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INDEKS KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN = Environmental Sustainability Index

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Presentasi berjudul: "INDEKS KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN = Environmental Sustainability Index"— Transcript presentasi:

1 INDEKS KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN = Environmental Sustainability Index
Diabstraksikan oleh: soemarno, psdl ppsub, desember 2012 POLA KONSUMSI DAN LIMBAH Bahan Kajian pada MK. PSDAL

2 LIMBAH Pollution and waste should not be put into the environment faster than the environment can degrade and recycle them, or render them harmless. In nature, waste material from an organism usually becomes a meal or resource for another organism. For example, birds will use dead branches or leaves to build their nests; microorganisms and worms in the soil turn leaves and dead animals into humus, which in turn becomes food for plants; and the organic matter in water, such as animal waste or decaying leaves, provides food for aquatic microorganisms. Although these natural cycles have evolved over millions of years, man is rapidly upsetting the balance by producing an ever-increasing amount of waste. Diunduh dari: ……………… 2/12/2012

3 KONSUMSI & LIMBAH The enormous amount of energy and resources that society consumes results in so much garbage that the resulting air pollution, water pollution and acid rain have become serious threats to the global environment. Humans have accumulated more waste than they can properly manage, and may soon be drowning it. In modern society 80 percent of all waste comes from agricultural, industrial or mining activities. The remaining 20 percent comes from households. A large part of what we throw away at home (plastics, metals, paper, glass and organic materials) can be recycled. Concerns about the growing quantities of waste have become even more serious due to the fact that more and more materials have short life cycles. This is especially true of the packaging for everyday products. Waste from Consumption and Production - A threat to natural resources (SUMBER: Diunduh dari: ……………… 2/12/2012

4 SIKLUS HIDUP Waste issues can be better understood by examining the life cycle of the materials that compose it, from extraction to final disposal. Materials are transformed into waste as a consequence of various production and consumption processes. Residual by-products from these transformation processes that are discharged directly into air and water are called emissions. Residuals that are further handled before being discharged are referred to as waste. Once generated, waste may be reused, recycled, transferred for treatment (to reduce its toxicity), incinerated (to reduce its volume) or buried in landfills. Product Life Cycle Sumber: Diunduh dari: ……………… 2/12/2012

5 SOLUTIONS TO THE WASTE PROBLEM
Ada empat prinsip umum untuk pengelolaan limbah yang lebih baik dan beberapa cara untuk mengatasi masalah sampah: decrease the consumption of energy and raw materials; recycle  waste materials; reuse  products as many times as possible; burn  waste in order to extract and utilise all potential energy and to diminish their size (incineration); bury  waste in landfills (pits and ditches); and compost  organic matter. However, most waste treatment techniques also have some environmental impacts . Diunduh dari: ……………… 2/12/2012

6 Diunduh dari: ……………… 2/12/2012
PENGELOLAAN LIMBAH Pengelolaan sampah adalah pengumpulan, pengangkutan, pemrosesan atau pembuangan, pengelolaan dan monitoring bahan limbah. Istilah ini biasanya berhubungan dengan bahan yang dihasilkan oleh aktivitas manusia, dan proses ini umumnya dilakukan untuk mengurangi efeknya TERHADAP kesehatan, lingkungan atau estetika. Waste management is a distinct practice from resource recovery which focuses on delaying the rate of consumption of natural resources. All wastes materials, whether they are solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive fall within the remit of waste management Diunduh dari: ……………… 2/12/2012

7 WASTE MANAGEMENT CONTINUUM
The Waste Management Continuum has two axes. One is the horizontal stakeholder scale, ranging from municipalities and local governments to the community. The other is the vertical technology scale ranging from high tech/high energy disposal systems to low tech low energy systems. Diunduh dari: ……………… 2/12/2012

8 Process of Waste Management
PEMBUANGAN LIMBAH Historically, efforts in the management of waste have focused primarily on the disposal part of the waste. Whilst there is now a general move towards the recovery of resources from waste, disposal is still the most common form of managing waste. Dumping, landfilling of waste and incineration are some of the most common methods of waste disposal. Process of Waste Management (sumber: Diunduh dari: ……………… 4/12/2012

