Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Pengantar Mixed Methods Departemen Geografi FMIPA UI 2 Mei 2012 Triarko Nurlambang.

Presentasi serupa


Presentasi berjudul: "Pengantar Mixed Methods Departemen Geografi FMIPA UI 2 Mei 2012 Triarko Nurlambang."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Pengantar Mixed Methods Departemen Geografi FMIPA UI 2 Mei 2012 Triarko Nurlambang

2 Mengapa Mixed Methods ?

3 3 Mixing – Why?  Validitas – lebih baik karena menggabungkan Kuantitatif dan Kualitatifdata  Pengimbangan (offset)– mengatasi kelemahan kuantitatif dan kualitatif  Kelengkapan (Completeness) – lebih komprehensif ketimbang hanya kuantitatif atau hanya kualitatif  Proses – Kuantitatif menghasilkan outcomes; kualitatif adalah prosesnya  Penjelasan – kualitatif dapat menjelaskan kuantitatif atau sebaliknya  Hasil yang tidak terduga – ada peluang memperoleh satu ‘kejutan’ dan lainnya dapat menjelaskannya  Pengembangan instrumen – kualitatif digunakan untuk membangun instrumen perancangan  Kredibikitas (Credibility) – kedua pendekatan penguatan integritas temuan- temuan  Konteks (Context ) – kualitatif menyediakan konteks; dalam kuantitatif memberi pengetahuan umum terhadap satu obyek/fenomena  Pemanfaatan – lebih bermanfaat untuk praktisi

4 Pendapat Creswell (2011) yang menegaskan manfaat dari Mixed methods adalah Kombinasi kedua kualitatif dan kuantitatif menjadi kekuatan sinergis Dapat menghasilkan setidak-tidaknya dua pandangan berbeda Membuka kesempatan kerja interdisiplin Mendemostrasikan ketrampilan metodologis Membangun kerja mencari pengetahuan yang intuitif Manfaat Mixed Methods

5 5 Adakah Penyebutan ‘Mixed Methods’ lainnya? Multi-method Triangulation Integrated Combined Quantitative and qualitative methods Multi-methodology Mixed methodology Mixed-method Mixed research Mixed methods

6 Apa Definisi Mixed Methods ? The Journal of Mixed Methods (2006), in its call for papers defines mixed methods as ‘research in which the investigator collects, analyses, mixes, and draws inferences from both quantitative and qualitative data in a single study or a program of inquiry’. A more comprehensive definition is provided by Creswell and Plano Clark (2007: 5) who define mixed methods as follows: Mixed methods research is a research design with philosophical assumptions as well as methods of inquiry. As a methodology, it involves philosophical assumptions that guide the direction of the collection and analysis of data and the mixture of qualitative and quantitative data in a single study or series of studies. Its central premise is that the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches in combination provides a better understanding of research problems that either approach alone. Teddlie and Tashakkori (2010: 5) define the methodology of MM as: “The broad inquiry logic that guides the selection of specific methods and that is informed by conceptual positions common to mixed methods practitioners (e.g., the rejection of “either-or” choices at all levels of the research process). For us, this definition of methodology distinguishes the MMR approach to conducting research from that practiced in either the QUAN or QUAL approach”.

7 7 Akar/Perspektif Dasar Paradigma Mixed Methods Pragmatisme (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003) – Fokus pada pertanyaan penelitian – Apa yang dapat dikerjakan (What “works” ?) dan konsekuensinya? – Metode Berganda (Multiple methods – large toolkit) Transformatif (Mertens, 2003) – Tranformasi akan terus ada jika masih ditemui sesuatu yang belum dapat dijelaskan dengan tepat kehadirannya/keberadaannya/eksistensinya baik obyek kebendaan ataupun fenomena (Transform lives of underrepresented, marginalized groups) – Kaitkan atau menyatukan atau melebur (Incorporate) fokus transformasi ini dalam setiap tahapan penelitian

8 5P dalam Proses Pembelajaran Mixed Methods Cameron, 2011 Catatan: Purist: traditionalist Eclectic: diverse Stance: perspective MMR: Mixed Methods Research Rigorous: exact/ accurqte Praxis: describes a continuous commitment to knowledge creation out of experience Proficiency: ability

