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JASSER AUDA’S PROPOSED CLASSIFICATION hujjahbatil 1.Traditionally, evidences/arguments are always divided between two categories, sound (hujjah) and unsound.

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Presentasi berjudul: "JASSER AUDA’S PROPOSED CLASSIFICATION hujjahbatil 1.Traditionally, evidences/arguments are always divided between two categories, sound (hujjah) and unsound."— Transcript presentasi:

1 JASSER AUDA’S PROPOSED CLASSIFICATION hujjahbatil 1.Traditionally, evidences/arguments are always divided between two categories, sound (hujjah) and unsound (batil). 2.Supporting evidence (isti’nas) is an intermediate level of hujjiyah that appears in a few rulings. hujjahIsti’nasbatil *Levels of Authority, Human Experience & Revelation A.Levels of Authority 17 Januari 20131M Amin Abdullah

2 3.Ta’wil is a level of hujjiyyah between hujjah and isti’nas. 4.Fihi shai is a minor criticism between istinas and butlan. hujjahMu’awwalIsti’nasbatil hujjahMu’awwalIsti’nasFihi shaibatil 17 Januari 20132M Amin Abdullah

3 5. Five additional levels of ‘authority’ between ‘proff and ‘void’. Proof (hujjah) Apologetic interpretation Interpreted (mu’awwal) Supportive Evidence (isti’nas) Minor Criticism (fihi shai’) Radical re- interpretation Void (batil) 6.A multi-valued spectrum of hujjiyyah, from ‘proof to ‘void’. Direction of decerasing hujjiyah Proof (hujjah) Apologetic interpretation Interpreted (mu’awwal) Supportive Evidence (isti’nas) Minor Criticism (fihi shai) Radical re- interpretation Void (batil) 17 Januari 20133M Amin Abdullah

4 B.Human Experience & Revelation. Human ExperianceRevelation Modern values End rights RationalityRulings of Traditional (madhahib) Higher Maqasid/ interests Prophetic traditions Qur’anis verses 17 Januari 20134M Amin Abdullah

5 C.Current ‘Tendencies’ in Islamic Law. Proof (hujjah) Apologetic interpretation Re- interpreted Supportive evidence Minorily criticised Radically re- interpreted Radically criticised Modern Values/ rights RationallyRulings of traditional madhahib Higher maqasid/ interest Prophetic traditions Qur’anic verses ModernismPostmodernism Traditionalism 17 Januari 20135M Amin Abdullah

6 C1.Tradisionalism Proof (hujjah) Apologetic interpretation Re- interpreted Supportive evidence Minorily criticised Radically re- interpreted Radically criticised Modern Values/ rights RationallyRulings of traditional madhahib Higher maqasid/ interest Prophetic traditions Qur’anic verses Ideology- oriented theories Neo- Literalism Scholastic Traditionalism Scholastic Neo- Traditionalism Neo- Literalism Traditionalism 17 Januari 20136M Amin Abdullah

7 C2.Modernism tendency in terms of its contributing streams. Proof (hujjah) Apologetic interpretation Re- interpreted Supportive evidence Minorily criticised Radically re- interpreted Radically criticised Modern Values/ rights RationallyRulings of traditional madhahib Higher maqasid/ interest Prophetic traditions Qur’anic verses Usul revisionis m ‘ Science’ oriented interpretation s Maslahah Oriented Theory Apologetic Re- Interpretation Reformist Re- interpretation Modernism 17 Januari 20137M Amin Abdullah

8 C3. Postmodernism tendency in terms of its contributing streams. Proof (hujjah) Postcolonialism Critical Legal Poststructuralism Studies Anti-Rationalism Historicism Apologetic interpretation Re- interpreted Supportive evidence Minorily criticised Radically re- interpreted Radically criticised Modern Values/ rights RationallyRulings of traditional madhahib Higher maqasid/ interest Prophetic traditions Qur’anic verses Neo Rationalism Secularism Postmodernism 17 Januari 20138M Amin Abdullah

9 3 TYPES OF CONTEMPORARY OF ISLAMIC THOUGHT 1) Traditional 2) Modern 3) Postmodern 17 Januari 20139M Amin Abdullah

