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Organizational Design Presented by: Esra Indra Banurea 55108120127 Nelson Sitompul 55108120125 24 October 2009.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Organizational Design Presented by: Esra Indra Banurea 55108120127 Nelson Sitompul 55108120125 24 October 2009."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Organizational Design Presented by: Esra Indra Banurea Nelson Sitompul October 2009

2 2 Defining Organizational Design Organizational Design –When managers develop or change the structure they are engaged in Organisation Design –A process involving decisions about six key elements: Work specialization Departmentalization Chain of command Span of control Centralization and decentralization Formalization

3 Desain Organisasi Struktur organisasi berkaitan dengan desain organisasi. Organizational Design: management decisions and actions that result in a specific organization structure. 3

4 4 Goals and Strategy EnvironmentSize Culture Technology Structure 1.Formalization 2.Specialization 3.Hierarchy of Authority 4.Centralization 5.Professionalism 6.Personnel Ratios South-Western College Publishing Cincinnati, Ohio Daft, Organization Theory and Design 7/e

5 Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 Structural Contingency Factors Structural decisions are influenced by: –Overall strategy of the organization Organizational structure follows strategy. –Size of the organization Firms change from organic to mechanistic organizations as they grow in size. –Technology use by the organization Firms adapt their structure to the technology they use. –Degree of environmental uncertainty Dynamic environments require organic structures; mechanistic structures need stable environments.

6 Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 6 Structural Contingency Factors (cont’d) Strategy Frameworks: –Innovation Pursuing competitive advantage through meaningful and unique innovations favors an organic structuring. –Cost minimization Focusing on tightly controlling costs requires a mechanistic structure for the organization. –Imitation Minimizing risks and maximizing profitability by copying market leaders requires both organic and mechanistic elements in the organization’s structure

7 Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 7 Structural Contingency Factors (cont’d) Strategy and Structure –Achievement of strategic goals is facilitated by changes in organizational structure that accommodate and support change. Size and Structure –As an organization grows larger, its structure tends to change from organic to mechanistic with increased specialization, departmentalization, centralization, and rules and regulations.

8 Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8 Structural Contingency Factors (cont’d) Technology and Structure –Organizations adapt their structures to their technology. –Woodward’s classification of firms based in the complexity of the technology employed: Unit production of single units or small batches Mass production of large batches of output Process production in continuous process of outputs –Routine technology = mechanistic organizations –Non-routine technology = organic organizations

9 Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 Structural Contingency Factors (cont’d) Environmental Uncertainty and Structure –Mechanistic organizational structures tend to be most effective in stable and simple environments. –The flexibility of organic organizational structures is better suited for dynamic and complex environments.

10 Desain Organisasi Desain organisasi yg umum dijumpai : i. Struktur sederhana : dicirikan oleh derajat rendah departmentalisasi, luasnya rentang kendali, otoritas terpusat pada satu orang dan sedikit formalisasi. ii. Birokrasi : struktur dgn tugas-tugas yg sangat rutin yg dicapai lewat spesialisasi, aturan dan pengaturan yg sangat formal, tugas-tugas dikelompokkan ke dalam departemendepartemen fungsional,wewenang terpusat, rentang kendali sempit, dan pengambilan keputusan yg mengikuti rantai komando. 10

11 Desain Organisasi iii. Struktur Matriks : Struktur yg menciptakan dua garis wewenang; gabungan departementalisasi produk dan fungsional – Departementalisasi produk : pola yg memudahkan koordinasi antara para spesialis u/ mencapai penyelesaian tepat waktu & memnuhi target anggaran – Departementalisasi fungsional : penempatan spesialis secara bersamaan iv. Struktur tim : penggunaan tim – tim sebagai perangkat utama koordinasi aktivitas pekerjaan iv. Organisasi virtual : organisasi inti kecil yg melakukan outsourcing fungsi – fungsi bisnis besar v. Organisasi tanpa tapal batas: organisasi yg menghapuskan rantai perintah, mempunyai rentang kendali yang tidak berbatas, dan mengganti departemen dengan tim yang diberdayakan. 11