9 Aliansi diantara 5P dalam Mixed Methods Cameron, 2011

10 Perkembangan Mixed Methods

11 Kelompok Kuantitatif (Tradisi Positivis) 3 Gerakan Metodologis (Tashakkori dan Teddlie,2003) Kelompok Kuantitatif (Tradisi Konstruktivis) Perang’ Paradigma Debat estimologis Sikap pragmatis Kelompok Mixed Methods (Pragmatisme / Transformasi- emansipatoris) - kaum tradisionalis - - kaum revolusioner - Puncak transformasi Puncak transformasi Sejak tahun 1980an Legitimasi ‘Mixed Methods’

12 Interpretasi Mixed Methods dan Studi Geografi Mixed Methods Collaborative Research Sejalan dg nilai- nilai studi Geografikal Belajar bukanlah berkembang; namun belajar/pembelajaran yang diorganisasikan secara tepat bisa membuahkan perkembangan mental yang tentunya mustahil jika terlepas dari pembelajaran. Oleh karena itulah, pembelajaran merupakan aspek yang diperlukan dan universal dari proses pengembangan fungsi-fungsi psikologis, khususnya manusia, yang teratur secara kultural..... Proses ‘perkembangan’ ketinggalan dari proses ‘belajar’; sebagai konsekuensinya urutan ini (proses belajar lalu proses berkembang) menimbulkan zona perkembangan berbarengan (Vygotsky, 1978 dalam Tashakkori dan Tedlei, 2003)

13 13 Pengembangan Mixed Methods (20 tahun terakhir) Bertambahnya daya tarik dan advokasi mixed methods research Membangun pemahaman apa yang dimaksud dengan mixed methods research Mengembangkan teknik-teknik rancangan yang inovatif Conferences Mixed Methods Conference, Cambridge, England, July 21-24, 2008 Proposed mixed methods conference, Sydney, Australia, 2009 Discipline conferences with mixed methods papers

14 books on mixed methods research have been written since 1988 Legitimasi Mixed Methods Editors: John W. Creswell and Abbas Tashakkori Managing Editor: Vicki L. Plano Clark “Combining qualitative and quantitative methods has gained broad appeal in public health research.” (1999)

15 15 Kritik Terhadap Mixed Methods (Creswell, 2007)  Apakah pandangan post-positivist sudah menyatu dalam mixed methods? – Howe, K. R. (2004). A critique of experimentalism. Qualitative Inquiry, 10, – Giddings, L. S. (2006). Mixed-methods research: Positivism dressed in drag? Journal of Research in Nursing, 11(3), – Holmes, C. A. (2007). Mixed(up) methods, methodology and interpretive frameworks. Contributed paper for the Mixed Methods Conference, Cambridge, University, July 10-12,  Apa batas penelitian mixed methods? – Sale, J. E. M., Lohfeld, L. H., Brazil, K. (2002). Revisiting the quantitative- qualitative debate: Implications for mixed-methods research. Quality and Quantity, 36, – Leahey, E. (2007). Convergence and confidentiality? Limits to the implementation of mixed methodology. Social Science Research, 36,  Adakah satu wacana (discourse) yang dominan dalam penelitian mixed methods? Freshwater, D. (2007). Reading mixed methods research: Contexts for criticism. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(2),

16 Rancangan Penelitian dan Metode Mixed Methods – diantaranya Pengumpulan Data

17 Pada dasarnya Mixed Methods tidak berbeda dengan metode lainnya (Tujuan dan Dasar Metode Penelitianmya) Collecting data Analyzing and interpreting data Identifying a purpose and stating questions Reporting and evaluating the study Identifying a research problem Reviewing the literature

18 18 Smith & Heshusius, (1986) “Incompatibility thesis” “The contention of this paper is that the claim of compatibility, let alone one of synthesis, cannot be sustained.” (p. 4) Purist Stance Hanya sekedar memperdebatkan “Kuantitatif vs Kualitatif” tidak lagi relevan. Yang lebih hakiki adalah bagaimana alat ini kompatibel untuk menemukan “kebenaran” (the Truth)

19 Ragam Rancangan Mixed Methods EthnographyCase Study ResearchNarrative research Experimental research Qual Quan Qual---- Quan

20 Bagaimana “Mixing”nya Results Connect data: Results Converge data: Embed the data: Quan data Qual data QualQuan QualQuan

