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1 Riau, Januari 2005 Riau, Januari 2005 Dr.Udisubakti Ciptomulyono.M.Eng.Sc TEKNIK INDUSTRI-ITS Program S2 MMT-ITS INTRODUCTION TO TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT.

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Presentasi berjudul: "1 Riau, Januari 2005 Riau, Januari 2005 Dr.Udisubakti Ciptomulyono.M.Eng.Sc TEKNIK INDUSTRI-ITS Program S2 MMT-ITS INTRODUCTION TO TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT."— Transcript presentasi:

1 1 Riau, Januari 2005 Riau, Januari 2005 Dr.Udisubakti Ciptomulyono.M.Eng.Sc TEKNIK INDUSTRI-ITS Program S2 MMT-ITS INTRODUCTION TO TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT

2 DEFINISI TEKNOLOGI Technology will mean the tools, techniques, and procedues used to accomplish some desire human purpose Technology provides the technical knowledge for goods and services that a firms produces TEKNOLOGI Hardware Software

3 DEFINISI TEKNOLOGI Webster’s International Dictionaries The Science of the application of knowledge to practical purposes The totality of the means employed by people to provide itself with the objects of material culture The oxford English Dictionary The scientific study of the practical and industrial arts Raindo House Dictionary of the English Language The branch of the knowledge that deals with industrial arts, applied science, engineering, etc The sum of the ways in which a social group provide themselves with material objects of their civilization

4 4 Khalil Tarek Technology is the way we do thing Technology is the practical implementation of knowledge 4 Pilar utama (komponen) teknologi Hardware : The physical structure and logical layout of the equipment or machinery that is to be used to carry out the required task Software : The knowledge of how to use the hard ware in order to carry out the required task Brainware : The reason for using the technology in a particular way (Know-Why) Know-how : The learned or acquired knowledge of or technical skill regarding how to do things well

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15 15 Technology is : Tools Product Processes Methods Knowledge yang dipergunakan untuk menciptakan produk atau jasa

16 16 Knowledge VS Technology Information fenomena alam Information Temuan Buatan Information Knowledge is all that has been perceived or grasped by the mind from the range of information available Technology KesejahteraanKehancuran

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19 19 Klasifikasi Teknologi New Technology : teknologi baru yang diintroduksi dan diimplementasikan pada perusahaan Emerging Technology : teknologi yang belum dikomersialisasikan High Technology : teknologi canggih/sophisticated Low Techology : teknologi yang umumj dipakai masyarakat Medium Technology : teknologi antara high dan low technology Apropriate Technology : teknologi tepat guna (teknologi dan sumberdaya yang digunakan secara optimal Codified Technology : teknologi yang dapat dikodifikasi Tacit Technology : non articulated knowledge

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21 21 Management Science Approach Analisis Sistem Implentasi Analisis Model Formulasi Problem Pengembangan Model

22 22 Management Science dan Integrated Approach Proses optimasi dan pendekatan sistematik terintegrasi dalam menyelesaikan permasalahan Keterbatasan sumber daya (limited resources) Penggunaan Model Matematika dan Statistik untuk penyelesaian problem dalam memperoleh solusi keputusan Alat bantu pengambilan keputusan

23 23 BERBAGAI DEFINISI MOT:  Bidang kajian interdisipliner yang mengintegrasikan Iptek dan pengetahuan/ teori manajemen dan prakteknya untuk menciptakan kesejahteraan (wealth creation)  Pendekatan interdisipliner yang berkaitan dengan perencanaan, pengembangan dan implementasi kemampuan teknologi untuk mencapai objektif operasiona/strategis organisasi (level--mikro)  Bidang pengetahuan yang berkaitan dengan penetapan dan implementasi kebijakan pengembangan teknologi dan penggunaannya, dampak teknologi terhadap masyarakat, organisasi, individu dan alam dengan tujuan untuk mensimulasikan inovasi, penciptaan pertumbuhan ekonomi dan menjaga teknologi untuk kesejahteraan umat manusia (level-makro)

24 24 Manfaat MOT : Bagaimana teknologi diciptakan Bagaimana eksploitasinya untuk menciptakan bisnis Bagaimana integrasinya strategi tek vs bisnis Bagaimana penggunaannya : kompetivitas advantage Bagaimana bisa menciptakan fleksibilitas sistem/manft. Bagaimana menstrukturkan organisasinya Kapan dan bilamana menerapakan/memutuskannya

25 25 Pentingnya MOT bagi industri Perkembangan yang terjadi : * Era Globalisasi * Era Persaingan Bebas * Era Industrialisasi Apa sikap Manajemen ?

26 26 Penciptaan dan pengu- saan teknologi Teknologi Konversi Produksi Kebutuhan Pasar Pelanggan Kebutuhan Sosial Standar hidup, isu sosial lingkungan FOKUS PENGEMBANGAN TEKNOLOGI MESIN PERTUMBUHAN EKONOMI

27 27 MENGAPA MOT DIPERLUKAN SEKARANG Dunia Pasca PD II * Negara maju mendominasi teknologi dan ekonomi *Teknologi mengalami perubahan yang stabil: “as business as usual* business as usual* *Teori Manajemen dan praktis didisain dalam lingkungan yang stabil lingkungan yang stabil * Persaingan global tidak terlalu significant

28 28 MENGAPA MOT DIPERLUKAN SEKARANG Dunia Saat ini (Abad XXI) Dunia Saat ini (Abad XXI)  Percepatan perubahan teknologi :variasi dan skope-nya  Persaingan global sebagai suatu yang baru, persaingan antar bangsa  Lahirnya tata dunia baru (new word order)  Perubahan kompetisi antar negara: masuknya negar baru  Pembentukan blok perdagangan baru: EU, AFTA, NAFTA pengaruh GATT

29 29 NEW PARADIGM Economical ChangeTechnological Progress * Competitively * Global market * Computer/Information * Automation Industrial System * Diversification * Customer satisfaction Reactivity Adaptability Flexibility Teknologi