9 Trash to Cash – Waste Management and Microfinance
WASTE RECYCLING Recycling is the breaking down of materials from waste streams into raw materials, which are then reprocessed either into the same material (closed loop) or a new product (open loop), generally including waste separation and material reprocessing. There are various materials that are capable of being recycled, and technology is advancing to allow the recycling of more materials. The benefits of recycling do not lie solely in diversion of waste away from disposal but, even more importantly, in the reduction of the amount of virgin resources that need to be harvested and processed for the manufacture of new products. Trash to Cash – Waste Management and Microfinance Sumber: Diunduh dari: ……………… 4/12/2012

10 WASTE PROCESSING Waste processing is the range of activities characterized by the treatment and recovery (use) of materials or energy from waste through thermal, chemical, or biological means. It also covers hazardous waste handling. Generally, there are two main groups of processes to be considered, (1) Biological processes, such as open composting, enclosed composting, anaerobic digestion, and vermiculture, and (2) Thermal processes, such as incineration, and gasification. Examples of reuse in initiatives include: (1) Product reuse - rethreading tires, recovery of demolition materials, reuse of plastic bags, second hand clothing, reconditioning and repair of furniture and appliances; (2) Materials reuse . Liquid-paper board for seedlings planters, bottles, scrap paper for notes/phone messages, mulching; (3) Durable packaging - e.g. milk crates, bread trays, string or calico shopping bags. Some of the positive effects associated with processed waste include, more effective use of resources, employment opportunities in the service and repair industries, support for charity based stores, better protection of products as durable packaging is more robust, and changes in attitudes towards disposable products. Diunduh dari: ……………… 4/12/2012

11 WASTE MINIMIZATION Waste minimization is aimed at reducing the production of waste through education and improved production process rather than aiming to increase technology to improve treatment of waste. The idea of minimization is not centered on technological advances, it can be viewed a method of managing existing resources and technology in order to maximise the efficiency of available resource use. Minimizing waste generation has the potential to reduce costs or increase profits by maximizing the use of resources and by reducing the amount of waste to be disposed of the cost of waste management is also decreased. Waste avoidance for individuals: Buying goods in bulk; reconsidering superfluous purchases; purchasing products in materials/packaging that is readily recycled; use of alternatives, e.g. landscaping that creates mulched gardens in place of lawns; and use of composting and vermiculture practices. Waste minimization in industry: Change in product design to reduce materials consumption; using crates instead of pallets to avoid the need for shrink wrap; incorporate Eco-Design technology into production processes; adoption of Cleaner Production practices that ensure avoidance through efficiency measures; and conduct regular audits and monitoring of waste reduction/resource recovery practices. Waste minimization for Local Government: Encourage community 'avoidance' activities, e.g. promote competitions rewarding initiative in this area of resource recovery; lead by example, e.g. display mulched gardens throughout the municipality; and provide facilities and infrastructure to assist industry, business and the community to undertake resource recovery practices, e.g. kerbside recycling and resource exchange registers, initiate greener procurement programmes. Diunduh dari: ……………… 4/12/2012

12 WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES
The waste hierarchy refers to the 3Rs of Reduce, Reuse and Recycle, which classify waste management strategies according to their desirability, and are meant to be a hierarchy in order of importance. Upcycling is the process of converting waste materials or useless products into new materials or products of better quality or a higher environmental value. The goal of upcycling is to prevent wasting potentially useful materials by making use of existing ones. Diunduh dari: ……………… 4/12/2012

13 WASTE HIERARCHY The waste hierarchy is a guide when determining the Best Practicable Environmental Option and represents a chain of priority for waste management, extending from the ideal of prevention and reduction to the last resort of disposal. The waste hierachy shows that waste prevention, or minimisation, are the preferred options as they minimise waste generation and ultimately waste disposal.  Recycling and composting are lower in the waste management hierarchy, as these options both require additional energy and resources to reduce waste levels. Diunduh dari: ……………… 4/12/2012

14 WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT
What do we mean by wastewater? Wastewater can mean different things to different people with a large number of definitions in use. In the broad perspective, wastewater is “a combination of one or more of: Domestic effluent consisting of black-water (excreta, urine and faecal sludge) and greywater (kitchen and bathing wastewater); Water from commercial establishments and institutions, including hospitals; Industrial effluent, stormwater and other urban run-off; Agricultural, horticultural and aquaculture effluent, either dissolved or as suspended matter (adapted from Raschid-Sally and Jayakody, 2008). Wastewater management encompasses a broad range of efforts that promote effective and responsible water use, treatment, and disposal and encourage the protection and restoration of our nation's watersheds. Diunduh dari: ……………… 4/12/2012 Diunduh dari: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:JdmRVHT3ZJkJ:www.unep.org/pdf/

