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Cleostudies.lecture.ub.ac.id Psikoterapi: Karakteristik psikoterapi.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Cleostudies.lecture.ub.ac.id Psikoterapi: Karakteristik psikoterapi."— Transcript presentasi:

1 cleostudies.lecture.ub.ac.id Psikoterapi: Karakteristik psikoterapi

2 Traditional view of helping professions – So yesterday? Educational Supportive Situational & developmental Problem solving Conscious awareness Focus on present Emphasis on “normals” Reconstructive Depth emphasis Analytic Focus on past Emphasis on “dysfunction”

3 Traditional characteristics of psychotherapy – So yesterday? 1.Terkait dengan gangguan mental yang serius. 2.Peran terapis adalah sebagai ahli, bukan sharing partner. 3.Menekankan pada insight. 4.Perubahan yang bersifat rekonstruktif. 5.Relasi jangka panjang (20-40 sesi).

4 When should you consider psychotherapy? Anda merasa tidak berdaya dan sedih yang berkepanjangan. Problem Anda berlanjut meski Anda sudah berupaya dan sudah dibantu oleh teman dan keluarga. Anda sulit konsentrasi dengan pekerjaan dan aktivitas sehari-hari. Anda kerja berlebihan, namun berharap hasil yang terburuk. Perilaku Anda mengganggu diri sendiri dan orang lain.

5 What is psychotherapy? “A treatment that involves a relationship between a therapist and patient. It can be used to treat a broad variety of mental disorders and emotional difficulties. The goal of psychotherapy is to eliminate or control disabling or troubling symptoms so the patient can function better.” American Psychiatric Association. (n.d.). Psychotherapy (Let's Talk Facts Brochures). Retrieved from ry/Mental%20IIlness/Lets%20Talk%20F acts/APA_Psycotherapy.pdf “Any of a group of therapies, used to treat psychological disorders, that focus on changing faulty behaviors, thoughts, perceptions, and emotions that may be associated with specific disorders.” American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Glossary of psychological terms. Retrieved from ry.aspx

6 What is psychological disorders/mental illness?

7 7 challenges of psychotherapy 1.Butuh waktu untuk mencari terapis yang tepat. 2.Terapi adalah kombinasi relasi yang tidak natural (sangat personal + setting profesional). 3.Therapists leave and therapy ends. 4.Terapi hanya berlangsung 50 menit/pertemuan. 5.Kadang relasi dengan terapis sama efektifnya dengan relasi pertemanan. 6.Efek samping dari terapi sulit diprediksi. 7.Therapists can be just as crazy as any of their clients. psychotherapy/

8 What should we expect from psychotherapy? from-psychotherapy.pdf

9 Dodo bird verdict Modalitas terapi (perilaku, kognitif, psikodinamika) tidak relevan, yang penting adalah faktor terapis (kehangatan, genuineness), faktor klien (insight, reaksi terhadap stres), dan interaksi keduanya. Rosenzweig, S. (1936). Some implicit common factors in diverse methods of psychotherapy. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 6(3), 412–15. Wampold, B.E., Mondin, G.W., Moody, M., Stich, F., Benson, K., & Ahn, H. (1997). A meta-analysis of outcome studies comparing bona fide psychotherapies: Empirically, ‘‘All have won and all must have prizes. Psychological Bulletin, 122, 203–215.

10 https://thepsychologist.bps.org.uk/volume-21/edition-1/when-therapy-causes-harm therapy-harmful-study-reveals 35% - 40% klien tidak memeroleh manfaat apapun dari psikoterapi. 5% - 10% klien mengalami kondisi yang lebih parah akibat psikoterapi. 28% psikolog tidak menyadari dampak negatif yang muncul akibat psikoterapi. Potentially harmful therapies (PHTs) / Iatrogenic treatment

11 Kriteria potentially harmful therapies (PHTs) 1.Mengakibatkan dampak psikologis atau fisik yang mengganggu klien atau orang lain. 2.Dampak tersebut berkelanjutan, bukan hanya akibat simtom jangka pendek yang muncul selama terapi. 3.Dampak tersebut telah direplikasi oleh tim peneliti yang independen. Making things worse through treatment: Iatrogenic psychological interventions. making-things-worse-through-treatment-iatrogenic-psychological- interventions.html

12 Psychological treatments that cause harm. A list of harmful therapies.

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14 Psychological assessments that cause harm

15 Psychiatry and psychotherapy: A troubled relationship Psychologist or psychiatrist?

16 Why choose a psychologist for psychotherapy? “Psychologists who specialize in psychotherapy and other forms of psychological treatment are highly trained professionals with expertise in mental health assessment, diagnosis and treatment, and behavior change. After graduating from a four-year undergraduate college or university, psychologists spend an average of seven years in graduate education and training to earn a doctoral degree. That degree may be a PhD, PsyD or EdD. As part of their professional training, psychologists must complete a supervised clinical internship in a hospital or organized health setting. In most states, they must also have an additional year of post-doctoral supervised experience before they can practice independently in any health care arena. It is this combination of doctoral-level training and clinical internship that distinguishes psychologists from many other mental health care providers.”

17 Choosing a psychotherapist “Psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, and some others may have specialized training in psychotherapy. However, only psychiatrists are also trained in medicine and are able to prescribe medications. Psychiatrists are medical doctors who are specially trained to treat individuals for a broad range of emotional and behavioral problems. They are uniquely qualified to diagnose and treat emotional difficulties because they understand the mind, brain and body and their interactions. They are trained to use psychotherapy, medications, and the two in combination.” American Psychiatric Association. (n.d.). Psychotherapy (Let's Talk Facts Brochures). Retrieved from s/APA_Psycotherapy.pdf

18 Cuijpers, P., Reynolds, C. F., Donker, T., Li, J., Andersson, G., & Beekman, A. (2012). Personalized treatment of adult depression: Medication, psychotherapy or both? A systematic review. Depression and Anxiety, 29, doi: /da Medication, psychotherapy, or combined treatments?

19 Pre-requisites of an efficient integration of psychiatry and psychotherapy in practice Common theoretical grounds on the definition of mental illness, classification of mental illnesses and general etiological model of psychological disorders/mental illness. Common understanding about the role of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy in the treatment of mental illness. Sustained communication and collaboration at the level of the therapeutically team, based on a clear definition of roles, responsibility and collaboration protocols. Psychiatry and psychotherapy: A troubled relationship


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