30 Technological Development

31 31 Karekteristik Skala (volume) Scope (Variasi) Integrasi Proses Proses Continues Flow, mesin-2 yang spesifik Batch (jumbled), mesin general purpose Continus flow, software spesifik,CIM Product Barang/komiditas Standart Customized dan multi product Costumized Commidity FacilityTersentralisasiDesentralisasi Setengah desentralisasi Tingkat otomisasi Besar (in size) dan rendah (sulit diotomisasi) Kecil (in size) dan tingkat otomisasi tinggi Medium (In sized) dan tinggi (flexible otomisasi) Total flexibility RendahTinggiTertinggi Unit cost relatif: Fixed/Variable Fixed/Variable Unit Cost Rendah/Tinggi Unit Cost: Tinggi/Rendah Tertinggi dan Terendah Kurva belajar Not too flat (datar) Flat (sangat datar) Sangat datar dan rendah Organisasi Orientasi Proses Orientasi product Product Pemasaran Beaya rendah, ketergantungan tinggi Flexibility, inovasi product Beaya rendah, flexibilitas dan dependebale inovation SKALA EKONOMIS, SCOPE DAN INTEGRASI

32 32 Abad-Abad Perubahan (Kresnayana Yahya, 2000) Agricultural AgeIndustrial AgeInformation Age Wealth Definition People work as People work in Production system Scarcity of resources Abundance of information food food & things knowledge slaves/serfsemployees partners hierarchies organization bureaucracies organization teamnets/networks organization one-piece customization mass-production mfg system mass-customization mfg-system

33 Shift of economic growth centers in the 21 st Century The challenge for Asian countries

34 34 Technology dan Pertumbuhan Yang Berkelanjutan Competitive Entreprise Sustainable Economic Growth Economic System Kapabilitas Tehnologi Trade

35 35 Peran management Labor Technology Capital Market Public Policy

36 36 The Role of Technology in Creation of Wealth

37 37 Finished Goods Products Waste, Defects, etc Proses Produksi Industri Value Added (Functional & Economical). Material. Human. Machines/ Equipment. Information. Energy Transformation Process ( Fisik & Non-Fisik):Teknologi,Management

38 38 BijihtembagaCopper cathode Cooper tubedan pipe Copper sheetdan Strip Cooper Bardan Section Cupper Rod IndustriElektronik IndustriElektromotor TelephoneIndustri Transformator IndustriAutomobil HouseApplaines Accessories Manufacturer IndustriHouse Appliance IndustriAutomobil FAMILY TREE PRODUK TEMBAGA Kebutuhan; 1989: ton/th (produksilebihkecil,dari ton/tahun)

39 39 Kelapa Sawit Minyakkulitsawit Sabun Galvanisir Minyakgoreng Margarin Soap stock Gliserol Asamlemak Kosmetik Parmasi Minyakintisawit Bungkil Arangtempurung Makananternak Arangaktif Asapcair Industrikaret Industrimakanan PENGOLAH KELAPA SAWIT DI DALAM NEGERI BAHAN PEMBANTUPENGEMASIKLANLAIN- ekspor PERKEBUNAN

40 40 Baja Tuang TORFINGS BIJIH BESI/PASIR BESI PALETBESI PEG BESI SPON INGOTFOUNDRY Besi Tuang White Cast Iron Naileable Cast Iron Ductile Cast Iron Alloy Cast Iron Gray Cast Iron BILLETSSLABSBACONS SKALFPIPE & TUBE RODBARSFLAKESHEET & COILS STRUTUFALRALIS Galvanited Sheet Tin FlakePin, Nults, Bolts SpringsWire Wire NetBarbedWire NeshStranded Wire Wire Rope FAMILY TREE INDUSTRI BESI

41 41 Bijih tembagaCopper cathode Cooper tube dan pipe Copper sheet dan Strip Cooper Bar dan Section Cupper Rod Industri Elektronik Industri Elektromotor Telephone Industri Industri Transformator Industri Automobil House Applaines Accessories Manufacturer Industri House Appliance Industri Automobil FAMILY TREE PRODUK TEMBAGA (produksi lebih kecil, dari ton/tahun)

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43 43 EVOLUTION BY AGE OF TECHNOLOGY Biotech. Age Biotech. Age Informatio n Age Informatio n Age Space Age Space Age Electronic Age Electronic Age Nuclear Age Nuclear Age Electricity Age Electricity Age Steam Age Steam Age Iron Age Iron Age Bronze Age Bronze Age Stone Age Stone Age

44 44 Inovasi Teknologi Yang Penting

45 45 Evolusi Teknologi Produksi

46 46 Technology And National Economy Wealth is created on the basis of technology, production and smart works One can not to continue to improve economic condition on the basis of paper transaction on money exchanges in bank, savings and loan association or board room

47 47 Share Product Hightech

48 48CountryGDP,1994($,billion) GDP Growth Rate (%) GDP-1998 ($, billion) Real GDP Growth 1998(%) United State 6, , Japan4, , Germany2, , France1, , U.K1, , China Korea Australia India Taiwan Indonesia Thailand Malaysia Hungary

49 49 The Critical Factors in Managing Technology

50 50 Faktor Kreatifitas Teknologi adalah sarana kreativitas manusia Mengelola teknologi perlu penciptaan, pengembangan dan pemasaran yang continus Pengelolaan teknologi perlu investasi, R&D yang ber resiko Penciptaan teknologi memerlukan “chain of event” dimulai dari invensi dan berakhir di pasar

51 51 Penemuan (invensi) Penciptaan konsep atau teknologi baru terjadi secara kebetulan atau dengan “trial error” untuk memenuhi suatu objektif Inovasi Penciptaan produks,jasa dan proses merupakan sesuatu yang baru bagi organisasi (tahap introduksi dalam pasar) Proses yang meliputi integrasi teknologi dengan penemuan untuk menciptakan produks, jasa sistem atau proses yang baru atau termodifikasi

52 52 Keterkaitan Antara Science dan Teknologi Science berkaitan dengan pemahaman hukum alam yang menjadi tumpuan pengetahuan dasar Science bersifat netral Sebelum abad XIX, science dan technology tumbuh secara terpisah, sekarang saling “interseksi” Science = scientific discovery, technology = inovasi teknologi Pasar terkadang mengabaikan/membeli inovasi

53 53 Inovasi Teknologi: The initiation of the technical idea, the acquisitionof the necessary knowledge, its transformation into usable hardware or procedure and its introduction into society and its diffusion and adoption to the point where its impact is significant Event Scientifique Jarang Proses Idea komersialisasi Orientasi ke pasar InventionInovasi

54 54 Invensi Inovasi Penemuan Iptek Mungkin tidak dikembangkan untuk dipasarkan Pasar Adaptasi Invensi Tidak Memiliki Nilai Komersiel Adopsi/Abaikan Inovasi Siklus Inovasi

55 55 Macam Inovasi Inovasi bisa mempengaruhi kepada produk, proses, jasa atau Sistemnya Untuk bisa diterima di pasar, inovasi harus memberi kontribusi pada penciptaan nilai (value creation) Inovasi Radical Inovation Terobosan baru yang berbasis invensi, menciptakan industri baru Incremental/Evolutionary Inovation Proses “continues improvement”, perbaikan sedikit untuk bisa mempertahankan keberadaanya Routine Inovation Introduksi sesuatu yahng baru bagi perusahaan tetapi hampir sama dengan apa yang dilakukan dimasa lalu.