21 Membangun Rancangan dan Teknik Penelitian yang Inovatif  Notation  Typologies  Diagrams of procedures  Complex evaluation models  Reconceptualizing designs  Emergence of innovations in procedures  Unusual blends  Methodological issues  Data analysis techniques  Presentation techniques Kunci Pengembangan

22 Tahap Awal yang menjadi perhatian saat Merancang Penelitian (Mixed Methods) (Morse, 1991) ApproachTypePurposeLimitationsResolutions QUAL + quanSimultaneousEnrich description of sample Qualitative sampleUtilize normative data for comparison of results QUALSequentialTest emerging H, determine distribution of phenomenon in population Qualitative sampleDraw adequate random sample from same population QUAN + qualSimultaneousTo describe part of phenomena that cannot be quantified Quantitative sample Select appropriate theoretical sample from random sample QUANSequentialTo examine unexpected results Quantitative sample Select appropriate theoretical sample from random sample qua n qual

23 QUAN Data & Results Interpretation QUAL Data & Results QUAN Pre-test Data & Hasil QUAN Post-test Data & Results Intervensi Proses Kualitatif Interpretation Triangulation Design Embedded Design 1. Concurrent Mixed Methods Designs Rancang secara Hati-Hati (Parsimonious Designs) (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007)

24 2. Sequential Designs Mixed Methods Designs QUAN Data & Results Interpretation qual Data & Results Following up QUAL Data & Results quan Data & Results Interpretation Building to Before- intervention qual QUAN Intervention Trial QUAN Intervention Trial After- intervention qual Interpretation Exploratory Design Explanatory Design Sequential Embedded Design

25 25 Merancang Teknik Pengumpulan Data

26 Mekanisme Pengumpulan Data The sampling schemes described in previous sections could be used in isolation. Indeed, each of these sampling schemes could be used in monomethod research that characterizes either solely qualitative or quantitative studies. That is, both qualitative and quantitative researchers can use any of the 24 sampling schemes, as appropriate, to address their research questions. However, in mixed methods research, sampling schemes must be chosen for both the qualitative and quantitative components of the study. Therefore, sampling typically is much more complex in mixed methods studies than in monomethod studies. Selecting a sampling design involves making a series of decisions not only about how many individuals to include in a study and how to select these individuals, but also about conditions under which this selection will take place. These decisions are extremely important and, as stated by Curtis et al. (2000), “It seems essential to be explicit about these [decisions], rather than leaving them hidden, and to consider the implications of the choice for the way that the…study can be interpreted” (p. 1012). Unfortunately, the vast majority of qualitative and quantitative researchers do not make clear their sampling decisions. Indeed, the exact nature of the sampling scheme rarely is specified (Onwuegbuzie, 2002b).

27 Mixed Methods dalam Penelitian Geografi

28

29 Contoh Pemanfaatan Mixed Methods dalam Studi Geografi 《 Geography and Geo-Information Science 》 Add to FavoriteAdd to Favorite Get Latest UpdateGet Latest Update Study on the Mixed Method of Geomorphologic Types GAO Xuan-yu (College of Earth Science,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu ;Department of Geography,Teacher's College of Taiyuan,Taiyuan ,China) There are many weaknesses of classification for shape a nd cause of formation:1) Shapes of geomorphologic types are combined with the cause of formation badly,their com bined rate is only 30%;2) Much geomorphologic informati on is lost;3) Many less or no signification geomorphologic types are created,because of the stress to homologize th e shape with its cause of formation one by one;4) Shape and the cause of formation of geomorphologic types can't represent all geomorphologic types.According the fact of t hese shortcomings,the paper puts forward the mixed met hod of geomorphologic types.This method classifies geo morphologic types into subject geomorphologic types and object geomorphologic types.Subject geomorphologic typ e is carrier and object geomorphologic type is being carrie d.The weaknesses existing in geomorphologic classificati ons are solved by the way of mixed object geomorphologi c types carried by subject geomorphologic types.Compar e to other existing methods it makes the classification use ful,simple and agility.It carries out a new way for geomorp hologic classification,and it makes a foundation for simple and agility geomorphologic mapping. 【 Key Words 】: classification of geomorphologic types the mixed method of geomorphologic types geomorphologic mapping classification of geomorphologic typesthe mixed method of geomorphologic typesgeomorphologic mapping

