebacteria Methanogen Thermopile Halophile

66 Methanogens These Archebacteria are anaerobes. They make methane (natural gas) as a waste product. They are found in swamp sediments, sewage, and in buried landfills. In the future, they could be used to produce methane as a byproduct of sewage treatment or landfill operation.

67 Methanogen H2 digunakan untuk mereduksi CO2 menjadi metana (CH4)
Bakteri anaerob Habitat : lumpur dan rawa Berperan sebagai pengurai Beberapa species bakteri metanogen hidup di lingkungan anerobik di dalam perut hewan

68 Halophiles These are salt-loving Archaebacteria that grow in salt ponds. Large numbers of certain halophiles can turn these waters a dark pink. Pink halophiles contain a pigment very similar to the rhodopsin in the human retina. They use this visual pigment for a type of photosynthesis that does not produce oxygen. Halophiles are aerobes.

69 Extreme halophiles can live in extremely salty environments
Extreme halophiles can live in extremely salty environments. Most are photosynthetic autotrophs. The photosynthesizers in this category are purple because instead of using chlorophyll to photosynthesize, they use a similar pigment called bacteriorhodopsin that uses all light except for purple light, making the cells appear purple.

70 Halofil Ekstrim Hidup di tempat yang salinitasnya tinggi
(halo = garam, philos=pecinta) Pecinta garam atau hidup di tempat yang memiliki salinitas yang tinggi Cth : di danau air asin, laut mati Ex: Halobacterium salinarium Koloni halofil membentuk buih berwarna merah ungu yang dihasilkan oleh pigmen rhodopsin. Pigmen ini menangkap cahaya.

71 Thermophiles These are Archaebacteria from hot springs and other high temperature environments. Some can grow above the boiling temperature of water. They are anaerobes, performing anaerobic respiration. Thermophiles are interesting because they contain genes for heat-stable enzymes that may be of great value in industry and medicine. An example is taq polymerase, the gene for which was isolated from a collection of Thermus aquaticus in a Yellowstone Park hot spring. Annual sales of taq polymerase are roughly half a billion dollars.

72 Termofil Hidup pada suhu yang ekstrim panas dengan suhu optimum C. Bakteri ini hidup dengan mengoksidasi sulfur Ex : Sulfolobus sp yang menempati mata air panas sulfur di Yellowstone National Park,USA

73 Bahan Diskusi Dalam klasifikasi sebelumnya, Cyanobacteria disebut juga ganggang hijau biru dan tidak dikelompokkan ke dalam bakteri. Berikan alasan mengapa Cyanobacteria dipisahkan dari bakteri. Mengapa dalam klasifikasi sekarang Cyanobacteria dikelompokkan ke dalam bakteri ?

74 Jawaban Tubuh monoselluler/multiselluler Memiliki ribosom Prokariotik
Terdapat pigmen fikosianin dalam membran tilakoid Tidak mengandung plastida dan RE


76 Bacterial Diseases Anthrax Botulism Lyme Disease Salmonella Tetanus
Tooth decay Tuberculosis

77 Eubacteria Clostridium botulinum (pembusukan makanan)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TBC) Vibrio cholerae ( penyakit kolera) Clostridium tetani (tetanus) Mycobacterium leprae (penyebab lepra) Bacillus anthracis (antraks pada sapi) Agrobacterium tumefaciens (tumor pada tumbuhan)

78 Archaebacteria Merusak makanan yang telah diawetkan dengan garam

79 The role of bacteria in the Nitrogen cycle

80 Nitrogen-fixation some soil bacteria live in the ground and take in Nitrogen from the surroundings. the Nitrogen is combined with oxygen to form nitrites and nitrates. Plants use the nitrates and nitrites to make proteins.

81 Denitrification some soil bacteria break down the nitrogen compounds and release the nitrogen back into the environment. plants could not live without Nitrogen-fixing and Denitrifying bacteria.

82 Examples of Symbiotic Relationships
Mutualism – E. coli in the intestines of mammals aid in digestion. Parasitism – some bacteria are parasites. They live in a host and eventually overpopulate. As they do they use the host’s food and water, and eventually they starve the tissues.

83 Beneficial Uses/Effects
chemical recyclers (Nitrogen Cycle) the production of HGH, Insulin, Etc., through Genetic Engineering oil spill cleanup synthesis of Vitamins in your intestines

84 Other Bacteria live symbiotically in the guts of animals or elsewhere in their bodies.
For example, bacteria in your gut produce vitamin K which is essential to blood clot formation.

85 Still other Bacteria live on the roots of certain plants, converting nitrogen into a usable form.

86 Bacteria put the tang in yogurt and the sour in sourdough bread.
Saprobes help to break down dead organic matter. Bacteria make up the base of the food web in many environments. Streptococcus thermophilus in yogurt

87 Penanggulangan Bakteri
Pengawetan dan Pengolahan Makanan Kebersihan dan Kesehatan Diri serta Lingkungan Imunisasi


89 In Gram-positive bacteria, the purple crystal violet stain is
trapped by the layer of peptidoglycan which forms the outer layer of the cell. In Gram-negative bacteria, the outer membrane of lipopolysaccharides prevents the stain from reaching the peptidoglycan layer. The outer membrane is then permeabilized by acetone treatment, and the pink safranin counterstain is trapped by the peptidoglycan layer.

90 The Gram stain has four steps:
1. crystal violet, the primary stain: followed by 2. iodine, which acts as a mordant by forming a crystal violet-iodine complex, then 3. alcohol, which decolorizes, followed by 4. safranin, the counterstain.

91 Gram staining tests the bacterial cell wall's ability to retain crystal violet dye during solvent treatment. Safranin is added as a mordant to form the crystal violet/safranin complex in order to render the dye impossible to remove. Ethyl-alcohol solvent acts as a decolorizer and dissolves the lipid layer from gram-negative cells. This enhances leaching of the primary stain from the cells into the surrounding solvent. Ethyl-alcohol will dehydrate the thicker gram-positive cell walls, closing the pores as the cell wall shrinks.  For this reason, the diffusion of the crystal violet-safranin staining is inhibited, so the bacteria remain stained. 

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