56 56 Creativity dan Inovasi Innovation = creation of value Value = satisfaction of a customer need Creation = mesin inovasi, combining two or more ideas to arrive at an entirely new one Creativity = a sense of dissatisfaction with existing practise Contoh : Inovasi di Jepang Henri Ford (industri mobil) Lingkungan konduksif untuk kreatif : kebebasan bekerja, mendukung jejaring, memperbolehkan resiko, mentolereir kegagalan/cacat, pemberian penghargaan dan pengakuan.

57 57 Creative People dan Inovasi ( Barron, 1969) Conceptual fluency Kemampuan mengahasilkan banyak idea secara cepat Kemampuan menghasilkan ide yang orisinal dan tidak umum Kemampuan memisahkan antara sumber dan isi dalam mengevalusi informasi Kemampuan mempertahanlam idea dan membedakan dengan ide lain Ketertarikan pada problem dalam satu facet Ketekunan/kekerasan hati untuk selalu mengikuti problem yang dihadapi Mudah menunda judgment dan tidak gampang membuat komitment secara terburu-buru Kemauan untuk menganalisis, dan eksplorasi secara kuat dan konsistent Cara padang yang genius terhadap suatu permasalahan kognitif/intelektual

58 58 Technology Price Relationship Technology Gap Time or Diffusion PriceTech. Know ledge Gap Own knowledge Costumer Knowledge

59 59 Leader Vs Follower Leader Perusahaan yang menempati keunggulan pasar/inovasi Follower Perusahaan/organisasi yang ketinggalan dalam kapitalisasi teknologi dan menyadari dampak teknologi pada bisnis Laggard Perusahaan yang mampu merealisir potensialnya untuk mendapat kan profitnya, survive-nya tergantung pada adopsi teknologi baru

60 60 The Timing Factor Waktu yang tepat untuk menciptakan dan meng-introdusir Teknologi kedalam pasar Ketepatan waktu untuk meng-introdusir teknologi inovatif/baru yang memiliki kinerja yang lebih baik Perbaikan produck (continues Improvement) dan kapabilitas produksi teknologi menjadi penting penting mempertahankan keberadaan perusahaan “ Action must be taken at the right time if an enterprise is to succeed in a competitive market place”

61 61 The Vision to change Strategy Disaat teknologi baru mengancam yang lama, lebih baik mengambil resiko investasi tekmologi yang baru, tugas manajemen adalah menga lahkan pesaing dan memproteksi diri pada “core” business Manajemen harus selalu mengawasi munculnya “emerging” teknologi yang bisa menjadi pesaing/partner Perusahaan tidak perlu melakukan investasi technlogu baru/inovasi, tetapi perlu menjalankan dan merubah strategi untuk mengakuisisinya Bilamana teknologi dikembangkan di perusahaan lain atau tidak diproteksi sangat sulit mempertahankan posisi (Kasus Pengembangan PC di IBM)

62 62 Managing Change Di-era 1970-an (era produksi), manajemen hanya berkonsentrasi pada perbaikan produkstivitas melalui perbaikan efisiensi operasional yang memungkinkan menurunkan beaya dan menaikan keuntungan (Fokus mengelola sumber-2 daya yang ada) Pendekatan sekarang, lebih komprehensif, lingkungan berubah cepat mengelola lingkungan yang dinamis dan turbulent Ide-ide baru yang muncul Produks baru Pengendalian produksi Kompetitor yang tumbuh Kebutuhan costumer Solusi : manajemen menciptakan flexibilitas, responsiveness, costumer satisfaction/demand driver

63 63 Productivity,Efectiveness and Competitiveness Produktivitas : (to do thing rights) Ratio output dibagi input, ukuran yang baik dari efisiensi Level Perusahaan Level Nasional : GDP/Total populasi Produktivitas terkait dengan teknologi, kontribusi teknologi 80% pada output AS. Efektivitas : Kemampuan untuk mencapai goal yang diinginkan, suatu tingkat sampai sejauh mana organisasi mencapai objektifnya ( Doing the right thing) Competitiveness: Menunjukkan keunggulan posisi suatu perusahaan/negara dibandingkan kelompoknya yang lain

64 64 Kelebihan Versus Kelemahan LeadersKelebihanKelemahan Pengakuan “citra” :brand image Porsi beaya R&D yang dibelanjakan; Porsi beaya R&D yang dibelanjakan; pengujian, testingm prototyping pengujian, testingm prototyping Posisi pasar : market share lebih baik Leader harus selalu mempertahankan Leader harus selalu mempertahankan posisi leader : beaya updating posisi leader : beaya updating Kesempatan sebagai trend setter/penentu standart standart Beaya investasi awal untuk design, tooling Beaya investasi awal untuk design, tooling Perintis dalam “curve learning process” Ketidak pastian dengan introduksi teknologi baru teknologi baru Proteksi dengan menciptakan barier teknologi teknologi Leader akan selalu dijadikan sorotan dan Leader akan selalu dijadikan sorotan dan target bagi pesaingnya target bagi pesaingnya Profitabilitas yang tinggi, menciptakan “technology gap” “technology gap” Mempertahankan loyalitas pelanggan Dukungan dan sponsorship yang luas

65 65 Mempertahankan Posisi Leaders Poisisi Leader Investasi R & D untuk tetap mengembangkan teknologi baru Membangun sumber teknologi dan kompetensi baru yang unggul Menyebarkan teknologi sambil mencegah pesaingnya masuk dalam pasar Posisi Follower Memiliki kesempatan keunggulan seperti follower ( proses, disain, teknologi) Memantau produksi leader dan mengambil kelemahan yang ada di pesaingnya Memiliki biaya investasi R & D yang lebih murah untuk mendapatkan pengem bangan produks yang diperlukan Posisi Laggard Memiliki kesempatan terkecil dalam berkompetensi untuk memperebutkan kemampuan teknologi Melakukan aliansi strategis yang menaikkan posisi persaingan teknologinya yang lebih baik.

