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PRODUKTIVITAS EKOSISTEM MATERI & NON-MATERIAL Regina R.B, Ieke, W.A., dan Soemarno – Des 2012.

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Presentasi berjudul: "PRODUKTIVITAS EKOSISTEM MATERI & NON-MATERIAL Regina R.B, Ieke, W.A., dan Soemarno – Des 2012."— Transcript presentasi:

1 PRODUKTIVITAS EKOSISTEM MATERI & NON-MATERIAL Regina R.B, Ieke, W.A., dan Soemarno – Des 2012

2 Economics: Environmental economics There is an extensive disparity between the actual and perceived values of ecosystem services. The reasons for such incongruence are probably related to society’s generally tardy and limited acknowledgment of our interrelatedness with the natural environment. Lahan subur di lereng G. Mahawu mempunyai nilai ekonomi yang tinggi, dapat dibudidayakan untuk aneka jenis sayuran yang nilai ekonominya tinggi. Namun dmeikian usahatani sayuran ini berpotensi mempunyai biaya lingkungan yang snagat besar berupa erosi tanah dan limpasan air di permukaan lahan. Diunduh dari: foto Regina, Lereng Mahawu, Opt. 2012

3 DINAMIKA EKOLOGIS An especially challenging aspect of this process is that interpreting ecological information collected from one spatial- temporal scale does not necessarily mean it can be applied at another; understanding the dynamics of ecological processes relative to ecosystem services is essential in aiding economic decisions. Weighting factors such as a service’s irreplaceability or bundled services can also allocate economic value such that goal attainment becomes more efficient. Diunduh dari: ………22/12/2012

4 VALUASI EKONOMI The economic valuation of ecosystem services also involves social communication and information, areas that remain particularly challenging and are the focus of many researchers. In general, the idea is that although individuals make decisions for any variety of reasons, trends reveal the aggregative preferences of a society, from which the economic value of services can be inferred and assigned. Diunduh dari: terjadi/………22/12/2012 Degradasi Hutan Terus Terjadi Ekosistem hutan sebagai penyangga kehidupan makhluk hidup dibongkar. AKIBATNYA manusia menuai bumerang, mulai bencana tanah longsor,banjir,dan kekeringan melandah sejumlah daerah di Indonesia. Sebenarnya, hutan konservasi,s eperti taman nasional, cagar alam atau suaka marga satwa,didesain untuk melindungi kekayaan hayati bumi. Hutan lindung berfungsi sebagai daerah serapan air dan penyeimbang segala aktivitas manusia yang cenderung merusak lingkungan. Seiring dengan pertumbuhan manusia,aktivitas eksploitasi alam, kekayaan mineral, dan perkebunan di Indonesia beberapa waktu terakhir mulai merambah kawasan hutan konservasi. Besar kemungkinan,area yang membutuhkan izin berlapis untuk diturunkan statusnya menjadi hutan lindung ini kini jadi daerah tersisa yang masih memiliki kandungan bahan tambang tinggi. Hal yang membuat seakan-akan semua perusahan dan pemerintah daerah membabi-buta mengeksplorasi hutan konservasi.

5 METODE VALUASI EKONOMI The six major classifications of economic value for ecosystem services include: Avoided Cost – services allow society to avoid costs that would have been incurred in the absence of those services (e.g. waste treatment by wetland habitats avoids health costs) Replacement Cost – services could be replaced with man-made systems (e.g. restoration of the Catskill Watershed cost less than the construction of a water purification plant) Factor Income – services provide for the enhancement of incomes (e.g. improved water quality increases the commercial take of a fishery and improves the income of fishers) Diunduh dari: ………22/12/2012

6 METODE VALUASI EKONOMI Travel Cost – service demand may require travel, whose costs can reflect the implied value of the service (e.g. value of ecotourism experience is sufficient that a visitor is willing to pay to get there)ecotourism Hedonic Pricing – service demand may be reflected in the prices people will pay for associated goods (e.g. coastal housing prices exceed that of inland homes) Contingent Valuation – service demand may be elicited by posing hypothetical scenarios that involve some valuation of alternatives (e.g. visitors willing to pay for increased access to national parks) Diunduh dari: ………22/12/2012