30 Pemanfaatan Mixed Methods Dalam Penelitian Tentang “Sistem Kebijakan dan Kelembagaan Penataan Ruang”

31 Konsep Sistem Kelembagaan dan Penataan Ruang Konstruksi Kerangka Teori Telaah Public Choice Teori Ekonomi Politik dalam proses Perencanaan Penataan Ruang Telaah Struktur dan Pola Ruang Pembangunan Teori Ruang,/Sistem keruangan dan konsep penataan ruang Telaah Pembangunan Berkelanjutan Konsep Pembangunan berkelanjutan Kawasan Jabodetabekjur Sistem Kebijakan dan Kelembagaan Penataan Ruang Sistem Dinamika Ruang Teori Kebijakan Publik (Public Change and Public Choice), Teori Penataan Kelembagaan/Institutional Arrangement dan Teori Ruang (Spatial Theory) Kebijakan Penataan Ruang Mid–Theory approachMid–Theory approach Macro Theory approach Telaah Sistem Institusi Teori Institutional Development/ Arrangement Teori Public Choice, Teori Collective Action Good Governance

32 Signifikansi Penelitian: signifikansi metodologis Institutional Development and Arrangement Studi Penataan Ruang Jabodetabekjur (Sistem Kebijakan dan Kelembagaan Penataan Ruang Jabodetabekjur) Public Choice and Policy Change Collective Action Penelitian DasarPenelitian Terapan Rencana Tata Ruang Regional – Jabodetabek jur Rencana Tata Ruang Daerah a.Provinsi b.Kab./ Kota Rencana Tata Ruang Nasional Evaluasi Kebijakan (Grindle) Tahap 1: keterkaitan dengan konsep atau teori- teori utama yang relevan hingga dapat dirumuskan preposisi untuk menjadi acuan arahan penelitian Tahap 2: penelusuran (trajectory) teori ruang dan teori kebijakan penataan ruang atau pengembangan wilayah berikut produk kebijakannya. Tahap ini untuk dapat merumuskan state of the art pemahaman akan makna ruang dan penataan ruang atau pengembangan wilayah dalam konteks kebijakan public Tahap 3: mengidentifikasi kondisi eksisting dan permasalahan penataan ruang dari sudut pandang sistem kelembagaannya di daerah penelitian yaitu di Jakarta-Bogor- Depok-Tangerang-Bekasi-Cianjur (Jabodetabekjur) Tahap 4: temuan makna ruang dan penataan ruang dalam kerangka realita penerapan sistem kebijakan dan kelembagaan penataan ruang ini kemudian diolah untuk menjadi dasar merumuskan satu bentuk konsep yang lebih realistik sejalan dengan karakteristik publik di wilayah yang bersangkutan ”the key features common to all qualitative methods can be seen when they are contrasted with quantitative methods. Most quantitative data techniques are data condenses. They condense data in order to see the big picture.... Qualitative methods, by contrast, are best understand as data enchancers. When data are enchanced, it is possible to see key aspects of cases more clearly” (Neuman, 2003) Leading to Mixed Method Research Good Governance

33 Questions for analysing paradigms Research paradigms PositivismInterpretivismCritical Theory Ontological questions Nature of reality  An objective, true reality exists which is governed by unchangeable natural cause- effect laws  Consists of stable pre-existing patterns or order that can be discovered  Reality is not time- nor context- bound  Reality can be generalised  The world complex and dynamic and is constructed, interpreted and experienced by people in their interactions with each other and with wider social systems i.e. fluid definitions of a situation created by human interaction/social construction of reality  Reality is subjective. People experience reality in different ways. Subjective reality is important i.e. what people think, feel, see)  Reality can only be imperfectly grasped  The use of language defines a particular reality  Governed by conflicting, underlying structures – social, political, cultural, economic, ethnic, gender Nature of human beings  Rational  Shaped by external factors (same cause has the same effect on everyone) i.e. mechanical model / behaviourist approach. Under certain conditions people will probably engage in a specified behaviour  Social beings who create meaning and who constantly make sense of their worlds  People possess an internally experienced sense of reality  People can design / reconstruct their own world through action and critical reflection Paradigma penelitian (Guba dan Lincoln, 2004)