12 vi. Organisasi virtual : organisasi inti kecil yg melakukan outsourcing fungsi – fungsi bisnis besar iv. Organisasi tanpa tapal batas: organisasi yg menghapuskan rantai perintah, mempunyai rentang kendali yg tak berbatas, dan mengganti departemen dengan tim yg diberdayakan 12

13 ORGANIZATION DIFFERENTIATION Horizontal Differentiation - The degree of differentiation among units based on orientation of members the nature of the tasks they perform and their education and training Vertical Differentiation - The number of hierarchical levels between management and operatives. Spatial Differentiation - The degree to which location of an organization’s and facilities and personnel are dispersed geographically. 13

14 14 Organizational Design Span of Control –The number of employees who can be effectively and efficiently supervised by a manager –Width of span is affected by: Skills and abilities of the manager and the employees Characteristics of the work being done Similarity of tasks Complexity of tasks Physical proximity of subordinates Standardization of tasks Sophistication of the organization’s information system Strength of the organization’s culture Preferred style of the manager

15 Rentang Kendali (Span of Control) Jumlah bawahan yg dapat diatur manajer secara efektif dan efisien Number of indivduals who report to a specific manager Rentang terlalu lebar kendali jadi sulit dikendalikan. Rentang terlalu sempit: Memakan biaya yang mahal Komunikasi menjadi lebih rumit Otonomi karyawan berkurang 15

16 16 Contrasting Spans of Control Assuming Span of 4 Span of 4: Employees: Managers (level 1–6) = 4096 = 1365 Span of 8: Employees: Managers (level 1–4) Assuming Span of (Highest) (Lowest) Members at Each Level Organizational Level = 4096 = 585

17 Pertimbangan lain Rantai komando: Garis wewenang yang tidak putus- putus yang terentang dari puncak organisasi ke eselon terbawah yang memperjelas siapa melapor ke siapa 17

18 18 Organizational Design (cont’d) Centralization –The degree to which decision making is concentrated at a single point in the organization Organizations in which top managers make all the decisions and lower-level employees simply carry out those orders Decentralization –The degree to which lower-level employees provide input or actually make decisions –Employee Empowerment Increasing the decision-making discretion of employees

19 Delegasi Kewenangan (delegation of authority) Tingkat dimana pengambilan keputusan diputuskan pada titik tunggal dalam organisasi. Process of distributing authority downward in an organization. Alasan desentralisasi organisasi : melatih manajer untuk mengambil keputusan, memunculkan iklim kompetisi antar manajer, kepuasan kerja dari manajer. Alasan sentralisasi organisasi : mengurangi biaya pelatihan, mengurangi biaya duplikasi, mengurangi biaya administrasi, manajer saat ini lebih suka sentralisasi. 19

20 20 Factors that Influence the Amount of Centralization More Centralization –Environment is stable –Lower-level managers are not as capable or experienced at making decisions as upper-level managers –Lower-level managers do not want to have a say in decisions –Decisions are significant –Organization is facing a crisis or the risk of company failure –Company is large –Effective implementation of company strategies depends on managers retaining say over what happens

21 21 Factors that Influence the Amount of Decentralization More Decentralization –Environment is complex, uncertain –Lower-level managers are capable and experienced at making decisions –Lower-level managers want a voice in decisions –Decisions are relatively minor –Corporate culture is open to allowing managers to have a say in what happens –Company is geographically dispersed –Effective implementation of company strategies depends on managers having involvement and flexibility to make decisions

22 22 Organizational Design (cont’d) Formalization The degree to which jobs within the organization are standardized and the extent to which employee behaviour is guided by rules and procedures/Tingkat di mana pekerjaan dalam organisasi dibakukan. Highly formalized jobs offer little discretion over what is to be done Low formalization means fewer constraints on how employees do their work

