2Menurut Flippo kebutuhan manusia terdiri atas: Kebutuhan fisik atau kebutuhan primer; yakni kebutuhan pokok untuk mempertahankan hidup (makanan, minuman/air, udara, keamanan atau tempat berteduh). Kebutuhan sosial; yakni kebutuhan untuk berinteraksi dengan orang lain (cinta dan kasih sayang, diterima oleh orang lain, dihargai oleh orang lain). Kebutuhan pribadi/egoistik; yakni kebutuhan yang lebih bersifat pribadi (pengakuan, dominasi, kebebasan, keberhasilan).
3Dalam konteks organisasi, keinginan manusia (yang berhubungan dengan pekerjaan) biasanya berbentuk: - Pembayaran yang dapat memenuhi kebutuhan - Pekerjaan yang aman secara ekonomis - Rekan kerja yang kompak dan memiliki rasa kekeluargaan - Penghargaan atas hasil kerja - Pekerjaan yang bermakna - Kesempatan untuk mengembangkan diri - Kondisi kerja yang nyaman, aman dan menarik - Pemimpin yang kompeten, adil dan jujur - Perintah dan arahan yang jelas dan wajar - Tempat kerja yang dihargai masyarakat
4Motivasi adalah: Kekuatan yang mengendalikan dan menggerakkan seseorang untuk melakukan tindakan atau perilaku yang diarahkan pada tujuan tertentu (Morgan, et al., 1986). Kekuatan yang menggerakkan perilaku, memberi arah pada perilaku, dan mendasari kecenderungan untuk tetap menunjukkan perilaku tersebut (Bartol & Martin, 1991).
5Faktor-faktor yang menyebabkan, mengarahkan, dan mempertahankan perilaku seseorang (Stoner, et al., 1995). Kemauan untuk mengerahkan upaya yang besar ke arah pencapaian tujuan organisasi, yang dikondisikan oleh kemampuan upaya itu untuk memuaskan sejumlah kebutuhan individu (Robbins, 2001).
6Proses Motivasi Kebutuhan tak terpuaskan Tensi Hasrat Perilaku utk memuaskanMotivation is the willingness to do something and is conditioned by the ability of the action to satisfy some need for the individual. A need is a physiological or psychological deficiency that makes certain outcomes appear attractive.In the motivation process, an unsatisfied need creates tension, which stimulates drive within the individual. These drives generate a search for goals that if attained will satisfy the need and reduce tension. The greater the tension, the more activity will be needed to bring about relief. Therefore, when we see someone working hard at some activity, we can conclude that they are driven by a desire to achieve a goal they value.KebutuhanterpuaskanTensiberkurang
7Hirarki Kebutuhan Maslow Self – ActualizationNeedsEsteemNeedsBelongingness NeedsAccording to Abraham Maslow, within every human being, the following hierarchy of needs exists. The first three are deficiency needs because they must be satisfied if the individual is to be healthy and secure. The last two are growth needs because they are related to the development and achievement of one’s potential. As each of these needs becomes substantially satisfied, the next higher need becomes dominant.1. Physiological needs. Hunger, thirst, shelter, sex, and other survival needs.2. Safety needs. Security, stability, and protection from physical or emotional harm.3. Belongingness needs. Social interaction, affection, companionship, and friendship.4. Esteem needs. Self-respect, autonomy, achievement, status, recognition, and attention.5. Self-actualization needs. Growth, self-fulfillment, and achieving one’s potential.Safety NeedsPhysiological Needs
10Pekerja Teori X Pekerja Teori Y Tak berambisiPekerjaTeori XTak suka bekerjaMenghindaritanggung jawabMandiriPekerjaTeori YSenang bekerjaDouglas McGregor said that managers hold one of two sets of assumptions about human nature: either Theory X or Theory Y. Seeing people as irresponsible and lazy, managers who follow Theory X assume the following:1. Employees inherently dislike work and, when they can, will try to avoid it.2. Since employees dislike work, they must be coerced, controlled, or threatened to achieve goals.3. Employees avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction, if possible.4. Most workers place security above all other work-related factors and will display little ambition.Seeing people as responsible and conscientious, managers who follow Theory Y assume the following:1. Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play.2. When committed to their objectives, people will exercise self-direction and self-control3. The average person can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility.4. Many workers besides managers have innovative decision-making skills.Unfortunately, no hard evidence confirms that either set of assumptions is universally true. It is more likely that the assumptions of Theory X or Theory Y may be situationally appropriate.Menerimatanggung jawab
12Teori Dua Faktor Herzberg HYGIENE FACTORSGajiKondisi kerjaAtasanKebijakan perusahaanBenefitMOTIVATORPrestasiTanggung jawabPekerjaanPengakuanPertumbahan &KemajuanHygiene factors help to prevent dissatisfactionMotivators help to promote satisfactionKepuasantinggiKetidakpuasantinggiNeutral point at whichthere is no dissatisfaction,but no satisfaction
13Need for Achievement (nAch) Need for Power (nPow) Need for Affiliation TeoriMotivasiBerprestasiDavidMcClellandNeed forPower(nPow)David McClelland proposed that three learned needs motivate behavior. The need for achievement (nAch) is the need to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to succeed. The need for power (nPow) is the need to make others behave in ways in which they would not have behaved otherwise. The need for affiliation (nAff) is the desire for interpersonal relationships. He believed that these needs are acquired from the culture of a society.Need forAffiliation(nAff)
14Teori Goal-Setting Tujuan spesifik Tujuan menantang Tujuan dan PartisipasiGoal setting theory asserts that intentions expressed as goals can be a major source of work motivation.Specific, hard-to-achieve goals produce a higher level of output than a broadly stated goal of “do your best.” The specificity of the goal itself is an internal stimulus. If factors such as ability and acceptance of goals are held constant, we can state that the more difficult the goals, the higher the performance level. While easier goals are more readily accepted, once a worker accepts a hard task, he or she will persist until the goal is achieved, lowered, or abandoned.The evidence is mixed over the superiority of participation over assigned goals. A significant advantage of participation may be increased acceptance of the goal itself. Those who participate in goal setting are likely to accept and be committed to a course of action that they helped to determine. If acceptance of a goal is a given, the participation may not be relevant. But if acceptance of a goal is not a given, participation does increase the probability that difficult goals will be accepted and pursued.
15Teori Reinforcement IMBALAN TAK ADA IMBALAN PERILAKU HUKUMAN KONSEKUENSIPERILAKUTAK ADA IMBALANRather than taking a cognitive approach (as goal-setting theory), reinforcement theory is a behavioral approach which assumes that reinforcement conditions behavior and that behavior is environmentally caused.Reinforcement theory does not concern itself with what initiates behavior, so it is not a “true” theory of motivation. (See Chapter 12 for a discussion of how using reinforcers to condition behavior gives us considerable insight into how people learn.) Reinforcement theory ignores feelings, expectations, and attitudes, all cognitive variables that are known to influence behavior. But it also has a wide following as a motivational device.HUKUMAN
16KOMPONEN POKOK TEORI EXPECTANCY K H ExpectancyWhat is the proba-bility that my good performance will lead to desiredoutcomes?U K ExpectancyWhat is the probability that I can perform at the required level if I try?ValenceWhat value do I place on the potential outcomes?HASIL(mis., bonus, pujian, rasa puas)USAHAKINERJA
17Langkah2 Peningkatan Motivasi dgn Menggunakan Expectancy Theory