66 66 INNOVATOR IMITATOR- FOLLOWER win Lose Pilkinton (Float Glass) G.D Searle (NutraSweet) Du Pont (Teflon) IBM (PC) Matsushita Seiko (Q uart ) RC Cola (Diet Cola) Bowmar (Calculator) EMI (Scanner) Xerox (“Start”) Du Pont (Teflon) DeHavilland (Comet) Kodak (Instant photography) Northup (F20) DEC (PC))

67 67 Peran MOT Untuk Bisnis Penciptaan Nilai Nilai tambag berdasar tanggung jawab sosial (sustainable corporate) Kualitas Hygiene factor : untuk meningkatkan kompetivitas Responsibilitas Mengelola perubahan dan tanggap terhadap perubahan eksternal Agility Produksi yang fleksibel : variasi produks, komunikasi/prosedur Inovasi Peningkatan inovasi untuk bisa kompetitif Integrasi Integrasi asset teknologi untuk mendapatkan keunggulan kompetitif Pembentukan team Membentuk kemampuan bekerja dalam team work/interdisiplinier Keterbukaan Equity dalam distribusi kesejahteraan untuk mengurangi konflik

68 68 Definisi Inovasi ( Bordogna, 1997) : A concurrent, interactive, and nonlinear activity. It includes not only science, engineering, and technology, but social, political and economic interactions as weel and the public pulicy that either enables or mutes the whole wealth creation process

69 69 Definisi Inovasi ( Bordogna, 1997) : A concurrent, interactive, and nonlinear activity. It includes not only science, engineering, and technology, but social, political and economic interactions as weel and the public pulicy that either enables or mutes the whole wealth creation process

70 70 Technology Life Cycles

71 71 Technology performance parameter Time New invention Period Technology Improvement Period Mature Technology Period Embryonic GrowthMaturityAging Physical Limit

72 72 Physical Limit A Technology performance parameter Physical Limit B A A’ B

73 73 Technology Live Cycles and market Growth Market Volume Time A BCDEF A.Technology developmentD. Mature technology B.Application launchE. Technology Substitution C.Application growthF. Technology obsolescence

74 74 Product and market live cycle Market Volume Time A BCDEF A.Concept Design PrototypeD. Mature Stage B.Product launchE. Substitution Product C.Product growthF. Product obsolescence

75 75 Technology performance parameter Physical Limit Sub Technology Live Cycles 1 Sub Technology Live Cycles 2 Sub Technology Live Cycles 3 Technology Live Cycles Technology can be consisted of several sub technology (Personal Computer, Automobile)

76 76 Technological Discontinuity (turbulence) Product Innovation Process Innovation Dominant Design Aging Technology (discontinuity) Technology live cycle Progress of Technology in relation to product and Process innovation

77 77 Technology performance parameter Limit of performance of S1 S1 S2 S1>S2 Technology 1 Technology 2

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90 90 A Structural Aproach to Corporate Technology

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92 92 The need for structured thinking about technology  Conducting internal research and Development (R&D) activities  Directly investing in new equipment or people  Divesting or acquiring assets (company)  Licensing to or licensing from another company or organization  Actively patenting in a technical area to attack or defend for the future  Controlling R&D externally with other research organization or universities  Utilizing the results of public sector  Engaging in joint venture both for product of production process as well for the necessary R&D for entering a new area  Re-training and re-directing existing resources and capabilities

93 93 The “Assets” Process Asses Current Situation Specify Technology Strategy Select Technology portfolio Secure Long-Term Position Execute Technology Investment Transfer results for deployment Business environment Company Strength Market need Competitive Position External Environment Plan Project Results Concept trend Adjustments CriteriaApproach Organizational Systems Application Targets Returns & Impact Operational Assets

94 94 1. Asses Current Situation Internal Situation Company Goals Strategies Capabilities performance Internal Situation Company Goals Strategies Capabilities performance External Situation Business Environment Technical Environment External Situation Business Environment Technical Environment Future Business Environment Customer Suppliers Competitors Demand for product Future Business Environment Customer Suppliers Competitors Demand for product

95 95 2. Specify Technology Strategy Four main strategies  Customers  Competitive approach  Investment  Organizational culture Four main strategies  Customers  Competitive approach  Investment  Organizational culture  What technologies to develop or buy  Whether to seek technology leadership  How to protect property right  How to capture economic return  What technologies to develop or buy  Whether to seek technology leadership  How to protect property right  How to capture economic return ?

96 96 STRATEGI TEKNOLOGI ANTAR PESAING POSISI PESAINGAN Kuat Cukup Bertahan Industri di fase Awal pertumbuhan Industri di fase akhir pertumbuhan dan awal kematangan Kuat Cukup Bertahan Inovator POSISI TEKNOLOGI Follower Aquisisi InovatorAquisisi Follower Proteksi Joint Venture Rasio nalisasi Joint Venture Rasio nalisasi Rasio nalisasi Proteksi ? Liquidasi

97 97 PEMILIHAN STRATEGI -TEKNOLOGI-POTENSI-PASAR KarekteristikTipe Akivitas Uraian Rekomendasi 1. Potensi (kuat) + Posisi Pasar (kuat) + Keung- gulan Teknologi (kuat) Pertahankan posisinya di pasar Dukungan pengembangan Konsilidasi keungulan teknologi Stars Kematian Cash Cows Dilema (2 risk/ pasar dan teknologi) 2. Potensi (lemah) + Posisi Pasar (lemah) + Keung- gulan Teknologi (lemah) Tarik posisinya dari pasar, keuali ada return yang bisa menurunkan biaya dan tanpa investasi yang berlebihan 3. Potensi (lemah + Posisi Pasar (kuat) + Keung- gulan Teknologi (kuat) Tarik semaksimal mungkin likuiditas dengan investasi yang minimal Eksploitasi kompentensi teknologinya dan aplikasi/tranferst untuk potensi yang paling berkembang 4. Potensi (kuat) + Posisi Pasar (lemah) + Keung- gulan Teknologi (lemah ) Investasikan semaksimal mungkin untuk posisi yang terbaik (komersil dan reknologi) Tarik aktivitas jika ada potensi lain yang lebih baik (komersial/teknologinya)