34 Questions for analysing paradigms Research paradigms PositivismInterpretivismCritical Theory Epistemologi cal questions Nature of knowledge  Knowledge can be described in a systematic way  Knowledge consists of verified hypotheses that can be regarded as facts or laws.  Probabilistic – i.e. holds true for large groups of people or occurs in many situations  Knowledge is accurate and certain  Knowledge is based not only on observable phenomena, but also on subjective beliefs, values, reasons, and understandings  Knowledge is constructed  Knowledge is about the way in which people make meaning in their lives, not just that they make meaning, and what meaning they make.  Knowledge is dispersed and distributed  Knowledge is a source of power  Knowledge is constituted by the lived experience and the social relations that structure these experiences  Events are understood with social and economic contexts Role of theory Theories are:  Normative  Present ‘models’  General propositions explaining causal relationships between variables Theories:  Are revisable  Approximate truth  Are sensitive to context Theories:  Are constructed in the act of critique in a dialectical process of deconstructing and reconstructing the world. Theory building/ testing  Postulate a theories that can be tested in order to confirm or reject  Prove a theory from observable phenomena / behaviour  Test theories in a controlled setting, empirically supporting or falsifying hypotheses through process of experimentation  Theories are built / constructed from multiple realities – the researcher has to look at different things in order to understand a phenomenon  Theory is shaped by social and cultural context  Theories are built from deconstructing the world, from analysing power relationships Role of research  Uncover reality i.e. natural laws  Scientifically explain / describe, predict and control phenomena  Study mental, social, cultural phenomena – in an endeavour to understand why people behave in a certain way.  Grasp the ‘meaning’ of phenomena  Describe multiple realities  Promoting critical consciousness  Breaking down institutional structures and arrangements that produce oppressive ideologies and social inequalities  Shift the balance of power so that it may be more equitably distributed  Address social issues  Political emancipation and increasing critical consciousness

35 Questions for analysing paradigms Research paradigms PositivismInterpretivismCritical Theory Methodol ogical questions Role of researcher  Objective, independent from the subject  Investigator often controls the investigated  Co-creator of meaning  Brings own subjective experience to the research  Tries to develop an understanding of the whole and a deep understanding of how each part relates and is connected to the whole  Adopts role of facilitator – encouraging the participation and involvement of the ‘subjects’ who become partners in the research process Questions for analysing paradigms Research paradigms PositivismInterpretivismCritical Theory Methodol ogical questions (cont.) Role of values  Science is value-free  Values have no place in research – must eliminate all bias  Values are an integral part of social life – no values are wrong, only different  Facts can never be isolated from values  Values of the researcher influence the research Methods  Empirical  Structured and replicable observation  Quantification / measurement  Experimental – directly manipulate variables and observe  Unstructured observation  Open interviewing  Discourse analysis  Try to capture “insider” knowledge  Participatory action research  Dialogical methods – which encourage dialogue between researcher and researched Type of studies  Survey studies  Verification of hypotheses  Statistical analysis  Quantitative descriptive studies  Field research, conducted in natural settings in order to collect substantial situational information

36 Keterbatasan Penelitian Dinamika yang kompleks dan cepat berubah; dapat mengakibatkan asumsi-asumsi yang digunakan dalam teori-teori acuan bagi penelitian ini perlu disesuaikan dalam mengakomodir dinamika fenomena yang diamati. Konsekuensi berikutnya adalah adanya kemungkinan bergesernya lingkup yang diteliti Entitas wilayah penelitian; menentukan lingkup penelitian kebijakan semacam ini, baik dari sisi lingkup ruang atau field nya ataupun dari struktur sistem kelembagaannya. Diantisipasi dengan Mixed Method Research Pendekatan ini cenderung mengacu pada pendekatan subyektif dengan perspektif humanistik dan fenomologis sehingga dapat membangun konstruksi teori yang baru (pendekatan Interpretatif-konstruktivis; Mulyana, 2001)

