Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

KONSEP HAZARDS, RISK, ACCIDENT & LOSS Desyawati Utami.

Presentasi serupa


Presentasi berjudul: "KONSEP HAZARDS, RISK, ACCIDENT & LOSS Desyawati Utami."— Transcript presentasi:

1 KONSEP HAZARDS, RISK, ACCIDENT & LOSS Desyawati Utami

2 Pengertian Bahaya (Hazard)  Hazard is a source of potential harm or a situation with the potential to cause loss

3 Pengertian Risiko (Risk) The chance of something happening that will impact on objective

4 Jenis-jenis Bahaya  Kimia  Fisik  Biologi  Psikososial  Ergonomi

5 Sumber bahaya di tempat kerja  Peralatan  Proses pekerjaan  Perilaku (pekerja)

6 Komponen bahaya  Karakteristik material  Bentuk material  Hubungan pemajanan dan efek  Jalanya pemajanan dari proses-individu  Kondisi dan frekuensi penggunaan  Tingkah laku pekerja

7 Komponen Risiko Individual variation in susceptibility The number of people exposed The frequency of exposure The degree of individual risk The possibility of elimination substitution of a less hazardous substance or process The possibility of achieving safe levels The financial liability of the hazard Public opinion and pressure group Social responsibility

8 Pengendalian bahaya  Eliminasi  Substitusi  Minimisasi  Engineering  Administrasi  Pelatihan  Pemberian alat pelindung diri

9 Tujuan dilakukannya identifikasi bahaya  Menemukan potensi bahaya  Menentukan tindakan antisipasi/pencegahan  Identifikasi bahaya meliputi jenis bahaya yang berasal dari peralatan, lingkungan, sistem kerja, dan orang / pekerja

10 HAZARDS Faktor intrinsik yang melekat pada sesuatu (baik barang maupun kondisi) Misal: pestisida pada sayuran, panas yg keluar dari mesin pesawat Bahaya tidak dapat menimbulkan dampak/konsekuensi atau berkembang menjadi accident tanpa adanya kontak/exposure dengan manusia.

11 Proses kontak antara bahaya dengan manusia dapat terjadi melalui 3 mekanisme: 1. Manusia yang menghampiri bahaya 2. Bahaya yang menghampiri manusia melalui proses alamiah 3. Manusia dan bahaya saling menghampiri.

12 Jenis bahaya Primary Hazard Fisik, kimia, biologi, dan psikososial Sumber bahaya: manusia, peralatan, material/bahan dan lingkungan. Secondary Hazard interaksi komponen pekerjaan, sering disebut: pekerjaan/sistem kerja.

13 INTERKASI INDIVIDUAL, HAZARD & POSSIBLE OUTCOME EFEK: Individual - Kematian, penyakit, cidera, cacat Workplace - Damage (building, equipment) - Loss Environment - property damage - loss of resources - degradation - polution INDIVIDUALHAZARD INCIDENT ACCIDENT OUTCOME

14 ACCIDENT AN UNPLANNED, UNEXPECTED EVENT THAT INTERFERES WITH OR INTERRUPTS NORMAL ACTIVITY & POTENTIALLY LEADS TO PERSONAL INJURY OR DOLLAR LOSS (EQUIPMENT DAMAGE).

15 TERMS ACCIDENT ACCIDENT Result from contact with a substance or source of energy above the threshold limit of the body or structure INCIDENT INCIDENT an undesired event which could or does result in a loss

16 ACCIDENT RESULT PHYSICAL HARMPROPERTY DAMAGE (Injury or Illness)Minor MinorSerious SeriousMajor ReportableCatastrophic Compensable Disabling, Lost Tome or Major DeathNote: Classification of damage varies Catastrophic (Multiple Deaths) with locally established values. There is no standard HUMAN ASPECTS 1.The sorrow associated with loss of parents, children, loved ones and friends 2.The unexpected and desired hardships and inconveniences to everyone brought on by death, disability and property loss. 3.The physical pain and discomfort from injury 4.The psychological problems the accompany disfigurement or permanent disability or major property loss ECONOMIC ASPECTS 1.Insured Costs a. Medical b. Compensation 2.Uninsured Property Damage a. Building damage b. Tools and equipment damage c. Production delays d. Product and material damage 3.Uninsured Miscellaneous a. Wages paid to inured for lost time b. Wages paid to inured other than compensation c. Overtime costs d. Extra supervisor’s time e. Decreased output of injured worker on return f. Costs of training new worker g. Costs of hiring back-up worker h. Clerical time