7 PENGELOLAAN DAN KEBIJAKAN Although progress continues to be made on ecological and economic fronts with respect to the valuation of ecosystem services, the challenges in policy implementation and management are enormous. The administration of common pool resources is a subject of extensive academic pursuit. From defining the problems to finding solutions that can be applied in practical and sustainable ways, there is much to overcome. Considering options must balance present and future human needs, and decision-makers must frequently work from valid but incomplete information. Diunduh dari: ………22/12/2012

8 INTEGRASI BIOFISIK-SOSEK Existing legal policies are often considered insufficient since they typically pertain to human health-based standards that are mismatched with necessary means to protect ecosystem health and services. To improve the information available, one suggestion has involved the implementation of an Ecosystem Services Framework (ESF), which integrates the biophysical and socio-economic dimensions of protecting the environment and is designed to guide institutions through multidisciplinary information and jargon, helping to direct strategic choices.institutions Diunduh dari: ………22/12/2012

9 PASAR JASA EKOSISTEM Novel and expedient methods are needed to deal with managing Earth’s ecosystem services. Local to regional collective management efforts might be considered appropriate for services like crop pollination or resources like water.pollination Another approach that has become increasingly popular over the last decade is the marketing of ecosystem services protection. Payment and trading of services is an emerging world-wide small-scale solution where one can acquire credits for activities such as sponsoring the protection of carbon sequestration sources or the restoration of ecosystem service providers. carbon sequestration restoration Diunduh dari: ………22/12/2012

10 10 JASA-JASA EKOSISTEM Have you ever considered that the cereal you eat is brought to you each morning by the wind, or that the glass of clear, cold, clean water drawn from you faucet may have been purified for you by a wetland or perhaps the root system of an entire forest? Trees in your front yard work to trap dust, dirt, and harmful gases from the air you breathe. The bright fire of oak logs you light to keep warm on cold nights and the medicine you take to ease the pain of an ailment come to you from Nature’s warehouse of services. Natural ecosystems perform fundamental life- support services upon which human civilization depends. Unless human activities are carefully planned and managed, valuable ecosystems will continue to be impaired or destroyed. Diunduh dari: ………22/12/2012

11 APA SAJA JASA-JASA EKOSISTEM? Ecosystem Services are the processes by which the environment produces resources that we often take for granted such as clean water, timber, and habitat for fisheries, and pollination of native and agricultural plants. Whether we find ourselves in the city or a rural area, the ecosystems in which humans live provide goods and services that are very familiar to us. Agroekosistem sawah: Hasil ekonomi dan hasil ekologi (foto - Karsono, Juni 2012)

12 EKOSISTEM MENYEDIAKAN JASA-JASA YANG: moderate weather extremes and their impacts disperse seeds mitigate drought and floods protect people from the sun’s harmful ultraviolet rays cycle and move nutrients protect stream & river channels and coastal shores from erosion detoxify and decompose wastes control agricultural pests maintain biodiversity generate and preserve soils and renew their fertility contribute to climate stability purify the air and water regulate disease carrying organisms pollinate crops and natural vegetation Diunduh dari: ………22/12/2012

13 APA SAJA JASA EKOSISTEM? Natural ecosystems and the plants and animals within them provide humans with services that would be very difficult to duplicate. While it is often impossible to place an accurate monetary amount on ecosystem services, we can calculate some of the financial values. Many of these services are performed seemingly for “free”, yet are worth many trillions of dollars, for example: Much of the Mississippi River Valley’s natural flood protection services were destroyed when adjacent wetlands were drained and channels altered. As a result, the 1993 floods resulted in property damages estimated at twelve billion dollars partially from the inability of the Valley to lessen the impacts of the high volumes of water. Diunduh dari: ………22/12/2012

14 Eighty percent of the world’s population relies upon natural medicinal products. Of the top 150 prescription drugs used in the U.S., 118 originate from natural sources: 74 percent from plants, 18 percent from fungi, 5 percent from bacteria, and 3 percent from one vertebrate (snake species). Nine of the top 10 drugs originate from natural plant products.