15 INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM.
Sustainable solid waste management: An integrated approach for Asian countries. Ashok V. Shekdar. Waste Management. Volume 29, Issue 4, April 2009, Pages 1438–1448. Diunduh dari: 4/12/2012

16 SYSTEM FOR SUSTAINABLE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT.
Sustainable solid waste management: An integrated approach for Asian countries. Ashok V. Shekdar. Waste Management. Volume 29, Issue 4, April 2009, Pages 1438–1448. Diunduh dari: 4/12/2012

17 RECYCLING OF WASTE PAPERS, PLASTICS AND GLASS..
Sustainable solid waste management: An integrated approach for Asian countries. Ashok V. Shekdar. Waste Management. Volume 29, Issue 4, April 2009, Pages 1438–1448. Diunduh dari: 4/12/2012

18 TYPICAL SYSTEM FOR SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
Sustainable solid waste management: An integrated approach for Asian countries. Ashok V. Shekdar. Waste Management. Volume 29, Issue 4, April 2009, Pages 1438–1448. Diunduh dari: 4/12/2012

19 It is a clean, reliable, renewable source of energy
ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE WASTE MANAGEMENT AND WASTE TO ENERGY SOLUTIONS. Waste-to-energy, or WTE, refers to any waste treatment technology that creates energy from assorted waste sources. By utilizing the energy stored from these sources, we are creating value from something that would otherwise be discarded or landfilled. Waste-to-energy is a renewable energy because its fuel source, garbage, is sustainable and is not depleted. It is a clean, reliable, renewable source of energy Diunduh dari: 8/12/2012

20 Waste Management Turns Trash to Cash
Sampah adalah salah sesuatu yang harus diminimalkan atau bahkan dihilangkan. Tantangannya adalah aktivitas manusia menghasilkan sejumlah sampah setiap hari. Langkah-langkah paad tingkat konsumen harus dilakukan untuk mengurangi limbah, konsumen adalah penghasil sampah. Pada akhir pengumpulan, pengelola limbah harus menemukan cara untuk mendaur ulang atau menggunakan kembali bahan-bahan yang telah terkumpul. Diunduh dari: ….

21 Waste Management Turns Trash to Cash
Pengelolaan Sampah juga melakukan investasi untuk berfokus pada aspek konversi material. Konversi adalah proses mengubah sampah menjadi bahan yang dapat digunakan atau menjadi energi. Hal ini mirip dengan plastik untuk investasi minyak. Selain itu, salah satu akuisisi terbaru adalah Harvest Power atau “Panen Energi”. Hal ini berarti "mengelola sampah organik menggunakan teknologi canggih untuk menghasilkan energi terbarukan dan tanah subur yang bernilai tinggi dan produk-produk pupuk organik.“ Diunduh dari: ….

22 Turn Trash To Cash With Dividend Paying Waste Management Companies
Sampah yang dihasilkan oleh seseorang adalah harta bagi orang lain. Sampah dalam banyak hal berarti “kuasi-komoditas” yang terbuat dari beberapa komoditas lainnya. Hari-hari ini, di seluruh dunia, sudah menjadi hal yang lumrah bagi orang untuk mengais-ngais sampah komputer bekas dan komponen elektronik lainnya untuk mendapatkan sejumlah harga dari sekeping logam, atau kepingan logam lainnya yang lebih besar dari sampah itu. Diunduh dari: ….

23 Turn Trash To Cash With Dividend Paying Waste Management Companies
Misalnya, aluminium merupakan komoditas yang melimpah pada produk konsumsidan ditemukan pada pembuangan sampah. Aluminium juga merupakan sumberdaya yang dapat di daur ulang. Perlahan-lahan, bahan-bahan lain dari sampah akan menjadi lebih berharga. Sekitar lima hingga sepuluh persen dari produksi minyak global disuling dan berubah menjadi plastik, yang sekarang digunakan dalam banyak produk. Hal ini telah menghasilkan konten plastik yang tinggi dan berasal dari sampah. Seiring dengan waktu, dan terutama jika kenaikan harga minyak terus melambung, sampah dapat menjadi sumber plastik daur ulang dan bahan mentah lainnya. Diunduh dari: ….

