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DEPARTEMEN TEKNOLOGI INDUSTRI PERTANIAN FAKULTAS TEKNOLOGI PERTANIAN INSTITUT PERTANIAN BOGOR BOGOR.

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Presentasi berjudul: "DEPARTEMEN TEKNOLOGI INDUSTRI PERTANIAN FAKULTAS TEKNOLOGI PERTANIAN INSTITUT PERTANIAN BOGOR BOGOR."— Transcript presentasi:

1 DEPARTEMEN TEKNOLOGI INDUSTRI PERTANIAN FAKULTAS TEKNOLOGI PERTANIAN INSTITUT PERTANIAN BOGOR BOGOR

2 Harus disukai konsumenStabil kandungannyaKeragaman pangan Tantangan Produk Pangan

3 Inovasi Zat PengemulsiZat Aktif Permukaan

4 Emulsi pangan pada umumnya tidak stabil (terjadi pemecahan emulsi) Perlu adanya penambahan emulsifier dan stabilizer sehingga emulsi pangan yang dihasilkan lebih baik

5 Keuntungan dari produk emulsi: Mudah digunakanMudah dicampur dengan bahan lainMemperpanjang umur simpan produk Membantu konsumsi bahan pengaktif yang jumlahnya sedikit

6 Pada dasarnya sifat emulsi tergantung dari beberapa faktor, yaitu:  Jenis bahan yang menjadi medium pendispersi  Komposisi bahan yang digunakan  Jumlah dan jenis emulsifier  Prosedur dan kondisi pengolahan  Macam-macam peralatan yang digunakan

7 Prinsip pembuatan emulsi:  Penurunan tegangan permukaan oleh emulsifier  Input energi mekanis Jika terjadi penurunan tegangan permukaan maka emulsi akan semakin mudah terbentuk dan input energi yang dibutuhkan semakin sedikit Jika penambahan emulsifiernya sedikit maka akan membutuhkan input energi yang lebih banyak

8 Alternatif proses pencampuran dalam pembuatan emulsi pangan:  Pencampuran pada suhu ruang sekaligus, diatur kecepatan pengadukan  Pencampuran pada suhu ruang secara setahap demi setahap, diatur kecepatan pengadukannya  Pencampuran pada suhu ruang sekaligus, diatur kecepatan dan dipanaskan  Pencampuran pada suhu ruang secara setahap demi setahap, diatur pengadukan dan dipanaskan  Pencampuran pada suhu ruang sekaligus atau pencampuran pada suhu ruang secara setahap demi setahap tetapi diaduk pada kecepatan tinggi dan didiamkan  Pencampuran pada suhu ruang sekaligus, dengan pemanasan atau pencampuran pada suhu ruang secara setahap demi setahap, dengan pemanasan tetapi diaduk dengan kecepatan tinggi dan didiamkan

9  The processing of milk to produce butter has been known for thousands of years.  Initially, butter was produced manually by agitating and beating the milk in simple wooden churns.  The mechanical separation of cream, the pasteurization of milk products, and the introduction of butter starter cultures in the 1880s enabled the establishment of dairies that could produce butter in much greater quantities and thus heralded the beginning of modern buttermaking.

10 Process The process of manufacturing butter basically transforms cream into butter grains and buttermilk by agitation and by beating air into the cream

11 Cream Preparation Cream is prepared by the centrifugal separation of whole milk at 40 – 50 o C to fat content of % for continuous buttermaking and 25-35% for batch production. It is pasteurized at o C for 1-30 s to destroy microbial contamination and to inactivate enzymes If cultured or lactic butter is desired, starter culture is added at this stage to initiate bacteriological ripening, during which lactose is partially converted to lactic acid, thus reducing the pH from 6.5 to

12 Buttermaking The main elements of the process may thus be summarized as follows: 1. Cream preparation 2. Churning 3. Draining and washing 4. Salting 5. Kneading

13 The process of buttermaking Centrifugal separation Pasteurization Physical ripening Bacteriological ripening (optional) Churning draining Washing (optional) Salting (optional) Kneading Packaging

14 B. MARGARINE  Margarine is a fatty food resembling butter in appearance, character, and composition that is used as a substitute for or alternative to butter  The basic composition of margarine, or oleomargarine, has been more or less established ssince Mège’s original formulation—that is, it should be similar to butter  However, with the new developments during more recent years involving different components and varying combinations of vegetable oils, animal fats, and milk fat.