23 23 Semakin terspesialiasasi kerja, koordinasi semakin penting. Kebutuhan koordinasi semakin tinggi apabila ketergantungan semakin tinggi. Pooled Interdependence (misal: konglomerasi) Sequencial Interdependence (misal: lini perakitan) Reciprocal Interdependence (setiap bagian saling mempengaruhi) Koordinasi

24 24 Organizational Structure Work Specialization –The degree to which tasks in the organization are divided into separate jobs with each step completed by a different person Overspecialization can result in human diseconomies from boredom, fatigue, stress, poor quality, increased absenteeism, and higher turnover

25 Desain Organisasi Dasar-dasar untuk menyusun desain organisasi Pembagian pekerjaan (division of labor) istilah lain: spesialisasi pekerjaan Sampai tingkat mana tugas dalam organisasi dipecah-pecah menjadi pekerjaan terpisah-pisah Process of dividing work into relatively specialized jobs to achieve advantages of specialization 25

26 26 Departmentalization by Type Functional –Grouping jobs by functions performed Product –Grouping jobs by product line Geographical –Grouping jobs on the basis of territory or geography Process –Grouping jobs on the basis of product or customer flow Customer –Grouping jobs by type of customer and needs

27 * Departmentalisasi Dasar yang dipakai untuk pengelompokkan Process in which an organization is structurally divided by combining jobs in departments according to some shared characteristics or basis. Dapat dibagi berdasarkan fungsi, letak geografis, proses, maupun pelanggan 27

28 28 Functional Departmentalization Plant Manager Manager, Manufacturing Manager, Human Resources Manager, Accounting Manager, Engineering Manager, Purchasing + Efficiencies from putting together similar specialties and people with common skills, knowledge, and orientations + Coordination within functional area + In-depth specialization – Poor communication across functional areas – Limited view of organizational goals

29 29 Geographical Departmentalization Vice President for Sales Sales Director, Central Region Sales Director, Prairies Region Sales Director, Western Region Sales Director, Eastern Region + More effective and efficient handling of specific regional issues that arise + Serve needs of unique geographic markets better – Duplication of functions – Can feel isolated from other organizational areas

30 30 Product Departmentalization +Allows specialization in particular products and services +Managers can become experts in their industry +Closer to customers –Duplication of functions –Limited view of organizational goals Source: Bombardier Annual Report. Bombardier, Ltd. Industrial Equipment Division Recreational and Utility Vehicles Sector Mass Transit SectorRail Products Sector Rail and Diesel Products Division Bombardier–Rotax (Gunskirchen) Recreational Products Division Logistic Equipment Division Mass Transit Division Bombardier–Rotax (Vienna)

31 31 Process Departmentalization +More efficient flow of work activities –Can only be used with certain types of products Plant Superintendent Sawing Department Manager Planing and Milling Department Manager Assembling Department Manager Lacquering and Sanding Department Manager Finishing Department Manager Inspection and Shipping Department Manager

32 32 Customer Departmentalization + Customers’ needs and problems can be met by specialists – Duplication of functions – Limited view of organizational goals Director of Sales Manager, Wholesale Accounts Manager, Retail Accounts Manager, Government Accounts

33 Standardization* 33 the process of developing and agreeing upon technical standards. A standard is a document that establishes uniform engineering or technical specifications, criteria, methods, processes, or practicestechnical standards

34 34 Organizational Design Decisions Mechanistic Organization –A rigid and tightly controlled structure High specialization Rigid departmentalization Narrow spans of control High formalization Limited information network (mostly downward communication) Low decision participation by lower-level employees Organic Organization –Highly flexible and adaptable structure Nonstandardized jobs Fluid team-based structure Little direct supervision Minimal formal rules Open communication network Empowered employees

35 35 Mechanistic Versus Organic Organization Mechanistic High Specialization Rigid Departmentalization Clear Chain of Command Narrow Spans of Control Centralization High Formalization Organic Cross-Functional Teams Cross-Hierarchical Teams Free Flow of Information Wide Spans of Control Decentralization Low Formalization

36 36 References Robbins and Coulter Book Robbins, Stephen P Organization Theory: concepts and cases, 4 th ed


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