10 Beberapa Kecenderungan dalam masing-masing Corak Pemikiran Islam Kontemporer: 1) Traditional Scholastic Traditionalism Scholastic Neo-Traditionalism Neo-Literalism Ideology-Oriented Theories 2) Modern Reformist Reinterpretation Apologetic Reinterpretation Dialogue-Oriented Reinterpretation/Science- Oriented Re-Interpretation Interest-Oriented Theories Usul Revision 17 Januari M Amin Abdullah

11 3) Postmodern Post-structuralism Historicism Critical-Legal Studies (CLS) Post-Colonialism Neo-Rationalism Anti-Rationalism Secularism 17 Januari M Amin Abdullah

12 HISTORICAL APPROACH : CONTINUITY & CHANGE HISTORICAL APPROACH (Origin, Change & Development) Era Post Modernits (5 Varian) Era Modernitas (5 Varian ) Era Tradisional (4 Varian ) M. Sahrur Hasan Hanafi Nasr Hamid Abu Zaid Ebrahim Moosa Farid Esack Abd. Karim Sorus M. Abduh alTabattab’i Yusuf al-Qardhawi Ibn Ashur al-Sadr Al-Juwaini Al-Ghazali Al-Syatibi Izzuddin Abd. Salam 17 Januari M Amin Abdullah

13 Te The relationship between syari’ah, fiqh, ‘urf and qanun The first stage ( TRADITIONAL era) Diagram illustrating the (traditional) relations between the concepts of shari’ah. fiqh, ‘urf, and qānūn. Notice the inclusion of fiqh with the Qur’an and the prophetic tradition ‘the revealed’. Sumber : Jasser Auda, Maqasid al-Shariah as Philosophy of Islamic Law : A System Approach, 2008 Shari’ah Qur’an Prophetic Tradition Fiqh ‘Urf Qānūn 17 Januari M Amin Abdullah

14 The relationship between Syari’ah, Fiqh, Urf and Qanun The second stage ( MODERN era) Fiqh and a section of the prophetic tradition are shifted from being expressions of the ‘revealed’ to being expressions of ‘human cognition of the revealed’. Sumber : Jasser Auda, Maqasid al-Shariah as Philosophy of Islamic Law : A System Approach, 2008 Qur’an Qānūn ‘Urf Revealed Shari’ah (a) (b) (c) Prophetic Tradition Fiqh 17 Januari M Amin Abdullah

15 The relationship between Syari’ah, Fiqh, Fakih and Qanun The third stage ( POSTMODERN Era) The jurist’s worldview’ is a prime factor in shaping fiqh. Sumber : Jasser Auda, Maqasid al-Shariah as Philosophy of Islamic Law : A System Approach, 2008 Qur’an Jurist (Fakih) Qānūn ‘Competent worlddview ‘ Revealed Shari’ah (a) (b) (c) Prophetic Tradition Via ‘sciences’ Interests (Individual; group) 17 Januari M Amin Abdullah

16 1. COGNITIVE Ibn Taimiyyah: Agama adalah Fi Zihn al-Faqih. Manusia/Mujtahid yang mengorganisir, menyimpulkan dan menetapkan ketentuan hukum. Fallibility of Knowledge. 2. WHOLENESS Utuh, memahami al-Qur’an tidak sepotong-potong, tidak parsial. Ada prinsip-prinsip dasar; ada nilai-nilai fundamental, selain jabaran nilai-nilai tersebut dalam alam praksis. Fundamental Values seperti Indah, Adil, Kasih Sayang tidak dapat mengalahkan konflik-konflik sosial berdasar ras, kulit, agama sekalipun (Socio-Historical Problems). Pendekatan Systems dalam Hukum Islam  6 Fitur (Unit, Elemen, Komponen) yang Saling terkait (Integratif-Interkonektif) 17 Januari M Amin Abdullah

17 3. OPENNESS Self-Renewal. Philosophical Openness. Living System & Interactive (Tidak Terisolasi). Bukan Ghetto-minded. 4. INTERRELATEDNESS Bukan hierarchy nilai, tetapi saling keterhubungan antar-nilai. bukan 17 Januari M Amin Abdullah