17 ACCIDENT COST ICEBERG $1 $1 TO $50 $1 TO $3 LEDGER COSTS OF PROPERTY DAMAGE (UNINSURED COSTS) UNINSURED MISCELLANEOUS COSTS INJURY & ILLNESS COSTS { Medical Building damage Tool and equipment damage Product and material damage Production delay and interruptions Legal expenses Expenditure of emergency supplies and equipment Interim equipment rentals Investigation time { { Wages paid for time lost Cost of hiring and/or training replacements Overtime Extra supervisory time Clerical time Decrease output of injured worker upon return Loss of business and goodwill Compensation Costs (Insured Costs)

18 Risk Assessment Safety Risks (human safety) Low probability, high consequence, accidental, acute Health Risks (human health) High probability, low consequence, ongoing, chronic Ecological/environmental risks (habitat/ecosystem) Subtle changes, complex interactions, long latency macro-impacts Public welfare/goodwill risks (value) Perceptions, property, value concern, aesthetics Financial risks (economic) Business vialibility, lialibility, insurance, investment returns

19 Example Classification of Occupational Safety and Health Hazard ChemicalPhysicalBiologicalErgonomicPsycologicalGeneral Safety Fumes Gases Liquids Particulate Dusts Vapors Non ionizing radiation (e.g lasers, radio frequencies, microwaves, ultraviolet light) Pressure Vibration O2 deficiency Insect (e.g, ants,bees, scorpions, spiders, mosquitoes) Microbes (e.g, bacteria (tuberculosis), parasites, viruses (hepatitis B, HIV, others)) Toxic plants (e.g, poison oak) Reptiles (e.g, drinking water, hygiene facilities) Small mammals (e.g, dogs, rodents, skunks) ²Potentially violent people Circadian rhytm (e.g, shift work/ rest cycles) Fatigue (extended work hours) ¹Hand tools ²Manual material handling (e.g, biomechanics, lifting, pushing, pulling, carryng) ²Work station design (e.g, dials, controls, signals, labeling, office (computer) workstations) Mental task overload Stress (occupational and non- occupational) Substance abuse Repetitive physiological Organization behavior ¹ Construction ¹ Maintenance ¹ Electrical ¹ Emergencies ¹ Enviromental conditions ¹ Fires/ explosion ¹ Mechanical and machinery systems ¹ Motorized equipment ¹ Pressurized systems ¹ Fall protection ¹ Motor vehicle occupant safety Note : All hazard must be addresses in employer’s overall safety and health program if present at work site ¹Employee safety helth regulations adopted ²Employee safety health regulation in development (1995)

20 SAFETY vs HEALTH SAFETY 1. SAFETY HAZARD MECHANIC KINETIC ELECTRIC SUBSTANCE-FLAMMABLE EXPLOSIVE COMBUSTIBLE CORROSIVE 2. KONSEKWENSI ACCIDENT-injuriesMinor Major Fatal AssetsDamage MENDADAK, DRAMATIS, BENCANA (SUDDEN REACTION) HEALTH/HYGIENE 1. HEALTH HAZARD PHYSIC CHEMICAL BIOLOGIC ERGONOMICS PSYCHOSOCIAL 2. KONSEKWENSI TERPAPAR KONTAK PENYAKIT MENDADAK, MENAHUN, KANKER dan Dampak Terhadap Masyarakat Umum (PROLONGED REACTION)


Download ppt "KONSEP HAZARDS, RISK, ACCIDENT & LOSS Desyawati Utami."

Presentasi serupa


Iklan oleh Google