Presentasi berjudul: "Kesuburan tanah Lanjutan"— Transcript presentasi:
1Kesuburan tanah Lanjutan Sub Topik:Tembaga (Cu) dan Mangan (Mn)Oleh:Dr. Ir. Hamidah Hanum, MPSekolah Pascasarjana USU
2Cu Function and mobility of Cu Copper is required for lignin synthesis (and thus cellular defense mechanisms) and is a constituent of ascorbic acid, the enzymes oxidase and phenolase, and plastocyanin.It is a regulatory factor in enzyme reactions (effector, stabilizer, and inhibitor) and a catalyst of oxidation reactions.It plays a key role in the following processes:N, protein, and hormone metabolism.Photosynthesis and respiration.Pollen formation and fertilization.The mobility of Cu in rice plants depends partly on leaf N status. Little retranslocation of Cu occurs in N-deficient plants. Cu deficiency symptoms are more common on young leaves.Cu deficiency symptoms and effects on growthChlorotic streaks, bluish green leaves, which become chlorotic near the tips.Cu-deficient leaves develop chlorotic streaks on either side of the midrib, followed by the appearance of dark brown necrotic lesions on leaf tips.Cu-deficient leaves (re often bluish green and chlorotic near the leaf tip. New leaves do not unroll and the distal parts of leaves maintain a needlelike appearance, while the proximal portion of the leaf appears normal. Tillering is reduced. Pollen viability is reduced under Cu deficiency, resulting in increased spikelet sterility and many unfilled grains (check the yield components for this). Absorption of Cu from the soil solution is inhibited by Zn and vice versa.
3(a)(b) (c)Copper deficiency symptoms in rice Deficiency mainly occurs in organic soils (a). Chlorotic streaks and dark brown necrotic lesions may develop on the tips of younger leaves (b). New leaves may have a needlelike appearance (c).
4Cu Function and mobility of Cu Copper is required for lignin synthesis (and thus cellular defense mechanisms) and is a constituent of ascorbic acid, the enzymes oxidase and phenolase, and plastocyanin.It is a regulatory factor in enzyme reactions (effector, stabilizer, and inhibitor) and a catalyst of oxidation reactions.It plays a key role in the following processes:N, protein, and hormone metabolism.Photosynthesis and respiration.Pollen formation and fertilization.The mobility of Cu in rice plants depends partly on leaf N status. Little retranslocation of Cu occurs in N-deficient plants. Cu deficiency symptoms are more common on young leaves.Cu deficiency symptoms and effects on growthChlorotic streaks, bluish green leaves, which become chlorotic near the tips.Cu-deficient leaves develop chlorotic streaks on either side of the midrib, followed by the appearance of dark brown necrotic lesions on leaf tips.Cu-deficient leaves (re often bluish green and chlorotic near the leaf tip. New leaves do not unroll and the distal parts of leaves maintain a needlelike appearance, while the proximal portion of the leaf appears normal. Tillering is reduced. Pollen viability is reduced under Cu deficiency, resulting in increased spikelet sterility and many unfilled grains (check the yield components for this). Absorption of Cu from the soil solution is inhibited by Zn and vice versa.
5Cu -tanah 1. Cu-Mineral 2. Cu -Larutan tnh Cu menyusun ppm kerak bumi,Mineral primer Cu: malachite [Cu2(OH)2CO3], cupric ferit (CuFe2O4), hematit (Fe2O3), magnetit (Fe3O4), limonit (Fe-OOH)Mineral sekunder Cu: oksida, karbonat, silikat, sulfat, chlorda2. Cu -Larutan tnhCu2+ + H2O CuOH+ + H+CuOH+ + H2O Cu(OH) H+[Cu-larutan] 10-8 – 10-6, Cu2+ pd pH <7, Cu(OH)2 pd pH <7,Cu -larutan diserap tanaman mlli difusi dgn bantuan kelat dari eksudat akar/dekomposisi residu organikSoil - Cu mewakili kelarutan cupricferit