24 Turn Trash To Cash With Dividend Paying Waste Management Companies
Kalau harga minyak minigngkat, aluminium dan bahan-bahan lain yang berasal dari sampah juga meningkat, maka tingkat pemilahan sampah juga akan meningkat. Selain meningkatnya permintaan komoditas secara global dan potensi kenaikan harga sumberdaya alam, inisiatif hijau juga cenderung mendukung daur ulang sampah lebih lanjut dan inisiatif minimisasi sampah. Kota dan masyarakat cenderung untuk memperkenalkan perilaku lebih ekologis dalam pengelolaan limbah seiring dengan waktu. Masyarakat juga akan cenderung lebih memilah-milah sampah di tempat tinggalnya dan di lokasi komersial , sehingga lebih mudah memfasilitasi usaha pengelolaan sampah. Diunduh dari: ….

25 Waste to Watts: How Today's Garbage Can Be Tomorrow's Electricity
Membakar sampah adalah sesuatu hal yang biasa dilakukan untuk menghilangkan sampah. Insinerator tua yang dibangun beberapa dekade yang lalu adalah mimpi buruk bagi lingkungan . Mereka melepaskan ke lingkungan sejumlah besar emisi toksik dalam bentuk dioksin , furan , dan logam beracun seperti merkuri . Tetapi insinerator modern dewasa ini dilandasi oleh hukum lingkungan untuk mengekang pelepasan polutan toksik ke udara. Teknologi insinerator sudah jauh lebih baik . Teknologi baru membakar sampah sampai dengan derajat Fahrenheit . Pada suhu itu, ikatan molekul dalam bahan kimia toksik akan rusak. Hal ini secara signifikan mengurangi emisi gas limbah pembakaran . Gas buang kemudian dapat digunakan untuk menghasilkan uap untuk menghasilkan listrik . Gas buang ini kemudian diproses lebih lanjut untuk menghilangkan sebagian besar kontaminan toksiknya. Akibatnya , insinerator saat ini telah mengurangi emisi gas toksik sekitar 99,9 % dibandingkan teknologi insinerator beberapa dekade yang lalu . Diunduh dari: ….

26 Waste to Watts: How Today's Garbage Can Be Tomorrow's Electricity
Diunduh dari: ….

27 Waste to Watts: How Today's Garbage Can Be Tomorrow's Electricity
Landfill Gases Used to Produce Electricity Insinerasi bukan satu-satunya cara untuk mengubah sampah menjadi energi. Landfill menciptakan sejumlah besar gas rumah kaca. Kalau bahan organik di tempat pembuangan sampah mengalami dekomposisi mereka melepaskan gas metana, gas rumah kaca yang lebih berbahaya dari karbon dioksida ketika dilepaskan ke atmosfer. Sistem penangkapan gas Metana dapat mengubah masalah ini menjadi peluang energi dengan menangkap metana sebelum lepas ke dalam lingkungan dan membakarnya untuk bahan bakar pembangkit listrik. Diunduh dari: ….

28 SAMPAH DAPUR Bahan yang dapat menjadi kompos: Sisa makanan
Daging, ikan, jeroan dan tulang Buah dan sayuran Produk susu, mentega, mayones kulit telur Roti, sereal, biji-bijian Pasta, pizza dipanggang, permen Handuk kertas kotor dan jaringan Kemasan makanan kertas kotor Cangkir kertas bekas dan piring Bubuk kopi, filter, kantong teh Cream karton es, susu & cream karton Bahan-bahan kue, bumbu, rempah-rempah Tanaman hias, bunga potong dan dikeringkan Kacang-kacangan dan kerang …….. Diunduh dari: ….

29 What is Resource Efficiency and Cleaner Production ?
RECP notion/definition recognizes that CP methods and practices generate multiple benefits that are relevant to many of today’s most pressing global challenges, including: Mitigation of GHG emissions and adapting to climate change; Responding to increasing scarcity of water, fuels and other materials; Providing decent jobs; Halting environmental degradation. Diunduh dari: ….

