Personal Notes Remember, it’s about big scale-business Though you may feel familiar with IS, you may never familiar of its potential in business activities. IS is simply NOT an apps,soc-med, or even a software Understand the concept, don’t just memorize. You are not designed to understand its detail, but to understand its design and system.
SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION A system is: A set of interrelated components That interact To achieve a goal
SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION Most systems are composed of smaller subsystems...... and vice versa!
SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION Every organization has goals. The subsystems should be designed to maximize achievement of the organization’s goals. Even to the detriment of the subsystem itself. EXAMPLE: The production department (a subsystem) of a company might have to forego its goal of staying within its budget in order to meet the organization’s goal of delivering product on time.
Raw data from a supermarket checkout counter can be processed and organized to produce meaningful information, such as the total unit sales of dish detergent or the total sales revenue from dish detergent for a specific store or sales territory. Figure 1-3 Data and Information
SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION The systems concept encourages integration (i.e., minimizing the duplication of recording, storing, reporting, and processing). Data are facts that are collected, recorded, stored, and processed by an information system. Organizations collect data about: Events that occur Resources that are affected by those events Agents who participate in the events
SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION Information is different from data. Information is data that have been organized and processed to provide meaning to a user. Usually, more information and better information translates into better decisions.
SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION However, when you get more information than you can effectively assimilate, you suffer from information overload. Example: Final exams week! When you’ve reached the overload point, the quality of decisions declines while the costs of producing the information increases.
SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION Benefits of information - Cost of producing information Value of information Benefits of information may include: Reduction of uncertainty Improved decisions Improved ability to plan and schedule activities
SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION Benefits of information - Cost of producing information Value of information Costs may include time and resources spent: Collecting data Processing data Storing data Distributing information to users
SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION Benefits of information - Cost of producing information Value of information Costs and benefits of information are often difficult to quantify, but you need to try when you’re making decisions about whether to provide information.
SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION Characteristics that make information useful: Relevance It reduces uncertainty by helping you predict what will happen or confirm what already has happened.
SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION Characteristics that make information useful: Relevance Reliability It’s dependable, i.e., free from error or bias and faithfully portrays events and activities.
SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION Characteristics that make information useful: Relevance Reliability Completeness It doesn’t leave out anything that’s important.
SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION Characteristics that make information useful: Relevance Reliability Completeness Timeliness You get it in time to make your decision.
SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION Characteristics that make information useful: Relevance Reliability Completeness Timeliness Understandability It’s presented in a manner you can comprehend and use.
SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION Characteristics that make information useful: Relevance Reliability Completeness Timeliness Understandability Verifiability A consensus notion—the nature of the information is such that different people would tend to produce the same result.
SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION Characteristics that make information useful: Relevance Reliability Completeness Timeliness Understandability Verifiability Accessibility You can get to it when you need it and in a format you can use.
Information is provided to both: External users Internal users SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION
External users primarily use information that is either: MANDATORY INFORMATION—required by a governmental entity, such as Form 10-K required by the SEC; or ESSENTIAL INFORMATION—required to conduct business with external parties, such as purchase orders. SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION
Internal users primarily use discretionary information. The primary focus in producing this information is ensuring that benefits exceed costs, i.e., the information has positive value. SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION
Using information systems effectively requires an understanding of the organization, management, and information technology shaping the systems. An information system creates value for the firm as an organizational and management solution to challenges posed by the environment. Figure 1-5 Information Systems Are More Than Computers
The Order Fulfillment Process Figure 2-1 Fulfilling a customer order involves a complex set of steps that requires the close coordination of the sales, accounting, and manufacturing functions. Business Processes and Information Systems
Systems from a functional perspective Sales and marketing systems Manufacturing and production systems Finance and accounting systems Human resources systems Systems from a constituency perspective Transaction processing systems Management information systems and decision-support systems Executive support systems Relationship of systems to one another Types of Business Information Systems
TRIVIA! What is the name of the first computer?
Management Information Systems: IS, Organization, & Strategy
3 Chapter Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy
Masalah Bisnis Manajemen Organisasi Teknologi Sistem Informasi Solusi Bisnis
Organisasi dan SI Saling mempengaruhi Faktor-faktor yang berperan: Lingkungan Budaya Struktur Proses Bisnis Politik Keputusan manajemn
Organizations and Information Systems Apa sebenarnya organisasi itu? Struktur yang stabil dan formal, menggunakan SD dan memprosesnya untuk menghasilkan output tertentu Struktur sosial karena kumpulan dari elemen sosial Gambaran organisasi harus sederhana namun kuat
Lingkungan: Sumber daya (internal) organisasi Pemerintah Pesaing Pelanggan Kalangan akademis Budaya: SO: Proses Bisnis: Politik: Keputusan Manajemen:
Budaya: kekuatan yang mengikat siapa yang terlibat dalam organisasi SO: cerminan dari organisasi Proses Bisnis: kegiatan dalam perusahaan yang menunjukkan cara mereka berinteraksi dengan customer Politik:Dalam organisasi ada persaingan, pesaingan melahirkan politik dalam organisasi Keputusan Manajemen: cara manajemen mengambil keputusan
Pengaruh SI terhadap Organisasi dan Perusahaan Dampak Ekonomi: membantu menurunkan biaya Dampak terhadap organisasi: membantu meratakan organisasi Membantu proses desentralisasi karena pengetahuan dan informasi lebih tersebar Dengan adanya internet, organisasi mampu mengoptimalkan kinerjanya
Pengaruh Sistem Informasi ke Struktur Organisasi Information systems can reduce the number of levels in an organization by providing managers with information to supervise larger numbers of workers and by giving lower- level employees more decision- making authority.
Traditional competitors New market entrants Substitute products and services Customers Suppliers Porter’s Competitive Forces Model
Figure 3-10 In Porter’s competitive forces model, the strategic position of the firm and its strategies are determined not only by competition with its traditional direct competitors but also by four forces in the industry’s environment: new market entrants, substitute products, customers, and suppliers.
Low-cost leadership Product differentiation Focus on market niche Strengthen customer and supplier intimacy Berdasar Five Forces Model, perusahaan mampu menentukan fokusnya Dengan menentukan fokus maka perusahaan mampu membangun keunggulan kompetitif
Setelah mengetahui keunggulan kompetitive maka perusahaan dapat memilih sistem yang memberi nilai tambah
The Value Web The value web is a networked system that can synchronize the value chains of business partners within an industry to respond rapidly to changes in supply and demand.
Value Chain Nilai tambah dengan adanya value chain: Meningkatkan pengambilan keputusan Meningkatkan kinerja organisasai Meningkatkan profit perusahaan
Kesimpulan Menggunakan SI untuk menyelesaikan masalah organisasi, membantu membangun keunggulan strategik. Penerapan SI mengubah organisasi sehingga menimbulkan masalah baru Bila mampu mengatasi maka memunculkan keunggulan kompetitif
TASK Tugas summary sebelumnya dibatalkan Buat summary komprehensif Romney ch. 1-3 Minimal 1 halaman per bab! Tulis tangan di kertas folio bergaris Beri nama dan NIM yang jelas.