5Evaluasi atas Implikasi Finansial Para Manajer harus mengevalauasi implikasi finansial atas keputusan yang memerlukan trade-offs antara biaya dengan manfaat atas alternatif yang berbedaContoh implikasi finansial yang penting untuk dipertimbangkan :Desain ulang seluruh proses produksiInformasi finansial berkenaan dengan berbagai tipe biaya menjadi dasar keputusan atas aktivitas organisasi dan proses
6Relevant Cost dan Pendapatan Apakah Biaya dan pendapatan adalah relevant bagi pengambilan keputusan sangat terbantung pada konteks keputusan dan alternatif yang tersediaDalam pemilihan alternatif konsentrasi hendaknya pada biaya dan pendapatan yang berbeda di setiap alternatifHarus merupakan biaya dan pendapatan yang relevantOpportunity costs sesuai definisinya merupakan relevant costBiaya yang tidak berubah apapun keputusan yang diambil tidak relevant bagi pengambilan keputusan
7The Tactical Decision-Making Process Tactical decision making terdiri atas pemilihan alternatif dengan suatu pandangan terbatas .
8The Tactical Decision-Making Process 1. Kenali dan definisikan masalah .2. Identifikasi alternatif sebagai solusi yang memungkinkan atas masalah, dan eliminasi alternatif yang tidak feasible.3. Identify the predicted costs and benefits associated with each feasible alternative. Eliminate the costs and benefits that are not relevant to the decision.Continued
9The Tactical Decision-Making Process 4. Compare the relevant costs and benefits for each alternative, and then relate each alternative to the overall strategic goals of the firm and other important qualitative factors.5. Select the alternative with the greatest benefit which also supports the organization’s strategic objectives.
10The Tactical Decision-Making Process—Example Step 1: Define the ProblemEach year 25 percent of the harvest by an apple processor is small and odd-shaped. These apples cannot be sold in the normal distribution channels and have simply been dumped in the orchards for fertilizer. What should the firm do with these apples?
11The Tactical Decision-Making Process—Example Step 2: Identify Feasible Alternatives1. Sell the applies to pig farmers.2. Bag the applies in five-pound bags and sell them to local supermarkets as seconds.3. Rent a local canning facility and convert the apples to applesauce.4. Rent a local canning facility and convert the applies to pie filling.5. Continue with the current dumping practice.
12The Tactical Decision-Making Process—Example Step 3: Predicting Costs and Benefits and Eliminating Irrelevant CostsLabor and materials (bags and ties) for the bagging option would cost $0.05 per pound. A five-pound bag of apple could be sold for $1.30 to local supermarkets.Making applesauce would cost $0.40 per pound for rent, labor, apples, cans, and other materials. It takes six pounds of apples to produce five, 16-ounce cans of applesauce. Each can sells for $0.78.
13The Tactical Decision-Making Process—Example Step 4: Comparing Relevant Costs and Relating to Strategic Goals.The bagging alternative costs $0.25 to produce a five-pound bag ($0.05 x 5 pounds). The revenue is $1.30 per bag, or $0.26 per pound. The net benefit is $0.21 per pound ($0.26 – $0.05).The net benefit of converting the apples into applesauce is $0.25 per pound ($0.65 – $0.40).
14The Tactical Decision-Making Process—Example Step 5: Select Best Alternative.Since the apple producer is reluctant to follow a forward integration strategy, the bagging alternative should be chosen.
15The Tactical Decision-Making Process—Review Step 1Define ProblemWhat to do with small, ill-shaped apples.Step 2Identify Alternatives1. Sell to pig farmers.2. Sell bagged apples (feasible).3. Make applesauce (feasible).4. Make pie filling.5. Continue dumping.Continued
16Predict Costs Compare Costs Bagged alternative: Step 3 a. Revenue $1.30 per bag ($0.26 per pound)b. Cost $0.05 per poundApplesauce alternative:a. Revenue: $0.78 per can ($0.65 per pound)b. Cost: $0.40 per poundStep 4Compare CostsBagged ApplesauceRevenue $0.26 $0.65CostNet benefit $0.21 $0.25Bagged: DifferentiationApplesauce: Forward integrationContinued
17Step 5Select AlternativesSelect bagging alternative because it is profitable and is more consistent with strategic positioning desired by producer.
18Relevant Costs Defined Relevant costs are future costs that differ across alternatives. A cost must not only be a future cost but must also differ between alternatives.
19Irrelevant Cost Illustrated Sunk costs are past costs.Example: The original cost of a building is a sunk cost when you are trying to decide whether or not to sell the business five years later.
20Flexible ResourcesFlexible resources can be easily purchased in the amount needed and at the time of use… like electricity.
21Flexible Resources Flexible Resources a. Demand Changes Relevant b. Demand Constant Not Relevant
22Committed ResourcesCommitted resources are purchased before they are used, such as salaried employees.
24Committed Resources—Example A company has five manufacturing engineers who supply a capacity of 10,000 engineering hours (2,000 hours each). The cost of this activity capacity is $250,000, or $25 per hour. The firm expects to use 9,000 hours. If the firm decides to reject a special order requiring 500 hours, the cost of engineering would be irrelevant.
25Committed Resources—Example The firm can purchase a component that will drop the demand from engineering hours from 9,000 to 7,000. Since engineering activity capacity is acquired in chunks of 2,000, the company can lay off one engineer or reassign the engineer to another plant.