15  Margarine is a water in oil (w/o) emulsion; that is to say, the water (the disperse phase) is distributed as droplets within the oil (the continuous phase).  In margarine, the levels of each largely simulate that found in butter and are regulated in most places by legislation: minimum 80% fat, maximum 16% water, the remainder consisting of salts, proteins, emulsifiers, vitamins, colours, and flavors.  Three main types of margarine can be distinguished according to the different criteria for which they are formulated: table margarine (which includes the distinct categores of tub and packet margarine), industrial or bakery (cake) margarine, and pastry margarine.

16 Source oils used in vegetable oil margarines and spreads: Soybean cottonseed Corn Peanut Coconut Safflower Other vegetable

17 Other common Ingredients a) Milk products and protein In the past cultures milk was used in almost all margarines. Because of the time and space required for culturing, this practiced was largerly abandoned in favor of using skim milk together with starter distillate. Protein affects margarine products in several wats. In addition to flavor, dairy solids undergo the maillard reaction and brown during frying.

18 b) Emulsifier  Reduce surface tension between the aqueous and oil phases  Stabilize the finished product during storage to prevent leakage or coalescence of the aqueous phase  Antispattering agents c) Preservatives  Antioxidants  Metal scavengers  Antimicrobial agents

19 d) Flavors  Lactones  Ethyl esters of short-chain fatty acids  Ketones  Aldehydes d) Vitamins and colours The mandatory fortification of margarine with a vitamin A is accomplished by the addition of β- carotene and/or vitamin A esters. Margarine is colored with carotenoids, and synthetic β-carotene is by far the most widely used.

20 Processing 1. Processing operations EmulsificationChillingWorkingRestingPackaging

21  Emulsification The formation of the coarse initial emulsion may be a strict batch process in which the warm oil and the soil-soluble ingredients are individually weighed or melted into an agitated tank. Usually the emulsion is held at about o C ( o F)  Chilling When the emulsion is formed, it is fed via a high-pressure positive pump to atubular swept-surface heat exchanger. In general, shaft speeds range from 300 to 700 rpm, scraping the surface clean as many as 1500 times per minute  Working When the margarine emerges from the cooling tubes, it is only partially crystallizer. In many processes it then goes to a working unit or blender.

22  Resting Additional resting time is often achieved with two quiescent tubes in parallel, with the use of a timed, rotary valve that alternates flow to the two units.  Packaging  The first of these forms a molded print that is then wrapped  On the second type of machine, the filled print margarine from the holding tube is still in a semifluid state

23 2. Specific Processes

24 C. MAYONNAISE Mayonnaise adalah suatu bentuk emulsi semi padat yang terdiri atau terbuat dari minyak nabati sebagai komponen utama, telur atau kuning telur, cuka atau sari jeruk, gula, garam dan bumbu.

25 Adapun formula yang lengkap untuk mayonnaise adalah: Kuning telur (fresh)12 lb Gula2 ½ lb Tepung Mustard1 lb Garam1 lb 7 oz Juice bawang (fresh)2 oz Paprika¾ oz Lada (white)¾ oz Minyak (salad)13 gal Cuka4 qt (1 gal) Air2 qt ( ½ gal)

26 Cara membuat mayonnaise: 1) Letakkan kuning telur ke dalam mangkok pencampur. 2) Kocok dengan kecepatan tinggi sampai kaku, kira-kira 1 menit. 3) Tambahkan gula, tepung mustard, garam, paprika, dan lada. Kocok sampai kental sekitar 2-5 menit. 4) Tambahkan minyak secara perlahan pada saat pertama, kemudian tambahkan dengan kecepatan 1 gal/menit sampai dengan 9 gal yang telah ditambahkan

27 Cara membuat mayonnaise: 5) Lakukan pengocokan dengan kecepatan rendah, sambil menambahkan 1 bagian cuka dan 1 bagian air sampai habis, kemudian kocok dengan kecepatan tinggi. 6) Tambahkan sisa minyak yang ada secara bertahap. 7) Ubah kecepatan pengocokan menjadi rendah, dan tambahkan sisa cuka dan air tadi. 8) Matikan pengocok

