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Muhammad Rofiq ISLAMIC RENEWAL IN THE MEDIEVAL AND MODERN PERIOD: IBN TAIMIYYAH AND MUHAMMAD ABDUH.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Muhammad Rofiq ISLAMIC RENEWAL IN THE MEDIEVAL AND MODERN PERIOD: IBN TAIMIYYAH AND MUHAMMAD ABDUH."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Muhammad Rofiq ISLAMIC RENEWAL IN THE MEDIEVAL AND MODERN PERIOD: IBN TAIMIYYAH AND MUHAMMAD ABDUH

2 محمد رفيق التجديد الإسلامى فى فكر ابن تيمية و محمد عبده

3 Muhammad Rofiq Muzakkir PEMBARUAN ISLAM IBNU TAIMIYAH DAN MUHAMMAD ABDUH

4  Bidah : perbuatan yang dikerjakan tidak menurut contoh yang sudah ditetapkan, baik dengan menambah atau mengurangi.  Takhayul : kepercayaan kepada sesuatu yang sakti, padahal sebenarnya tidak ada.  Khurafat : dongeng (ajaran) yang tidak masuk akal.  Ijtihad : usaha sungguh-sungguh yang dilakukan oleh para ahli agama untuk mencapai putusan hukum syarak mengenai kasus yang penyelesaiannya belum tertera di Alquran dan Sunah.  Taklid : kepercayaan kepada suatu paham ahli hukum yang sudah-sudah tanpa mengetahui dasar atau alasannya; peniruan. BEBERAPA TERMINOLOGI

5  Bidah (heresy) means something that has been introduced into the religion of Allah that has no general or specific basis to support it, whether by reducing or adding something to islamic teaching.  Takhayyul : superstition  Ijtihad is a serious effort performed by an expert in islamic law to find the islamic verdict/view of certain cases that are not addressed directly in Quran and Sunnah.  Taqlid : following the decisions of a religious expert without necessarily examining the scriptural basis or reasoning of that decision, such as accepting and following the verdict of scholars of jurisprudence (fiqh) without demanding an explanation of the processes by which they arrive at itjurisprudencefiqh SOME TERMINOLOGIES

6  Kerajaan Islam di Andalusia jatuh ke tangan Nasrani (1213 M)  Dinasti Abasiyah di Baghdad runtuh akibat serangan Bangsa Mongol (1258 M)  Despotisme para penguasa  Tauhid terselubungi khurafat  Tertutupnya pintu ijtihad ABAD KE-13 (ABAD KEMUNDURAN)

7  The fall of Islamic Caliphate in Andalusia  Abbasid Caliphate (Khilafah Abbasiyah) in Baghdad was devastated by Mongolian troops  The claim of closing of ijtihad gate/the call for taqlid  The widespread of religious innovation (bidah) 13TH CENTURY (THE DECLINE PERIOD OF ISLAM)

8  krisis secara akidah  merosot secara moral  lemah secara politik  jumud secara pemikiran

9  Creed crisis  Morality decline  Weak in politics  Stagnation in islamic thought CONDITION OF MUSLIM SOCIETIES IN 13TH CENTURY

10 IBNU TAIMIYAH ( H/ M)

11 “Ibn Taimiyyah contributed greatly during the Thirteenth Century to a wide range of intellectual and political issues confronting the Muslims during the tumultuous period of Mongol destruction of Muslim lands”. “is a renowned scholar of Islam whose infleunce was felt not only during his lifetime but extended through the centuries until the present day” “Ibn Taimiyah was, by almost universal consensus, one of the most original and systematic thinkers in the history of Islam”

12  Lahir di Harran Syiria 1263 H/1328  Menyaksikan kedatangan Bangsa Mongol  Kepakaran : Fiqh (Islamic Law), Hadith, Aqidah (Islamic Creed), Ushul Fiqh (The Theory of Islamic Law), Philosophy, Astronomy.  Dipenjara berkali-kali karena ide-ide pembaruannya  Menolak tawassul : berdoa dengan perantara wali (orang soleh yang sudah wafat)  Menolak pemujaan terhadap makam para wali BIOGRAFI SINGKAT