15 JASA PENYERBUKAN ALAMIAH Over 100,000 different animal species - including bats, bees, flies, moths, beetles, birds, and butterflies - provide free pollination services. One third of human food comes from plants pollinated by wild pollinators. The value of pollination services from wild pollinators in the U.S. alone is estimated at four to six billion dollars per year. Diunduh dari: ………22/12/2012

16 BAGAIMANA JASA EKOSISTEM BISA HILANG ? Ecosystem services are so fundamental to life that they are easy to take for granted and so large in scale that it is hard to imagine that human activities could destroy them. Ecosystem services are severely threatened through: (1) growth in the scale of human enterprise (population size, per-capita consumption, and effects of technologies to produce goods for consumption); (2) a mismatch between short-term needs and long-term societal well-being. Diunduh dari: ………22/12/2012

17 HUTAN LINDUNG Daerah yang lerengnya curam dan rawan longsor harus dijadikan kawasan hutan lindung. Lereng di bagian bawahnya dikembangkan menjadi kebun mangga dnegan tanaman sela jagung. Diunduh dari: foto smno Ponorogo Juli 2008

18 PERSYARATAN POHON ESTETIKA (BEAUTIFIKASI). Mempunyai tajuk dan bentuk percabangan yang indah; Bunga dan buahnya memiliki warna, bentuk yang indah Ekosistem pantai dengan jasa amenitasnya (foto smno juli 2009)

19 BERAGAM AKTIVITAS MANUSIA MEMPENGARUHI EKOSISTEM 1.Runoff of pesticides, fertilizers, and animal wastes 2.Pollution of land, water, and air resources 3.Introduction of non-native species 4.Overharvesting fisheries 5.Destruction of wetlands 6.Erosi Tanah 7.Penebangan Hutan 8.Perkembangan permukiman kota Diunduh dari: degradasi-lahan-dunia/………22/12/ Juni, Hari Penanggulangan Degradasi Lahan Dunia Sejak tahun 1994, Persatuan Bangsa-Bangsa mendeklarasikan tanggal 17 Juni sebagai Hari Penanggulangan Degradasi Lahan dan Kekeringan Sedunia (The World Day to Combat Desertification and Drought) melalui Resolusi Sidang Umum PBB No. A/RES/49/115. Deklarasi ini penting untuk meningkatkan kesadaran masyarakat dunia akan bahaya degradasi lahan bagi keberlangsungan hidup manusia.

20 EKOLOGI & JASA-JASA EKOSISTEM Ecologists work to help us understand the interconnection and interdependence of the many plant and animal communities within ecosystems. Although substantial understanding of many ecosystem services and the scientific principles underlying them already exists, there is still much to learn. The tradeoffs among different services within an ecosystem, the role of biodiversity in maintaining services, and the effects of long and short-term perturbations are just some of the questions that need to be further explored. The answers to such questions will provide information critical to the development of management strategies that will protect ecosystems and help maintain the provisions of the services upon which we depend. Diunduh dari: ………22/12/2012