98 98 PEMILIHAN STRATEGI -TEKNOLOGI-POTENSI-PASAR (lanjt;) KarekteristikTipe Akivitas Uraian Rekomendasi 5. Potensi (kuat) + Posisi Pasar (lemah) + Keung- gulan Teknologi (kuat) Kerjasama untuk mendaptakan profit dengan pertukaran teknologi yang dikuasai dan posisi pasar Jual kemampuan teknologinya Dilema partial (resiko komersial) Dilema partial (resiko teknologi) Cash Cows Kematian 6. Potensi (kuat) + Posisi Pasar (kuat) + Keung- gulan Teknologi ((lemah) Kuasai secapat mungki kompotensi teknologi (exteriur) : lisensi, brevet, akuisisi perusahaan untuk mzmperoleh keuunggulan komersial 7. Potensi (lemah + Posisi Pasar (kuat) + Keung- gulan Teknologi ((lemah) Turunkan investasi dan hasilkan likuiditas semaksimalkan mungkin Tingkatkan kompetensi teknologi dan percepat aktivitas yang menghasilkan 8. Potensi (lemah) + Posisi Pasar ((lemah) + Keung- gulan Teknologi (kuat) Tinggalkan sedikit demi sedikit sambil men- ciptakan likuitditas Cari kompetensi teknologi unggulannya dan eksploitasi semaksimal mungkin : aplikasikan pada aktivitas lain atau transfer keluar Sumber : Allouche and Smith (1996) : Le Outils de La Decision Strategiqye

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106 106 Greek Engineering BC: Golden Age of Greece ( Art, Philosophy, Science, Literature, and Government ) 440 BC : Pericle Built Temple on the Acropolis 350 BC : Demetrius Produced the Most Fearsome War Machine ( Belfry Had 9 Stories, 75 Feet Square at the Base, Stood 150 Feet Tall, Weighed 180 Tons, Pushed by 3400 Soldiers) 270 BC : Ktesibios Designed Water Clock in Alexandria Aristoteles: Mechanika Is the First Engineering Text Plato: Natural Law Archimedes: Archimedes Principle

107 107 Greek Engineering BC: Golden Age of Greece ( Art, Philosophy, Science, Literature, and Government ) 440 BC : Pericle Built Temple on the Acropolis 350 BC : Demetrius Produced the Most Fearsome War Machine ( Belfry Had 9 Stories, 75 Feet Square at the Base, Stood 150 Feet Tall, Weighed 180 Tons, Pushed by 3400 Soldiers) 270 BC : Ktesibios Designed Water Clock in Alexandria Aristoteles: Mechanika Is the First Engineering Text Plato: Natural Law Archimedes: Archimedes Principle

108 108 COMPETITIVENESS Competitiveness is the process by which one entity strives to outperform another. Entity : Person Country Company Goals To Win

109 109 To be Competitive Ability Desire to Win Commitment Availability of the resources

110 110 Investment In Productive Facilities Competitiveness of the nations Standard or quality of living of their citizens Productivity S3 & Calon S3 Trade Guru Besar High Standard Of Living

111 111 Xerox Experiences Invention : Chester Carlson (Astoria NY). Adanya pemikiran untuk menggandakan dokumen dengan cepat dan mudah Scientific and Technological progress Materials & Physical Phenomenon Electrostatic charging & Photoconductivity Invention Electro photography XEROGRAHPY XEROS=Dry GRAPEIN = Writing or drawing

112 112 Xerox Machine Development Idea Research Prototype Commercialization Improvement 1944 Th 1949, Xerox 914 Th 1959, Xerox 914 Fully Automatic Th1970, Xerox 9200 high speed

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114 114 COMPETITIVENESS Competitiveness is the process by which one entity strives to outperform another. Entity : Person Country Company Goals To Win

115 115 To be Competitive Ability Desire to Win Commitment Availability of the resources

116 116 Stage of Technological Innovation 1. Basic Research 2. Applied Research 3. Technological Development 4. Technological Implementation 5. Production 6. Marketing 7. Proliferation 8. Technology Enhancement

117 117 Process of Technologial Inovation Idea Generation Recognition of need Alternative ways to meet the need Analysis of alternative Solution Section of best solution and criteria for selection Proposal for implementation Concept Definition Market Analysis Technical Analysis Business Plan Apropval Development Test MarketFull Production and Commercialization Disposal

118 118 Innovation Chain Equation Scientific Invention Recognized Social need Engineering Development Entre- preunership Management Supportive Environment = Commercially Successful Innovation

119 119 INNOVATOR IMITATOR- FOLLOWER win Lose Pilkinton (Float Glass) G.D Searle (NutraSweet) Du Pont (Teflon) IBM (PC) Matsushita Seiko (Q uart ) RC Cola (Diet Cola) Bowmar (Calculator) EMI (Scanner) Xerox (“Start”) Du Pont (Teflon) DeHavilland (Comet) Kodak (Instant photography) Northup (F20) DEC (PC))

120 120

121 121 Perkembangan Teknologi Teknologi Goal Awal Perbaikan

122 122 Transformasi Energi Sumber Daya & Energi Alamaiah Sumber Daya & Energi Mekanik Sumber Daya & Energi Elektrik Sumber Daya & Energi Informatik

123 Technolog y revolution Manageme nt of Technolog y 1970 Control Theory Large-Scale System Total System Design Social Systems Cybermetics Behavioral theory Personal Computers 1960 Automation System Design Teleprocessi ng Information Systems Decision Theory Simulation Systems’ Eng. Optimazatio n Theory 1950 Computeriza- tion Reliability Oper. Research Statistical Analysis Network Techniques 1940 Tool Design Productivity Eng. Economy Inventory Theory Human Factors Materials Handling Layout 1920 Production control Queueing Wage Incentive Inventory Models Mngt. Planning SQC 1900 Organizati onal Concepts Motion Study Piecework 1880 Scientific Managemen t Time Studies Division of Labor Standardizat ion Mass Production Labor Unions 1880 Slow Progress in science and technology Agricultura l society The industrial Revolution EVOLUTION OF PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY

124 Microprocessor Recombinant DNA Laser Printer MRI Scanner Space Shuttle Scanning Tunneling Microscope Sputnik I (USSR) NASA Integrated Circuit Operable Laser First Man in Space Telstar Satelite Keviar Fiber Optics Apollo XI Color TV Manhattan Project General Purpose, Electronic, Digital Computer Supersonic Flight Transistor Instant Camera Jet Airliner Air Conditioner First Flight (Wnght Bros.) Model T (Ford) Liquid-fueled Rockets FM Radio Jet Engine Xerography Helicopter Telegraph (Morse) Improved plow (Deere) Vulcanized Rubber Safety Elevator (Otis) Internal Combustion Engine Telephone (Bell) Phonograph (Edison) Radio (Marconi) Cotton gin (Whitney) Practical Steamboat (Fulton) Steam powered locomotive for passengers and freight IMPORTANT TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS

125 125 Evolution of manufacturing systems

126 126

127 127 Dampak Perkembangan Teknologi informasi pada Sistem Produksi Manajemen persediaan Penjabaran Kebutuhan Bahan Perhitungan Kebutahan Bahan yang didasarkan pada struktur produk (BOM, OPC) : MRP Perhitungan Kebutahan Bahan yang didasarkan pada struktur produk (BOM, OPC) dengan memperhitungan penyesuaian secara langsung (Closed-loop MRP) Awal th 1960 th th 1965 th th 1970 th th 1980 Just in Time, Kanban, dan Optimized Production Technique (OPT) Perencanaan Kebutuhan Sumber secara terpadu (MRP II) Sejak awal 1980

128 128 Perkembangan Teknologi manufakturing FMS Mekanik Elektro mekanik CNC CIM

129 129

130 130

131 131 Technology Life Cycles

132 132 Technology performance parameter Time New invention Period Technology Improvement Period Mature Technology Period Embryonic GrowthMaturityAging Physical Limit

133 133 Physical Limit A Technology performance parameter Physical Limit B A A’ B

134 134 Technology Live Cycles and market Growth Market Volume Time A BCDEF A.Technology developmentD. Mature technology B.Application launchE. Technology Substitution C.Application growthF. Technology obsolescence

135 135 Product and market live cycle Market Volume Time A BCDEF A.Concept Design PrototypeD. Mature Stage B.Product launchE. Substitution Product C.Product growthF. Product obsolescence

136 136

137 137 Technology Planning

138 138 Technology Planning Frame Work Forecast the technology Analyze and forecast the environment Analyze and forecast the market/user Analyze the organization Develop the mission Design organizational actions Put the plan into the operation

139 139 Forecasting Technology Future Present Time

140 140

141 141

142 142 Technology performance parameter Limit of performance of S1 S1 S2 S1>S2 Technology 1 Technology 2

143 143

144 144

145 BC : Central Indirect Housing Heating in Beycesultan, Turkey 312 BC : Appian Way( Roma - Capera) First Major Surfaced Roa in Europe 40 AD : Claudius Built a Tunnel to Drain Lake Fucius for Irrigation 100 AD : Alexandria Produced Engineering Manuscripts Entitled: Mechanics, Pneumatics, Siegecraft, Automation-making, The Surveyor’s Transit, and Measurement and Mirrors AD : Frontinus Built Roman Aqueduct Roman Engineering

146 146 Oriental Engineering 1. China Great Wall 400 BC : Invented Escapement Mechanisms for Clock 105 AD : Paper Was Made in China 1200 AD : Magnetic Needle Was Made 2. India Ironwork Jundishapur Was World Science Capital 700 AD: Indian System of Numbers Was Informed to Western Civilization

147 147 European Engineering 1286:Eyeglasses Invented in Europe 14 Century:Cannon Was Invented in Germany 15 Century:Renaissance 1474:Republic of Venice Developed the First Formal Patent Law 1483:Leonardo Da Vinci Was One the Great Geniuses Moved to Milan 1514:Michelangelo Was Selected in Completing St Peter’s Cathedral` 1594:Galileo Was Issued a Patent on a Device for Lifting Water

148 148 Oriental Engineering 1. China Great Wall 400 BC : Invented Escapement Mechanisms for Clock 105 AD : Paper Was Made in China 1200 AD : Magnetic Needle Was Made 2. India Ironwork Jundishapur Was World Science Capital 700 AD: Indian System of Numbers Was Informed to Western Civilization

149 149 Modern Engineering Era Big Five Engineering Newer Engineering Civil Mechanical Electrical Industrial Engineering Nuclear Computer Bioengineering Chemical Environmenta Etc.

150 150 Big 5 Disciplines Military Engineering Civil Engineering Mechanical Engineering Mathematics + Physics Mechanical Principle Steam Engine Electrical Engineering Mathematics + Physics Electrical Science Telegraph: Samuel Morse Carbon filament lamp: Thomas Edison Chemical Engineering Mathematics + Physics + Chemistry Synthetic Material Industrial Engineering

151 151

152 152

153 153 The need for structured thinking about technology  Conducting internal research and Development (R&D) activities  Directly investing in new equipment or people  Divesting or acquiring assets (company)  Licensing to or licensing from another company or organization  Actively patenting in a technical area to attack or defend for the future  Controlling R&D externally with other research organization or universities  Utilizing the results of public sector  Engaging in joint venture both for product of production process as well for the necessary R&D for entering a new area  Re-training and re-directing existing resources and capabilities

154 154 Performance Criteria Biaya Inventori Total ( O t ) Ot = Ob + Op + Os O t = biaya inventori total O b = biaya pembelian O p = biaya pemesanan O s = biaya penyimpanan

155 155

156 156 The “Assets” Process Asses Current Situation Specify Technology Strategy Select Technology portfolio Secure Long-Term Position Execute Technology Investment Transfer results for deployment Business environment Company Strength Market need Competitive Position External Environment Plan Project Results Concept trend Adjustments CriteriaApproach Organizational Systems Application Targets Returns & Impact Operational Assets

157 Asses Current Situation Internal Situation Company Goals Strategies Capabilities performance Internal Situation Company Goals Strategies Capabilities performance External Situation Business Environment Technical Environment External Situation Business Environment Technical Environment Future Business Environment Customer Suppliers Competitors Demand for product Future Business Environment Customer Suppliers Competitors Demand for product

158 158

159 Specify Technology Strategy Four main strategies  Customers  Competitive approach  Investment  Organizational culture Four main strategies  Customers  Competitive approach  Investment  Organizational culture  What technologies to develop or buy  Whether to seek technology leadership  How to protect property right  How to capture economic return  What technologies to develop or buy  Whether to seek technology leadership  How to protect property right  How to capture economic return ?

