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Lingkungan Sosial dan Budaya Dr. Vanessa Gaffar, SE.Ak, MBA Dewi Pancawati N,MM.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Lingkungan Sosial dan Budaya Dr. Vanessa Gaffar, SE.Ak, MBA Dewi Pancawati N,MM."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Lingkungan Sosial dan Budaya Dr. Vanessa Gaffar, SE.Ak, MBA Dewi Pancawati N,MM

2 What is Culture? Lack of clear definitions ! Definition 1: a system of values and norms that are shared among a group of people (Hill, 2000: 79) Definition 2: collective programming of mind (Hofstede, 1984: 21) Values and norms at what level? National, regional, ethnic, and organizational culture Determinants of culture: Religion, education, language, and philosophy (political, social, & economic)

3 What is Culture? Antropologis dan Sosiologis “ways of living”, yg dibangun oleh sekelompok manusia dan dialihkan dari satu generasi ke generasi berikutnya, termasuk di dalamnya nilai, gagasan, perilaku, dan simbol yang membentuk manusia baik disadari maupun tidak disadari Geert Hoftsede Pemograman pikiran secara kolektif yang membedakan suatu kelompok dengan kelompok lainnya

4 What is Culture? A system of values and norms shared among a group of people and, when taken together, constitute a design for living A system of values and norms shared among a group of people and, when taken together, constitute a design for living

5 High and Low Context Cultures High ContextLow Context 1.Informasi kurang, berdasarkan latar belakang, asosiasi, nilai dasar. 1.Pesan tertuang,secara eksplisit banyak informasi 2.Berdasarkan kpd nilai, posisi, serta tempat seseorang berada 3.Pinjaman berdasarkan kelengakapan dokumen dan jumlah uang yg akan dipinjam 3.Pinjaman berdasarkan atas “who you are” 4.Perkataan seseorang sifatnya tidak mengikat 4.Perkataan seseorang sifatnya mengikat 5.Proses nego sebentar5.Proses nego yang lama

6 High and Low Context Cultures Faktor/DimensiHigh ContextLow Context LawyersKurang pentingSangat penting A person’s wordTidak bisa diharapkan, hrs ada hitam diatas putih Bersifat Mengikat Tanggungjawab thd kesalahan Berada dlm tahap yg tinggi Berada dlm tahap yg dibawah RuangOrang bebas bernafas Individualistik WaktuPolychronicMonochronic NegosiasiLama & PanjangCepat Tender bersaingJarangPada Umumnya Contoh NegaraJepang, Negara Timur Tengah AS, Eropa Timur

7 Determinants of Culture Culture: norms and value systems Education Economic Philosophy Political Philosophy Religion Language Social Structure

8 Social Structure Mobile Managers Hard to Build Teams Lack of Loyalty Entrepreneurship Individual Western Lack of Entrepreneur- ship Lifetime Employment Identity Group Eastern Non-mobile Managers Group two or more individuals with a shared sense of identity

9 Religion Shared beliefs and rituals concerned with the realm of the sacred Ethical Systems: – Moral principles or values used to guide and shape behavior Shapes attitudes toward work and entrepreneurship and can affect the cost of doing business

10 Language Allows people to communicate Structures the way the world is perceived Directs attention to certain features of the world rather than others Helps define culture Promotes separatist tendencies

11 Spoken Language Image:www.gettyimages.com 20% 6% 5% 4% 3% 62% Other Chinese English Hindi Russian Spanish

12 Non-spoken Language Nonverbal cues: – eyebrows – fingers/thumbs – hand gestures – feet – personal space – body gestures Image: Form a circle with fingers to indicate “O.K.” Brazil and Germany - gesture is obscene Japan - it means “money” France - “zero” or “worthless”

13 Dress as Non-spoken Language WASHINGTON, January 27, 2005 (Reuters) - VP Dick Cheney raised eyebrows while representing the United States at a solemn ceremony remembering the liberation of Auschwitz Between the somber, dark-coated leaders at the outdoor ceremony sat Cheney, resplendent in a olive-drab parka embroidered with his name and featuring a fur-trimmed hood, the laced brown hiking boots, and a knit ski cap reading "Staff 2001" Other leaders at the event marking the 60th anniversary of the death camp's liberation, such as French President Jacques Chirac and Russian President Vladimir Putin, wore dark, formal overcoats and dress shoes or boots "The vice president, however, was dressed in the kind of attire one typically wears to operate a snow blower… [he] looked like an awkward boy amid the well-dressed adults" The Washington Post

14 Non-spoken Language in Business Nonverbal cues: – closed doors – office size – conversational distance – gift giving: acceptable? gift or bribe?

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16 Education Formal education supplements family role in teaching values and norms Focus on facts of social and political nature of society Obligations of citizenship Cultural norms such as respect, obedience, honesty For int’l business, it is a determinant of national competitive advantage Medium to learn language, conceptual, and math skills Value of personal achievement and competition

17 Culture and the Workplace Four dimensions include: – Power distance – Individualism versus collectivism – Uncertainty avoidance – Masculinity versus femininity

18 Hofstede’s Dimensions (1 of 2) Power distance : – Sejauh mana anggota menerima Distribusi kekuasaan antara individu-individu – Large karyawan percaya supervisor benar bahkan ketika mereka salah karyawan tidak mengambil inisiatif Small Majemen participate style of management kemungkinan akan lebih produktif Individualism versus collectivism: – Collectivist cultures look after people in exchange for loyalty – Individualistic cultures - people look after themselves and their families

19 Hofstede’s Dimensions (2 of 2) Uncertainty avoidance: – Sejauh mana anggota masyarakat merasa terancam oleh ambiguitas dan enggan mengambil risiko – Resiko tinggi-menghindari budaya - karyawan cenderung untuk tinggal dengan perusahaan mereka untuk waktu yang lama – Resiko tinggi budaya - karyawan tahan terhadap perubahan organisasi – Rendah menghindari risiko budaya - sangat mobile Masculinity versus femininity: – Masculinity: penekanan pada ketegasan perolehan uang dan status pencapaian penghargaan organisasi terlihat dan simbolis Femininity: penekanan pada hubungan orang kepedulian terhadap orang lain keseluruhan kualitas hidup

20 Culture and Ethics Do the “right” thing Thomas Donaldson’s Three Principles: – Respect for core human values (human rights), which determine the absolute moral threshold for all business activities – Respect for local tradition – The belief that context matters when deciding what is right and what is wrong

21 Culture is Dynamic

22 Six Rules of Thumb for Doing Business Across Cultures Persiapan Ketenangan Percaya akan keberhasilan Memahami pentingnya bahasa Menghormati perbedaan budaya Image:

23 Business Culture An American businessman went to Taiwan to close a deal with the president of a large paper company. Since they were meeting for the first time, they started out with the normal pleasantries such as "How was your trip?" etc. It turned out the American happened to be from Columbus, Ohio, the home of Ohio State University. When the president of the Taiwanese company mentioned that his son was going to this school, the American business person said, "Yes, it's a very good school, let's talk business."


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