30 Resource Efficiency and Cleaner Production
RECP, therefore, builds upon CP in accelerating the application of preventive environmental strategies to processes, products and services to increase efficiency and reduce risks to humans and the environment. RECP mengemukakan tiga dimensi keberlanjutan secara individual dan sinergistik: ECONOMIC: Production Efficiency: optimization of the productive use of natural resources (materials, energy and water); ENVIRONMENT: Environmental management: minimization of impacts on environment and nature through reduction of wastes and emissions; SOCIAL: Human Development: minimization of risks to people and communities and support for their development. Diunduh dari: …http://www.ncpp.md/en/recp.html .

31 Diunduh dari: …. http://www.ncpp.md/en/recp.html
UNIDO and UNEP formulated a revised Resource Efficient and Cleaner Production (RECP) programme strategy for cooperation with NCPCs and NCPPs globally. The resulting Joint UNIDO-UNEP Programme on Resource Efficient and Cleaner Production (RECP) (see was approved for worldwide implementation in February RECP Programme focuses on multiple resource productivity and environmental benefits; creating human, technical and institutional capacities, with local ownership; and fostering the realization of enabling policies and strategies.     Nevertheless, Cleaner Production(CP) definition developed in 1991 by UNEP is still commonly used: “CP is the continuous application of an integrated preventative environmental strategy to processes, products and services to increase efficiency and reduce risks to humans and the environment”. Several complementary CP techniques or practices are possible, ranging from low or even no cost solutions to high investment, advanced clean technologies. Diunduh dari: ….

32 Ciri khas implementasi CP di negara berkembang adalah:
Good Housekeeping: appropriate provisions to prevent leaks and spills and to achieve proper, standardized operation and maintenance procedures and practices; Input Material Change: replacement of hazardous or non-renewable inputs by less hazardous or renewable materials or by materials with a longer service life-time; Better Process Control: modification of the working procedures, machine instructions and process record keeping for operating the processes at higher efficiency and lower rates of waste and emission generation; Equipment Modification: modification of the production equipment so as to run the processes at higher efficiency and lower rates of waste and emission generation; Technology Change: replacement of the technology, processing sequence and/or synthesis pathway in order to minimize the rates of waste and emission generation during production; On-Site Recovery/Reuse: reuse of the wasted materials in the same process or for another useful application within the enterprise; Production of Useful By-Products: transformation of previously discarded wastes into materials that can be reused or recycled for another application outside the company; Product Modification: modification of product characteristics in order to minimize the environmental impacts of the product during or after its use (disposal) or to minimize the environmental impacts of its production. Diunduh dari: …

33 Diunduh dari: … http://www.ncpp.md/en/recp.html.
PRODUKSI BERSIH Diunduh dari: …

34 Waste Reduction and Raw material conservation
Pengelolaan sampah memiliki berbagai fungsi, yaitu: pengumpulan, transportasi, pengolahan (pengolahan limbah), daur ulang atau pembuangan bahan limbah, biasanya dihasilkan oleh aktivitas manusia, dalam upaya untuk mengurangi efeknya pada kesehatan manusia atau estetika lokal atau kenyamanan & keindahan. Sub-fokus pengelolaan sampah, dalam beberapa dekade terakhir, telah mengurangi efek limbah 'terhadap alam dan lingkungan dengan melestarikan bahan baku yang digunakan dan untuk memulihkan sumber daya dari limbah, yaitu, daur ulang limbah. Pengelolaan sampah bisa melibatkan padat, zat cair atau gas dengan metode yang berbeda dan bidang keahlian masing-masing. Diunduh dari: ….

35 Waste Reduction and Raw material conservation
Sampah juga berarti tidak efisiennya penggunaan utilitas seperti listrik, air, dan bahan bakar, yang sering dianggap overhead yang tidak dapat dihindari. Biaya limbah ini umumnya diremehkan oleh para manajer. Biaya sampah dan limbah tidak hanya biaya pembuangannya, tetapi juga biaya lain seperti: Biaya Pembuangan sampah Tidak efisiennya biaya penggunaan energi Biaya Pembelian bahan baku yang terbuang Biaya produksi untuk bahan limbah Waktu Manajemen dihabiskan untuk bahan limbah Pendapatan Hilang karena menjadi limbah Kewajiban Potensial karena limbah. Diunduh dari: ….