6Cu -tanah Cu terkubur di dalam struktur mineral 3. Cu –teradsorbsi Cu diikat secara spesifik (chemisorpsi) oleh lapisan liat silikat, bahan organik, oksida Fe,Al,Mn, membtk ikatan Cu-O-Al atau Cu-O-FeAdsorpsi Cu meningkat dgn naiknya pH, karena:Meningkatkan permukaan liat atau humus –deoendent pHMenurunkan kompetisi dgn H+-perubahan status hidrolisis Cu-larutan. Jk pH naik, hidrolisis Cu2+ teradsobsi menurunkan menurunkan Cu-dd dan meningkatkan kemisorpsiChemisorpsi Cu2+ pd permukaan Fe(OH)3Mekanisme pengikatan Cu oleh bahan organik4. Cu-occluded :Cu terkubur di dalam struktur mineral5. Cu-organik : Cu berikatan dgn >2 gugusfungsional karboksil atau fenol,
7Skema diagram komplek liat-bahan organik-metal (M) Bahan organik dpt berinteraksi dgn liat membtk komplek liat-logam-organikJk Bahan organik tanah ~ 8%Cu teradsorpsi pd permukaan mineral dan organikSkema diagram komplek liat-bahan organik-metal (M)
8Faktor-faktor yg mempengaruhi ketersediaan Cu 1. pH . Konsentrasi Cu menurun dgn naiknya pH, ketersediaannya menurun krn menurunnya kelarutan dan meningkatnya adsorpsi2. Tekstur. Kandungan Cu larutan tnh pd tnh bertekstur pasir selalu lebih rendah dibanding tipe tnh lain3. Interaksi dgn hara lain. Aplikasi pupuk N-P-K dpt menyebabkan defisiensi Cu. Meingkatnya N-tersedia menurunkan mobilitas Cu dl tanmn. Konsentrasi yg tinggi Zn, Fe dan P dl larutan tnh juga menekan absorpsi Cu.4. Faktor tanaman.Respons tanaman berbeda-beda terhadap Cu. Sensitivitas terhadap Cu pd what > barley > oats > ryeTanaman yg ditanam pd tnh yg diaplikasi residu C/N tinggi akan mengalami defisiensi Cu, krn:Reaksi Cu dgn senyawa organik berBM tinggiKompetisi dgn mikrobaTerhambatnya perkembangan akar dan kemampuan menyerap Cu
9Causes of Cu deficiency Occurrence of Cu deficiency Small amount of available Cu in soil. Strong adsorption of Cu on humic and fulvic acids (peat soils). Small amounts of Cu in parent materials (sandy soils derived from quartz). High NPK rates, causing rapid plant growth rate and exhaustion of Cu in soil solution. Overliming of acid soils, causing increased amount of Cu complexed by organic matter or adsorbed and occluded by hydroxides and oxides. Excessive Zn in the soil, inhibiting Cu uptakeCu deficiency occurs on the following soils:High organic matter status soils (Histosols, humic volcanic ash soils)Lateritic, highly weathered soils (Ultisols, Oxisols)Soils derived from marine sediments (limestone)Sandy textured soilsCalcareous soils
10Treatment of Cu deficiency Cu deficiency management Apply CuSO4 (about 1–5 kg Cu ha-1) for rapid treatment of Cu deficiency (solid or liquid form). For soil application, fine CuSO4 material is either broadcast (or banded) on the soil or incorporated as a basal application.Foliar Cu can be applied during tillering to panicle initiation growth stages, but may cause leaf burn in growing tissues. Apply cupric sulfate solution or Cu chelates as foliar spray only for emergency treatment of Cu deficiency.Avoid applying excessive Cu because the range between Cu deficiency and toxicity levels is narrow.Treatment ofCu deficiency managementCrop management: Dip seedling roots in 1% CuSO4 suspensions for 1 h before transplanting. Soil management: Avoid overliming of acid soils because it may reduce Cu uptake. Fertilizer management: On Cu-deficient soils, apply CuO or CuSO4 (5–10 kg Cu ha-1 at 5-year intervals) for long-term maintenance of available soil Cu (broadcast and incorporate in soil). Cupric sulfate (is hygroscopic, i.e., it cannot blend with macronutrient fertilizers and may form insoluble compounds if mixed with P fertilizers. Cu applied to the soil has a high residual value.