37 Metodologi Penelitian Diantara ciri-ciri utama relevansinya terhadap paradigm interpretivisme adalah Tujuannya: memahami rekonstruksi dalam rangka menjelaskan pengertian gejala yang sedang berlangsung Teori: menjelaskan bagaimana gejala atau kegiatan kelompok tersebut berlansung, bagaimana sistem itu bangkit, dan berkesinambungan Pengetahuan dasar: rekonstruksi pemikiran individual yang menyatu dengan lingkungannya Akumulasi pengetahuan: teori terumuskan karena adanya interaksi kekuatan gejala rutin yang digunakan oleh publik atau para pemangku kepentingan Penjelasan yang benar: kesesuaian atas kehendak baik atau positif dalam suatu proses pembelajaan Bukti yang cukup: ditekankan dalam konteks interaksi sosial Kriteria untuk kualitas yang baik: bersifat terpercaya dan asli (apa adanya) dan dapat mengandung kesalahan (disadari) Nilai: berada dalam bentuk bersama (eksistensi kolektif); merupakan bagian integral dengan interaksi sosial Voice (yang disampaikan): “Passionate participant” yang juga berfungsi sebagai fasilitator bagi berbagai pilihan dalam proses rekonstruksi Penelitian ini menggunakan paradigma Interpretivisme (Guba dan Lincoln, 2004) Sumber: Irawan, 2006

38 Metode Penelitian: Mixed Methods Sequential Embedded Design: Sumber: Creswell, 2011

39 Data yang Dikumpulkan A.Pengumpulan data kuantitatif Data kuantitatif ini dalam bentuk dua jenis format yaitu statistik dan ruang (spatial) yang menjabarkan kondisi tren sektor dan regional pembangunan, serta pola dan struktur ruang pembangunan dalam satu konstruksi penataan ruang di Kawasan Jabodetaberkjur (Jakarta- Bogor-Tangerang-Depok-Bekasi): 1. Rencana Tata Ruang Wilayah untuk: a. Pulau Jawa b. Jabodetabekjurjur c. Provinsi DKI Jakarta, Jawa Barat, dan Banten d. Kabupaten/Kota Tangerang, Bogor, Depok, dan Bekasi e. Data ke-ruang-an hasil studi ataupun laporan hasil kajian lembaga penelitian /LSM /lembaga-lembaga internasional f. Data statistik pembangunan di Kawasan Jabodetabekjur g. Data statistik sektor-sektor terpilih, terkait dengan sektor pembangunan ekonomi, sosial, dan lingkungan B. Pengumpulan data kualitatif Menggunakan metode kasus satu lokus yaitu Kawasan Jabodetaberkjur (single site case study) dengan menekankan pada historical case study dan situational analysis. Data kualitatif dikumpulkan melalui tiga cara yaitu 1. Wawancara langsung (FtF) dengan cara purposive : pejabat urusan Penataan Ruang pemerintah daerah di Jabodetabekjur. Kerangka pedoman wawancara : a. Permasalahan dalam kebijakan dan kelembagaan penataan ruang b. Permasalahan dalam proses implementasi kebijakan penataan ruang c. Pendapat untuk perbaikan kebijakan, kelembagaan, dan mekanisme implementasi d. Publikasi kebijakan, sistem kelembagaan dan implementasi kebijakan 2. Partisipasi-observasi Partisipasi-observasi dilakukan dari tahun 2009 hingga 2011 saat peneliti ikut bergabung dalam tim konsultasi pelaksanaan kebijakan Kajian Lingkungan Hidup Strategis (KLHS) di Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup, Kementerian Dalam Negeri dan Bappenas yang tugas utamanya adalah mengkaji dan menilai isi kebijakan RPJP, RPJM, RTRW, baik tingkat nasional, pulau, provinsi, dan kabupaten/ kota. 3. Pengolahan data Data kuantitatif dan kualitatif tersebut di atas diolah dengan menggunakan teknik pengelompokan (clustering).

40 Struktur Laporan Penelitian (Penjabaran Transformative Design, Creswell:2011) Pra-studi : Telaah Teoritis sebagai rujukan awal Pengumpulan data kuantitatif Pengumpulan data kualitatif Pengolahan data: clustering Analisis: Interpretasi Re-konstruksi kebijakan dan kelembagaan Penataan Ruang Pengumpulan Data Konstruksi awal: kebijakan dan kelembagaan De-konstruksi : kebijakan dan kelembagaan Transformasi data Re-Konstruksi : kebijakan dan kelembagaan proses induktif Jabotabek Bab 2 Jabodetabek Bab 3 dan 4 Jabodetabek jur Bab 5

41 Terima kasih dan semoga bermanfaat


Download ppt "Pengantar Mixed Methods Departemen Geografi FMIPA UI 2 Mei 2012 Triarko Nurlambang."

Presentasi serupa


Iklan oleh Google