36 Waste Reduction and Raw material conservation
. Waste Reduction and Raw material conservation Minimisasi limbah dapat didefinisikan sebagai “cara sistematis mengurangi limbah pada sumbernya". Artinya: Prevention and/or reduction of waste generated Efficient use of raw materials and packaging Efficient use of fuel, electricity and water Improving the quality of waste generated to facilitate recycling and/or reduce hazard Encouraging re-use, recycling and recovery. Diunduh dari: ….

37 Waste Reduction and Raw material conservation
Source Reduction Techniques: Empat macam teknik minimisasi limbah: Good Housekeeping- Systems to prevent leakages & spillages through preventive maintenance schedules and routine equipment inspections. Also, well-written working instructions, supervision, awareness and regular training of workforce would facilitate good housekeeping. Process Change - Under this head, four techniques are covered: (i) Input Material Change - Substitution of input materials by eco-friendly (non-toxic or less toxic than existing and renewable) material preferably having longer service time. (ii) Better Process Control - Modifications of the working procedures, machine-operating instructions and process record keeping in order to run the processes at higher efficiency and with lower waste generation and emissions. 3. Equipment Modification - Modification of existing production equipment and utilities, for instance, by the addition of measuring and controlling devices, in order to run the processes at higher efficiency and lower waste and emission generation rates. 4. Technology Change - Replacement of the technology, processing sequence and/or synthesis route, in order to minimise waste and emission generation during production. Diunduh dari: ….

38 Waste Reduction and Raw material conservation
Recycling – Daur Ulang On-site Recovery and Reuse - Reuse of wasted materials in the same process or for another useful application within the industry. Production of Useful by-product - Modification of the waste generation process in order to transform the wasted material into a material that can be reused or recycled for another application within or outside the company. Diunduh dari: ….

39 Waste Reduction and Raw material conservation Product Modification –
Characteristics of the product can be modified to minimise the environmental impacts of its production or those of the product itself during or after its use (disposal). Diunduh dari: ….

40 Waste Reduction and Raw material conservation
Pengurangan pada sumber limbah adalah tujuan tertinggi dalam hirarki pengelolaan limbah padat - Reduce, Reuse, Recycle. Daur ulang tidak mengatasi masalah keborosan penggunaan produk. Ketika daur ulang digabungkan dengan pengurangan sumber, pembelian yang boros dan penggunaan produk dapat diminimalkan. Bila mungkin, mengurangi atau menggunakan kembali lebih dahulu, kemudian mendaur ulang. Praktek pengurangan sumber bermanfaat bagi lingkungan melalui pengurangan konsumsi energi dan polusi, konservasi sumberdaya alam, dan perluasan ruang landfill yang berharga. Hal ini dapat memiliki manfaat ekonomi dengan mengurangi biaya yang terkait dengan transportasi, pembuangan atau daur ulang limbah. Pengurangan sumber dapat menghemat uang setiap hari. Setiap orang dapat berpartisipasi dalam pengurangan sumber. Diunduh dari: ….

41 Waste Reduction and Raw material conservation
Pengurangan limbah dalam proses produksi dan pengurangan penggunaan bahan baku berpengaruh signifikan terhadap profitabilitas dan menghasilkan lingkungan yang bersih. Limbah yang timbul dari proses produksi berpengaruh signifikan terhadap profitabilitas. Tantangannya adalah bagaimana mengurangi limbah tanpa memgorbankan efektivitas proses. Pengurangan limbah juga dapat mengurangi masalah pembuangan dan daur ulang limbah, dengan demikian meningkatkan baku mutu lingkungan. Diunduh dari: ….

42 Waste Reduction and Raw material conservation
Hal-hal umum yang mungkin dilakukan untuk meningkatkan efisiensi proses produksi dan mengurangi limbah : Menggunakan kembali air bilasan dalam sistem pendingin; Secara teratur memeriksa bahwa peralatan dikalibrasi dengan benar; Mengurangi penghentian yang tidak perlu di lini produksi; Meng-upgrade atau mengganti peralatan yang lama; Meminimalkan tumpahan atau kebocoran; Menggunakan sistem tertutup untuk memungkinkan semua sampah dikumpulkan di satu tempat, tanpa kebocoran, sehingga sebanyak mungkin limbah dapat digunakan kembali, didaur ulang atau dibuang dengan benar. Diunduh dari: ….


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