18 5. MULTIDIMENSIONALITY Ada Spectrum of Certainty. Bukan sekedar Binary Opposition tentang Qat’iy dan Dhanniy, tapi ada Spectrum of Certainty. The Principle of Certainty yang didukung oleh bukti pendukung (the Principle of Evidentalism). Ada Qath’iyyat al-Dalalah, ada Qath’iyyat al-Tsubut, ada Qath’iyyat al-Manthiqiy. 17 Januari M Amin Abdullah

19 6. PURPOSEFULNESS Pendekatan Systems melibatkan 6 elemen. Keenam elemen tersebut saling terkait-berkaitkelindan, tidak terpisah-pisah. Namun common link nya ada pada Maqasid (Purposefulness). Teori Maqasid bertemu dengan standar basis metodologi yang penting, yaitu Rationalitas, Asas Manfaat, Asas Keadilan, dan Asas Moralitas (Rationality, Utility, Justice dan Morality). Mengapa teori Maqasid tidak populer di lingkungan Usul al-Fiqh klasik/ tradisional? Karena saat itu pola pikirnya masih dipengaruhi oleh pola pikir yang mengedepankan kausalitas (‘illah ) ala filsafat Yunani. Dilalah Maqsid nya tidak dimasukkan disitu/tidak dianggap penting.( Disebut dengan istilah iqtidla’,isyarah, mufassar atau ilma’). Akibatnya jenis pembacaan langsung ( literal meaning ) kepada nass (Syafi’i: Sariih; Hanafi: ‘Ibarah) diprioritaskan. Jasser Auda, Maqasid al-Syari’ah as Philosophy of Islamic Law: A System Approach, London: The International Institute of Islamic Thought, Januari M Amin Abdullah

20 System Approach (Integrated six entities) in philosophy of islamic law/studies 1. COGNITIVE 2. WHOLENESS 3. OPENNESS 4. INTER- RELATEDNESS 5. MULTI- DIMENSIONALITY CONTEMPORARY ISLAMIC WORLDVIEW BASED ON SYSTEM APPROACH 6. PURPOSEFULNESS 17 Januari M Amin Abdullah

21 CHANGECHANGEDEVELOPMENTDEVELOPMENT ORIGINORIGIN DIRASAT ISLAMIYYAH/ISLAMIC STUDIES FROM HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES 17 Januari M Amin Abdullah

22 DIRASAT ISLAMIYYAH/ISLAMIC STUDIES FROM THE HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES Post-Modern Modern Traditional CONTINUITY & CHANGE 17 Januari M Amin Abdullah

23 DIRASAT ISLAMIYYAH/ISLAMIC STUDIES FROM HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES Dirasat Islamiyyah/ Islamic Studies Al-Fikr Al-Islamiy/ Islamic Thought Ulum Al-Din/ Islamic Religious Knowledge CONTINUITY & CHANGE 17 Januari M Amin Abdullah

24 No Classical Maqashid Theory Contemporary Maqashid Theory 1.Keeping Descent (al-Nasl) Theory oriented to the protection of the Family; Concern that more of the family institution. 2.Keeping Intellect (al-Aql) Double the mindset and scientific research; prioritize travel to seek knowledge; pressing mindset that putting crowd of gang crime, avoiding the attempts to belittle the brain works. 3. Keeping honor; keep the soul (al-'Irdh) Maintaining and protecting the dignity of humanity; safeguard and protect human rights. 4.Keeping the faith (al-Din) Preserve, protect and respect freedom of religion and faith 5.Keeping the property (al- Maal) Giving priority to social concerns; paying attention to the development and economic development; promote human welfare; eliminate the gap between poor and rich. The paradigm shift toward Contemporary Maqasid Theory 2 Juli 2011 M. Amin Abdullah 17 Januari M Amin Abdullah

25 HADLARAH AL- NASH SINGLE ENTITIES THE NEW PROPOSED CURRICULUMS IN SYARI’AH STUDIES/ ISLAMIC STUDIES 17 Januari M Amin Abdullah

26 HADLARAH AL-NASH HADLARAH AL-’ILM HADLARAH AL-FALSAFAH ISOLATED ENTITIES 17 Januari M Amin Abdullah

27 INTEGRATED ENTITIES 17 Januari M Amin Abdullah

28  Lapis Pertama QUR’AN & SUNNAH TRANSFORMASI IAIN KE UIN (Konsep Dasar Keilmuan UIN Yogyakarta) 17 Januari M Amin Abdullah