13  Born in Harran, Syiria in 1263 H/1328  Witnessed the Mongol invasian  Expertise : Fiqh (Islamic Law), Hadith, Aqidah (Islamic Creed), Ushul Fiqh (The Theory of Islamic Law), Philosophy, Astronomy.  Imprisoned several times due to his renewal thought, such as  Refusing tawassul (prayer toward god through saint)  Refusing special journey to visiting tombs : he condemned the cult of saints BRIEF BIOGRAPHY

14  Memurnikan agama Islam. Menentang bid’ah, takhayul dan khurafat.  Mengkritik praktek para sufi yang melakukan ziarah ke kuburan secara berlebihan.  Mendorong umat Islam berijtihad.  Menolak taklid PEMBARUAN IBN TAIMIYAH

15  Purifiying Islam, against religious innovation (bidah).  Encouraging Ijtihad to be performed  Refusing taqlid (imitation) REFORMATION OF IBN TAIMIYAH

16  مجموعة الفتاوى (A Great Compilation of Fatwa)  الرد على المنطيقين (The Reputation of the Logicians)  منهاج السنة (The Way of the Prophet’s Sunna)  العقيدة الواسطية (The Creed of People from Washit) SOME WORKS OF IBNU TAIMIYAH

17 MUHAMMAD ABDUH PIONEER OF ISLAMIC MODERNISM

18 THE PROBLEMS FACED BY ISLAMIC WORLD IN 20TH CENTURY

19 COLONIALISM BY EUROPIAN COUNTRY

20

21 INTELLECTUAL STAGNATION/ WIDESPREAD OF IMITATION

22 DESPOTISM OF RULER

23  Belajar di Universitas al-Azhar  Bertemu dengan Jamaluddin al-Afghani  Terlibat pemberontakan menentang penguasa Mesir  Diasingkan ke Beirut  Pergi ke Perancis  Menerbitkan majalah al-Urwatul Wutsqa  Memulai halaqah tafsir al-Manar dan menulis Risalah al- Tauhid di Beirut BIOGRAFI MUHAMMAD ABDUH ( )

24  Kembali ke Mesir dan menjadi Mufti  Memilih jalur pendidikan dan keagamaan (al-tanwir al-tsaqafi wa al-ishlah al-dini)

25  Formal education in Al-Azhar University  Meet an influencial figure, Jamaluddin al-Afghani  Played an important role in people revolt against Egyptian ruler  Sent to exile in Beirut  Went to France and saw developed civilization “ I went to the West and saw Islam, but no Muslims; I got back to the East and saw Muslims, but not Islam”.  Published al-Urwatul Wutsqa (a revolutionary magazine)  Interpreted al-Quran and wrote Risalah Tauhid BIOGRAPHY OF MUHAMMAD ABDUH ( )

26  Back to Egypt and appointed as mufty  Choose education and religious renewal as the means to make reformation in Egypt

27  Rationality / apresiatif terhadap peran akal  Membentengi Islam dari westernisasi  Purifikasi (pemurnian) Islam dari takhayul, bidah dan khurafat  Back to Quran and Sunnah KARAKTERISTIK PEMBARUAN ABDUH

28  Rationality  appreciating the supremacy of intellect  Purifying Islam from heresy and superstition  Back to Quran and Sunnah CHARACTERISTIC OF ABDUH’S THOUGHT

29  Penafsiran al-Quran  Reformasi pendidikan al-Azhar  Mendirikan lembaga dan yayasan sosial  Mendidik sarjana-sarjana muslim SALURAN PEMBARUAN MUHAMMAD ABDUH Al-Azhar University

30  Interpreting the holy Quran  Educational reform  Establishing social movement  Teaching pupils Prominent pupils: -Muhammad Rasyid Ridha -Mustafha al-Maraghi -Qasim Amin THE MEANS OF REFORMATION Al-Azhar University

31 What is the condition or characteristic of Moslem Society in Indonesia in the Beginning of 20th Century ? Write down your answer in a piece of paper. ASSIGNMENT FOR THE NEXT MEETING


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