11Mn Function and mobility of Mn Mn deficiency symptoms and effects on growthInterveinal chlorosis starting at the tip of younger leaves.Pale grayish green interveinal chlorosis spreads from the tip to the leaf base, necrotic brown spots develop later, and the leaf becomes dark brown.Newly emerging leaves are short, narrow, and light green.At tillering, deficient plants are shorter, have fewer leaves, weigh less, and have a smaller root system than Mn-sufficient plants.Plants are stunted but tillering is not affected.Affected plants are more susceptible to brown spot (caused by Helminthosporium oryzae).Mn-deficient rice plants are often deficient in P. In soils where both Mn deficiency and Fe toxicity occur, Mn-deficient rice plants contain a large concentration of Fe, and may also show symptoms of bronzingFunction and mobility of MnManganese is involved in oxidation-reduction reactions in the electron transport system O2 evolution in photosynthesis, and activates certain enzymes (e.g., oxidase, peroxidase, dehydrogenase, decarboxylase,kinase).Mn is required for the following processes:Formation and stability of chloroplasts. Protein synthesis.NO3- reduction. TCA (tricarboxylic acid) cycle.Mn2+ catalyzes the formation of phosphatidic acid in the phospholipid synthesis for cell membrane construction.Mn helps to alleviate Fe toxicity. It is required to maintain a low O2 supply in the photosynthetic apparatus.Mn accumulates in roots before it moves to aboveground shoots. There is some translocation of Mn from old to young
12(a) (c) Manganese deficiency in rice. (a) Deficiency is mainly a problem in rice grown in upland and organic soils with low Mn status (b), (c). Leaves are affected by interveinal chlorosis that appears first at the tip of younger leaves.(b)
13Mn -tanah 1. Mn-Mineral 2. Mn -Larutan tnh Konsentrasi Mn pd kerak bumi 1000 ppm,Ditemukan dl batuan Fe-MnMineral sekunder Mn: pyrolusit [MnO2], hausmanit (Mn3O4), Manganit (MnOOH)Mn tnh terdpt dlm oksida hidroksida pd permukaan partikel tnh, tercampur dgn oksida FeMn -tanah2. Mn -Larutan tnhKonsentrasi Mn2+ dikendalikan MnO2Konsentrasi Mn2+ dilarutan tnh ppm dan 90% berada dlm btk kompleks organik.Konsentrasinya meningkat pd kondisi asam dan redoks yg rendahDl kondisi yg sgt masam terjadi toksik Mn trtm untuk tanamn yg sensitifMn Yang banyak dl tnh : pirolusit dan manganit
14Faktor-faktor yg mempengaruhi ketersediaan Mn 4. Interaksi dgn lain. har.Jk kadar Cu, Fe, Zn tinggi mk Mn-up take menurun. Penambahan NH4+ meningkatkan Mn-uptake. Efek garam terhadap peningkatan Mn-tersedia: KCl > KNO3 > K2SO45. Efek iklim.Meningkatnya temperatur tanh slm pertumbuhan meningkatkan Mn-uptakeIklim kering mendorong pembentukan oksida Mn shg Mn-tersedia berkurang6. Faktor tanamanRespon tanaman terhadap Mn dittkn sifat genetik (kapasitas reduktif di akar)1. pH . Pengapuran pd tnh sgt masam dpt menurunkan Mn-larutan dan Mn-dd krn terb tknya MnO2. Pd tnh berpH tinggi pembentukan kompleks organik kurang tersedia. Mikroba mengoksidasi Mn terlarut menjadi btk tdk tersedia pada pH sekitar 72. Air berlebih dan aerase yg jelekPenggenangan tnh masam meningkatkan Mn2+ terlarut. Ketersediaan Mn meningkat pd tnh yg kompak dan akumulasi CO2 di akar dan mikrosit tnh krn terciptanya kondisi redox.3. Bahan organik. Ketersediaan Mn rendah pd tnh yg ber-BO tinggi krn terbtk chelat yg tdk larut. Penambahan kompos dpt meningkatkan Mn-larutan dan Mn-dd
15Occurrence of Cu deficiency Causes of Cu deficiency Mn deficiency occurs frequently in upland rice, but is uncommon in rainfed or lowland rice because the solubility of Mn increases under submerged conditions.Soils particularly prone to Mn deficiency include the following types:- Acid upland soils (Ultisols, Oxisols)- Alkaline and calcareous soils with low organic matter status and small amounts of reducible Mn- Degraded paddy soils containing large amounts of active Fe- Leached sandy soils containing small amounts of Mn- Leached, old acid sulfate soils with low base content- Alkaline and calcareous organic soils (Histosols)Highly weathered soils with low total Mn contentSmall available Mn content in soil. Fe-induced Mn deficiency, due to a large concentration of Fe in the soil. Increased Fe absorption reduces Mn uptake in rice plants, resulting in a wide Fe:Mn ratio. Reduced Mn uptake because of large concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, Zn2+, or NH4+ in soil solution. Excessive liming of acid soils, causing an increase in the amount of Mn complexed by organic matter or adsorbed and occluded by Fe and Al hydroxides and oxides. Reduced Mn uptake, due to hydrogen sulfide accumulation.
16Preventive strategies Mn deficiency management for Mn managementTreatment ofMn deficiency managementCrop management: Apply farmyard manure or straw (incorporated or burned) to balance Mn removal and enhance Mn(IV) reduction in soils containing small amounts of Mn and low organic matter status.Fertilizer management: Use acid-forming fertilizers, e.g., ammonia sulfate [(NH4)2SO4] instead of urea.Manganese deficiencies can be corrected by foliar application of Mn or by banding Mn with an acidifying starter fertilizer Broadcast Mn undergoes rapid oxidation so that high rates are required (>30 kg Mn ha-1). High rates of Mn and Fe may be antagonistic and reduce yield. Mn deficiency should be treated as follows: - Apply MnSO4 or finely ground MnO (5–20 kg Mn ha-1) in bands along rice rows. - Apply foliar MnSO4 for rapid treatment of Mn deficiency (1–5 kg Mn ha-1 in about 200 L water ha-1). - Multiple applications may be required, starting at tillering when sufficient foliage has developed. Chelates are less effective because Fe and Cu displace Mn