21 APA SAJA JASA-JASA EKOSISTEM ? Ecosystem Services are the processes by which the environment produces resources that we often take for granted such as clean water, timber, and habitat for fisheries, and pollination of native and agricultural plants. Whether we find ourselves in the city or a rural area, the ecosystems in which humans live provide goods and services that are very familiar to us. LAHAN KRITIS Lahan kritis adalah lahan yang tidak produktif. Meskipun dikelola, produktivitas lahan kritis sangat rendah. Bahkan, dapat terjadi jumlah produksi yang diterima jauh lebih sedikit daripada biaya pengelolaannya. Lahanini bersifat tandus, gundul, tidak dapat digunakan untuk usaha pertanian, karena tingkat kesuburannya sangat rendah. Faktor- Faktor yang menyebabkan terjadinya lahan kritis, antara lain sebagai berikut: 1.Kekeringan, biasanya terjadi di daerah-daerah bayangan hujan. 2.Genangan air yang terus-menerus, seperti di daerah pantai yang selalu tertutup rawa-rawa. 3.Erosi tanah dan masswasting yang biasanya terjadi di daerah dataran tinggi, pegunungan, dan daerah yang miring. Masswasting adalah gerakan masa tanah menuruni lereng. 4.Pengolahan lahan yang kurang memperhatikan aspek-aspek kelestarian lingkungan. Lahan kritis dapat terjadi di dataran tinggi, pegunungan, daerah yang miring, atau bahkan di dataran rendah. 5.Masuknya material yang dapat bertahan lama kelahan pertanian (tak dapat diuraikan oleh bakteri) misalnya plastic. Plastik dapat bertahan ± 200 tahun di dalam tanah sehingga sangat mengganggu kelestaian kesuburan tanah. 6.Pembekuan air,biasanya terjadi daerah kutub atau pegunungan yang sangat tinggi. Pencemaran, zat pencemar seperti pestisida dan limbah pabrik yang masuk ke lahan pertanian baik melalui aliran sungai maupun yang lain mengakibatkan lahan pertanian baik melalui aliran sungai maupun yang lain mengakibatkan lahan pertanian menjadi kritis. Diunduh dari: ………22/12/2012

22 EKOSISTEM MENGHASILKAN JASA- JASA YANG: moderate weather extremes and their impacts disperse seeds mitigate drought and floods protect people from the sun’s harmful ultraviolet rays cycle and move nutrients protect stream and river channels and coastal shores from erosion detoxify and decompose wastes Diunduh dari: ………22/12/2012

23 EKOSISTEM MENGHASILKAN JASA-JASA YANG: 1.Mengendalikan gangguan hama pertanian 2.Melestarikan biodiversity 3.Generate and preserve soils and renew their fertility 4.Contribute to climate stability 5.Purify the air and water 6.Rgulate disease carrying organisms 7.Pollinate crops and natural vegetation Diunduh dari: Bukit Menoreh Seiring dengan pertambahan jumlah penduduk dan tekanan pembangunan yang eksploitatif, kawasan hutan penting di Menoreh perlahan mulai mengalami degradasi. Hutan-hutan alam telah berganti dengan kebun monokultur dan hutan pinus yang rakus air. Selain ancaman degradasi hutan, di sisi lain kawasan ini juga merupakan wilayah sub-urban yang cenderung rendah tingkat perekonomiannya. Warga desa di usia produktif lebih banyak yang memilih untuk bekerja di kota dibandingkan meneruskan tradisi pertanian dan membangun kampung halamannya.

24 APA ITU EKOSISTEM ? An ecosystem is a community of animals and plants interacting with one another and with their physical environment. Ecosystems include physical and chemical components, such as soils, water, and nutrients that support the organisms living within them. These organisms may range from large animals and plants to microscopic bacteria. Diunduh dari: ………22/12/2012

25 MANUSIA ADALAH BAGIAN EKOSISTEM: Ecosystems inlcude the interactions among all organisms in a given habitat. People are part of ecosystems. The health and wellbeing of human populations depends upon the services provided by ecosystems and their components - organisms, soil, water, and nutrients. Diunduh dari: ………22/12/2012

26 26 APA MANFAAT JASA EKOSISTEM? Natural ecosystems and the plants and animals within them provide humans with services that would be very difficult to duplicate. While it is often impossible to place an accurate monetary amount on ecosystem services, we can calculate some of the financial values.