29  Lapis Pertama & Lapis Kedua QUR’AN & SUNNAH (1) (2) Methodology (Al-Tariqah) & Approaches (Al-Muqarabah) adalah bentuk Human Intervention & Human Construction (Ijtihad Ulama’ & Cerdik Pandai) pada setiap jaman yang dilalui oleh Peradaban Islam. 17 Januari M Amin Abdullah

30  Lapis Pertama, Lapis Kedua & Lapis Ketiga QUR’AN & SUNNAH (1) (2) (3) FIQH TAFSIR TARIKH HADITS LUGHAH KALAM FALSAFAH TASAWUF Layer (Lapisan) Kuning adalah Ilmu-ilmu Keislaman yang diproduksi pada era al-’Ashr al-Dzahabiy (Golden Age of Islamic Civilization) sekitar Abad IX-XI M. Istilah “Tafaqquh fi al-Din” biasanya mengacu kepada era ini. Istilah “Kitab Kuning” sangat terkenal di dunia Muslim, khususnya Pesantren. 17 Januari M Amin Abdullah

31  Lapis Ke-empat (1) QUR’AN & SUNNAH (1) (2) (3) FIQH TAFSIR TARIKH HADITS LUGHAH KALAM FALSAFAH TASAWUF PHENOMENOLOGY ETHICS MATHEMATICS PHYSICS CHEMISTRY BIOLOGY HERMENEUTICS PHILOLOGY ARCHEOLOGY ANTHROPOLOGY SOCIOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY PHILOSOPHY HISTORY (4) Dengan sedikit mereduksi, era sejarah peradaban Islam adalah dari Abad VII sampai dengan Abad XIV M. Kejatuhan Cordoba di Spanyol menandai peralihan sejarah peradaban. Layer (Lapis) Biru adalah Peradaban Barat Abad XV—XX M. 17 Januari M Amin Abdullah

32  Lapis Ke-lima (1) QUR’AN & SUNNAH (1) (2) (3) FIQH TAFSIR TARIKH HADITS LUGHAH KALAM FALSAFAH TASAWUF PHENOMENOLOGY ETHICS MATHEMATICS PHYSICS CHEMISTRY BIOLOGY HERMENEUTICS PHILOLOGY ARCHEOLOGY ANTHROPOLOGY SOCIOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY PHILOSOPHY HISTORY (4) INTERNATIONAL LAW RELIGIOUS PLURALISM GLOBAL ECONOMICS INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HUMAN RIGHTS POLITICS/CIVIL SOCIETY CULTURE (CULTURAL STUDIES) GENDER ISSUES ENVIRONTMENTAL ISSUES (5) Layer (Lapis) Pink adalah fenomena masyarakat dunia dalam 150 tahun terakhir. Layer (Lapis) Pink adalah era globalisasi (Borderless Society). 17 Januari M Amin Abdullah

33 Courses, research and COMMUNITY OUTREACH 17 Januari M Amin Abdullah

34 RUMUSAN KETETAPAN HUKUM METODE INDUKTIF (BARU) Sarana/Teknis Muhammad Allah Al-Hadits Al-Qur’an Teks Syar’i Metode Istinbath Peristiwa BAHASA ARAB SEJARAH, SOSIOLOGI, SAINS KAEDAH USHUL FIQH YANG DISEMPURNAKAN HukumTujuan Haram Wajib Makruh Sunnah Mubah KEADILAN EQUALITY (KESETARAAN) HAM MENJAGA LINGKUNGAN Dhanni y Berubah Qath’iy Tetap a)Induktif – Deduktif Baru 17 Januari M Amin Abdullah

35 b)GAGASAN KETETAPAN HUKUM METODE DEDUKSI (BARU) Qiyas TujuanTeknis/Sarana KEADILAN EQUALITY HAM MENJAGA LINGKUNGAN Dhanniy/ Berubah Qath’iy/ Tetap Teks Syar’iPeristiwa Hukum Haram Wajib Makruh Sunnah Mubah Sejarah, Sosiologi Antropologi, Sains 17 Januari M Amin Abdullah


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