160 160 Market Competence : What value to offer to customer “product differentiation”, “low Cost producer” Market Competence : What value to offer to customer “product differentiation”, “low Cost producer” Market Scope : Which market boundaries to target “ Larges market shares”, “Specialized market share” Market Scope : Which market boundaries to target “ Larges market shares”, “Specialized market share” Market Timing : When to introduce Innovation “ First Mover”, “Wait to improve ” Market Timing : When to introduce Innovation “ First Mover”, “Wait to improve ”

161 Select Technology Portfolio Identify suitable candidate :  Scanning literature  Observing technical environment  Monitoring competitor  Forecast the emergence technology  Monitoring supplier Identify suitable candidate :  Scanning literature  Observing technical environment  Monitoring competitor  Forecast the emergence technology  Monitoring supplier Criteria : Payback-cost benefit ratio, marker or spin-off potential, Business sector priority, etc

162 Execute Technology investment  Organizing the work team  Staffing the work activities  Directing and leading the effort  Controlling the activities to ensure compliance with plan and need Project management

163 Execute Technology investment  Organizing the work team  Staffing the work activities  Directing and leading the effort  Controlling the activities to ensure compliance with plan and need Project management

164 Transfer Results for Deployment  Prototype development  Scale up  Production-purchase  Distribution or installation

165 Secure Long Term Position Monitoring

166 166 Methods of Acquisition and Exploitation of Technology  Using internal R &D  Participating in a joint venture  Contracting out for R&D  Licensing in technology  Buying the technology  Using internal R &D  Participating in a joint venture  Contracting out for R&D  Licensing in technology  Buying the technology

167 Asses Current Situation Internal Situation Company Goals Strategies Capabilities performance Internal Situation Company Goals Strategies Capabilities performance External Situation Business Environment Technical Environment External Situation Business Environment Technical Environment Future Business Environment Customer Suppliers Competitors Demand for product Future Business Environment Customer Suppliers Competitors Demand for product

168 168

169 Specify Technology Strategy Four main strategies  Customers  Competitive approach  Investment  Organizational culture Four main strategies  Customers  Competitive approach  Investment  Organizational culture  What technologies to develop or buy  Whether to seek technology leadership  How to protect property right  How to capture economic return  What technologies to develop or buy  Whether to seek technology leadership  How to protect property right  How to capture economic return ?

170 170

171 171 Market Competence : What value to offer to customer “product differentiation”, “low Cost producer” Market Competence : What value to offer to customer “product differentiation”, “low Cost producer” Market Scope : Which market boundaries to target “ Larges market shares”, “Specialized market share” Market Scope : Which market boundaries to target “ Larges market shares”, “Specialized market share” Market Timing : When to introduce Innovation “ First Mover”, “Wait to improve ” Market Timing : When to introduce Innovation “ First Mover”, “Wait to improve ”

172 Select Technology Portfolio Identify suitable candidate :  Scanning literature  Observing technical environment  Monitoring competitor  Forecast the emergence technology  Monitoring supplier Identify suitable candidate :  Scanning literature  Observing technical environment  Monitoring competitor  Forecast the emergence technology  Monitoring supplier Criteria : Payback-cost benefit ratio, marker or spin-off potential, Business sector priority, etc

173 Execute Technology investment  Organizing the work team  Staffing the work activities  Directing and leading the effort  Controlling the activities to ensure compliance with plan and need Project management

174 Transfer Results for Deployment  Prototype development  Scale up  Production-purchase  Distribution or installation

175 Secure Long Term Position Monitoring

176 176 Methods of Acquisition and Exploitation of Technology  Using internal R &D  Participating in a joint venture  Contracting out for R&D  Licensing in technology  Buying the technology  Using internal R &D  Participating in a joint venture  Contracting out for R&D  Licensing in technology  Buying the technology

177 177 Acquisitionmethod Company’s relative standing Urgency of acquisitio n Commitmen t/investment involve Technology life cycle position Categories of technology R&DHighLowestHighestEarliest Most distinctive Joint venture LowerEarly Distinctive or basic Contracted out R&D LowEarly Distinctive or basic LicenseHighLowestLaterBasic BuyingLowHigh No commitment All stages Basic

178 178 BERBAGAI DEFINISI MOT: Bidang kajian interdisipliner yang mengintegrasikan Iptek dan pengetahuan/ teori manajemen dan prakteknya untuk menciptakan kesejahteraan (wealth creation) Pendekatan interdisipliner yang berkaitan dengan perencanaan, pengembangan dan implementasi kemampuan teknologi untuk mencapai objektif operasiona/strategis organisasi (level--mikro) Bidang pengetahuan yang berkaitan dengan penetapan dan implementasi kebijakan pengembangan teknologi dan penggunaannya, dampak teknologi terhadap masyarakat, organisasi, individu dan alam dengan tujuan untuk mensimulasikan inovasi, penciptaan pertumbuhan ekonomi dan menjaga teknologi untuk kesejahteraan umat manusia (level- makro) Manfaat MOT: * Bagaimana teknologi diciptakan * Bagaimana eksploitasinya untuk menciptakan bisnis * Bagaimana integrasinya strategi tek vs bisnis * Bagaimana penggunaannya : kompetivitas advantage * Bagaimana bisa menciptakan fleksibilitas sistem/manft. * Bagaimana menstrukturkan organisasinya * Kapan dan bilamana menerapakan/memutuskannya

179 179 Technology Creation trough R&D  Basic Research  Applied Research  Development  Technology enhancement  Basic Research  Applied Research  Development  Technology enhancement

180 180 Technology Hierarchy Research Embryonic or emerging technology New generation of technology New application of technology Product and process improvement Technology transfer Maintenance Embryonic Growth Maturity

181 181 Discovery & Understanding Invention Functional Application Prototype Manufacturing Prototype Volume Production of Product Scientific Feasibility Technical Feasibility Prototype Engineering Prototype Pilot Production Process Basic Research Applied Research Developmental Research Non Proprietary With PatentProprietary Technology Engineering Science Linear Process for Radical Inovation