28  Fasa pendispersi : minyak  Fasa terdispersi : air dan bahan lainnya yang jumlahnya sedikit  Emulsifier : kuning telur  Penstabil emulsi : telur  Tipe emulsi : air di dalam minyak (w/o)  Mayonnaise yang komersial umumnya mengandung 77 – 82 % minyak salad yang telah diwinterisasi, 5.3–5.8 % kuning telur cair, asam asetat 10%, sedikit garam, gula, bumbu-bumbu dan ditambah air sampai volumenya 100%

29 Faktor internal penyebab kerusakan emulsi mayonnaise:  Penambahan garam yang terlalu banyak  Penambahan minyak yang dilakukan tidak bertahap  Penambahan minyak yang terlalu banyak Faktor eksternal penyebab kerusakan emulsi mayonnaise:  Goncangan pada saat pengangkutan  Suhu yang terlalu dingin atau terlalu panas  Pengocokan dan penguapan pada permukaan akibat pengemasan yang kurang baik

30 D. ICE CREAM  The term ‘ice cream’ is often taken to mean a family of whipped dairy products that are manufactured by freezing and are consumed in the frozen state, including ice cream that consists of either dairy or non-dairy fats; premium, higher fat versions; “light” lower fat versions; ice milk; sherbet; frozen yogurt; etc.

31 Formulations ComponentRange (%) Milkfat Milk solids-not-fat Sucrose Glucose syrup solids Stabilizers/emulsifiers Total solids Water 10 – 16 9 – 12 4 – 6 0 – – – 64 Table 1. A Typical Compositional Range for the Components Used in Ice cream Mix formulations

32 ComponentIngredients Milkfat Milk solids-not-fat Water Sweetener Stabilizers/emulsifiers Cream (msnf, water) Butter (msnf, water) Skim milk powder (water) Condensed skim milk (water) Condensed milk (water, fat) Sweetened condensed skim milk (water, sugar) Sweetened condensed milk (water, sugar, fat) Whey powder (water) Skim milk (msnf) Milk (fat, msnf) Water Sucrose Glucose syrup solids Liquid sugars (water) Table 2. Components of an Ice Cream Mix and the Ingredients That Supply Them msnf = milk solids-not-fat

33 INGREDIENTS  Fat Increases the richness of flavor in ice cream Produces a characteristic smooth texture by lubricating the palate Helps to give body Aids in producing desirable melting properties Fat content of dairy fat, non-dairy, and fat substitutes

34  Nonfat milk ingredients Improve the texture of ice cream Aid in giving body and chew resistance to the finished product A cheap source of total solids The msnf contain the lactose, caseins, whey proteins, minerals, vitamins, acids, enzymes, and gases of the milk or milk products from which they were derived

35  Sweeteners Sweet ice cream is usually desired by the consumer. As a result sweetening agents are added to ice cream mix at a rate of usually 12-17% by weight. Sweeteners improve the texture and palatability of the ice cream, enhance flavors, and are usually the cheapest source of total solids

36  Stabilizers The primary purposes for using stabilizers in ice cream are:  Produce smoothness in body and texture  Retard or reduce ice and lactose crystal groeth during storage  Provide uniformity to the product and resistance to melting  Increase mix viscosity  Stabilize the mix to prevent separation of a clear serum on meltdown, known as wheying  Aid in suspension of flavoring particles  Produce a stable foam

37  Emulsifiers Emulsifiers have been used in ice cream mix manufacture for many years. They are sometimes integrated with the stabilizers in proprietary blends, but their function and action are very different from those of the stabilizers. They are used for improvement of the whipping quality of the mix, smoother body and texture in the finished product, superior drawing qualities at the freezer to produce a product with good stand-up properties, and etc.

38 PROCESSING Ice cream processing operations can be divided into two distinc stages: a. Mix manufactured b. Freezing operations

39 Ice cream mix manufacture consists of the following unit operations:  Combination and blending of ingredients  Batch or continuous pasteurization  Homogenization  Mix aging

40 Ice cream freezing also consists of two distinct stages:  Passing mix through a sweptsurface heat exchanger under high shear conditions to promote extensive ice crystal nucleation and air incorporation  Freezing the packaged ice cream under conditions that promote rapid freezing and small ice cystals

41 TERIMA KASIH


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