27 BANYAK JASA EKOSISTEM DINIKMATI MANUSIA SECARA GRATIS, PADAHAL NILAI EKONOMINYA SANGAT TINGGI: Much of the Mississippi River Valley’s natural flood protection services were destroyed when adjacent wetlands were drained and channels altered. As a result, the 1993 floods resulted in property damages estimated at twelve billion dollars partially from the inability of the Valley to lessen the impacts of the high volumes of water. Eighty percent of the world’s population relies upon natural medicinal products. Of the top 150 prescription drugs used in the U.S., 118 originate from natural sources: 74 percent from plants, 18 percent from fungi, 5 percent from bacteria, and 3 percent from one vertebrate (snake species). Nine of the top 10 drugs originate from natural plant products. Diunduh dari: ………22/12/2012

28 JASA-JASA EKOLOGI & EKOSISTEM Ecologists work to help us understand the interconnection and interdependence of the many plant and animal communities within ecosystems. Although substantial understanding of many ecosystem services and the scientific principles underlying them already exists, there is still much to learn. Diunduh dari: pantai.html………22/12/2012 Rorak Rorak merupakan lubang penampungan atau peresapan air, dibuat di bidang olah atau saluran resapan. Pembuatan rorak bertujuan untuk memperbesar peresapan air ke dalam tanah dan menampung tanah yang tererosi. Pada lahan kering beriklim kering, rorak berfungsi sebagai tempat pemanen air hujan dan aliran permukaan. Dimensi rorak yang disarankan sangat bervariasi, misalnya kedalaman 60 cm, lebar 50 cm, dan panjang berkisar antara? cm. Panjang rorak dibuat sejajar kontur atau memotong lereng. Jarak ke samping antara satu rorak dengan rorak lainnya berkisar cm, sedangkan jarak horizontal 20 m pada lereng yang landai dan agak miring sampai 10 m pada lereng yang lebih curam. Dimensi rorak yang akan dipilih disesuaikan dengan kapasitas air atau sedimen dan bahan-bahan terangkut lainnya yang akan ditampung.

29 PERANAN BIODIVERSITAS DALAM MEMELIHARA JASA EKOSISTEM The tradeoffs among different services within an ecosystem, the role of biodiversity in maintaining services, and the effects of long and short- term perturbations are just some of the questions that need to be further explored. The answers to such questions will provide information critical to the development of management strategies that will protect ecosystems and help maintain the provisions of the services upon which we depend. Diunduh dari: ………22/12/2012

30 30 References Vitousek, P.M., J. Lubchenco, H.A. Mooney, J. Melillo Human domination of Earth’s ecosystems. Science 277: Daily, G.C Nature’s Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems. Island Press, Washington. 392pp. Marsh, G.P (1965). Man and Nature. Charles Scribner, New York. 472pp. Osborn, F Our Plundered Planet. Little, Brown and Company: Boston. 217pp. Vogt, W Road to Survival. William Sloan: New York. 335pp. Leopold, A A Sand County Almanac and Sketches from Here and There. Oxford University Press, New York. 226pp. Sears, P.B “The processes of environmental change by man.” In: W.L. Thomas, editor. Man’s Role in Changing the Face of the Earth (Volume 2). University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 1193pp. Ehrlich, P.R. and A. Ehrlich Population, Resources, Environment: Issues in Human Ecology. W.H. Freeman, San Francisco. 383pp. - see p.157 Ehrlich, P.R. and A. Ehrlich Extinction: The Causes and Consequences of the Disappearance of Species. Random House, New York. 305pp. Daily, G.C Management objectives for the protection of ecosystem services. Environmental Science & Policy 3: Chichilnisky, G. and G. Heal Economic returns from the biosphere. Nature 391: Kremen, C Managing ecosystem services: what do we need to know about their ecology? Ecology Letters 8: Guo, Z.W., X.M. Xio and D.M. Li An assessment of ecosystem services: water flow regulation and hydroelectric power production. Ecological Applications 10:


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