182 182

183 183 Technology Transfer

184 184

185 185 Technology transfer Technology transfer is a process that permits the flow technology from a source to a receiver Source Receiver

186 186

187 187 Source of Technology International Technology Transfer Regional Technology Transfer Cross Industry or cross sector Technology Transfer Inter-firm Technology Transfer Intra-firm Technology Transfer

188 188

189 189 Channel of Technology Flows General Channel : educating, training, publication, etc Reverse Engineering Channel : Planned Channel : a.Licensing b.Franchise c.Joint venture d.Turkey Project e.Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) f.Technical Consortium and Joint Venture of R& D Planned Channel : a.Licensing b.Franchise c.Joint venture d.Turkey Project e.Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) f.Technical Consortium and Joint Venture of R& D

190 190

191 191

192 192 Technology Hierarchy Research Embryonic or emerging technology New generation of technology New application of technology Product and process improvement Technology transfer Maintenance Embryonic Growth Maturity

193 193 Penciptaan dan pengu- saan teknologi Teknologi Konversi Produksi Kebutuhan Pasar Pelanggan Kebutuhan Sosial Standar hidup, isu sosial lingkungan FOKUS PENGEMBANGAN TEKNOLOGI MESIN PERTUMBUHAN EKONOMI

194 194 BERBAGAI DEFINISI MOT: Bidang kajian interdisipliner yang mengintegrasikan Iptek dan pengetahuan/ teori manajemen dan prakteknya untuk menciptakan kesejahteraan (wealth creation) Pendekatan interdisipliner yang berkaitan dengan perencanaan, pengembangan dan implementasi kemampuan teknologi untuk mencapai objektif operasiona/strategis organisasi (level--mikro) Bidang pengetahuan yang berkaitan dengan penetapan dan implementasi kebijakan pengembangan teknologi dan penggunaannya, dampak teknologi terhadap masyarakat, organisasi, individu dan alam dengan tujuan untuk mensimulasikan inovasi, penciptaan pertumbuhan ekonomi dan menjaga teknologi untuk kesejahteraan umat manusia (level- makro) Manfaat MOT: * Bagaimana teknologi diciptakan * Bagaimana eksploitasinya untuk menciptakan bisnis * Bagaimana integrasinya strategi tek vs bisnis * Bagaimana penggunaannya : kompetivitas advantage * Bagaimana bisa menciptakan fleksibilitas sistem/manft. * Bagaimana menstrukturkan organisasinya * Kapan dan bilamana menerapakan/memutuskannya

195 195 Proses Inovasi Teknologi Serangkait aktivitas kompleks untuk melakukan transformasi ide/iptek menjadi realitas fisik dan aplikasi nyata Proses transformai dari pengetahuan menjadi produk dan jasa yang memiliki dampak sosial ekonomis Tahapan Proses Inovasi Teknologi 1. Riset Dasar (baasic Research) Pemahaman fenomena alam, hukum alam Output pengetahuan bukan terapan 2. Riset Terapan (Applied Research) Riset unruk “problem solving” Memperkokoh sistimatis teori lebih kokoh Pengembangan teknologi dan implementasinya 3. Pengembangan Teknologi (Techology Dev.) Aktivitas mengubah pength/ide menjadi tool ( (sofware, hard ware), produks dan jasa Feassibiity Study, pengujian konsep/rancang bangun, pembangunan dan uji prototye

196 Implementasi Teknologi Pengenalan produks di pasar Penjajagan dan pengukuran komersialisasi produks 5 Produksi Konversi konsep disain,ide menjadi produk/jasa : manufacturing, control prod., logistik dan distribusi 6.Pemasaran/Marketing Memastikan konsumen menjadi user teknologi: evaluasi pasar, distribusi, promosi dan monitoring 7. Proliferasi Strategi penguasaan pasar, jangkauan dan dominasi Tergantung teknologi dan cara strategi pemasaran 8. Peningkatan Kapasitas Teknologi Maintenance kemutakhiran teknologi sebagai faktor keunggulan kompetitif: kualitas, biaya, kostumisasi

197 197 Definisi Inovasi ( Bordogna, 1997) : A concurrent, interactive, and nonlinear activity. It includes not only science, engineering, and technology, but social, political and economic interactions as weel and the public pulicy that either enables or mutes the whole wealth creation process

198 198 DAUR HIDUP (LIFE CYCLES) TEKNOLOGI KURVA -S KEMAJUAN TEKNOLOGI: Suatu pola peningkatan performance dari teknologi mengikuti kurva S : performance (sumbu Y) : kepadatan; kecepatan, (atribut teknologi) waktu (sumbu X) : Parameter Performance Teknologi W a k t u Periode Penemuan Baru Periode Perbaikann Teknologi Periode Pendewasaan Teknoogi Keterbatasan Fisis Periode Obselet EmbrioPertumbuhannKedewasaanKema- tian Kata kunci : When a technology reaches its natural limits it becomes a mature technology vulnerable to subtitutions or obselescence.

199 199

200 200

201 Implementasi Teknologi Pengenalan produks di pasar Penjajagan dan pengukuran komersialisasi produks 5 Produksi Konversi konsep disain,ide menjadi produk/jasa : manufacturing, control prod., logistik dan distribusi 6.Pemasaran/Marketing Memastikan konsumen menjadi user teknologi: evaluasi pasar, distribusi, promosi dan monitoring 7. Proliferasi Strategi penguasaan pasar, jangkauan dan dominasi Tergantung teknologi dan cara strategi pemasaran 8. Peningkatan Kapasitas Teknologi Maintenance kemutakhiran teknologi sebagai faktor keunggulan kompetitif: kualitas, biaya, kostumisasi

202 202

203 203 Definisi Inovasi ( Bordogna, 1997) : A concurrent, interactive, and nonlinear activity. It includes not only science, engineering, and technology, but social, political and economic interactions as weel and the public pulicy that either enables or mutes the whole wealth creation process

204 204

205 205

206 206 Beberapa Nilai z Tingkat Keyakinan diinginkan (%) Nilai z

207 207 Rumus-rumus Studi Waktu Faktor Kelonggaran = Waktu tidak bekerja Waktu total Rata 2 Waktu Elemen =  Waktu Elemen Jumlah Siklus

208 208

209 209

210 210

211 211

212 212

213 213

214 214

215 215

216 216

217 217 TERIMA KASIH ATAS PERHATIANNYA


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