Presentasi berjudul: "THE COSMOPOLITANISM Hubungan Internasional Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ekonomi Universitas Respati Yogyakarta Dosen: Hartanto, S.I.P, M.A."— Transcript presentasi:
THE COSMOPOLITANISM Hubungan Internasional Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ekonomi Universitas Respati Yogyakarta Dosen: Hartanto, S.I.P, M.A.
diogenes warga dunia (cosmos polites) loyalitas untuk kemanusiaan, bukan untuk entitas politik tertentu mengikuti fitrah, bukan apa yang dibakukan
hierocles, stoic komunitas teritorial (polis) + komunitas ide (kosmopolis) loyal terhadap segala sesuatu di dalamnya (manusia, nilai) wajib aktif melayani manusia dan nilai kemanusiaan, termasuk (dan terutama?) dengan berpolitik kewajiban, keadilan, kelayakan, bukan hutang budi atau kasihan hijrah adopsi Katholik
immanuel kant lebih dari sekedar gaya hidup komunitas moral layaknya negara: warganya punya kebebasan, persamaan hak, hukum ius cosmopoliticum, di atas hukum nasional dan hukum internasional: prinsip moral universal yang lebih tinggi dari kedaulatan negara hak dan tanggung jawab hospitability terhadap identitas apapun
mary kaldor ‘civilising process’: monopoli kekerasan dan sumber daya oleh negara pergeseran arti dan bentuk perang kosmopolitanisme: proyek politik, bukan pijakan moral belaka politik kosmopolitanisme: koeksistensi damai, memberantas eksklusi dan kekerasan hukum kosmopolitan mengenai perang dan HAM yang mengikat individu (bukan negara), tanggung jawab untuk melindungi individu keadilan global, hak ekosos, dignity
david held kewenangan negara terus berkurang kemampuan negara merespon tuntutan masyarakat yang berkaitan dengan demokrasi/demokratisasi melemah di level nasional, demokrasi melemah demokrasi kosmopolitanisme
kwame appiah siapapun, di manapun tidak ada kategori yang secara alami membedakan manusia rooted cosmopolitan keanekaragaman + kebebasan bergerak
ulrich beck nilai universal: perlindungan manusia, termasuk harga diri manusia nonhegemonik: pengakuan terhadap ‘sisi lain’ yang direpresentasikan oleh individu/ kelompok dari latar budaya berbeda, masa depan, nature, obyek, alasan/cara berpikir diversifikasi aktor
marta nussbaum active enggagement redefinisi patriotisme pendidikan kemanusiaan di atas pendidikan kewarganegaraan
Cosmopolitanism An ideology and/or movement for universal community Need not be fully conceived - enough that it maintains a spirit of deepening and extension that is universal This encompasses both cultural and political cosmopolitanism A personal cultural ideal as well as a political project
Contested Definitions Chris Brown, IR theorist: cosmopolitanism is the 'refusal to regard existing political structures as the source of ultimate value.' (Political definition) Our definition is wider, in that it considers as cosmopolitan: – a) open-ended trans-national and supranational projects; – b) those who seek a universalist, trans-ethnic community within the boundaries of a particular state; – c) actors who would accord existing political structures some value, albeit less than their transcendent project.
Cosmopolitanism and Nationalism Cosmopolitanism seeks to transcend ties of space (soil) and time (blood/history) Nationalism also seeks to transcend ties of clan and village - but stops at the national boundary So cosmopolitanism and nationalism work well together at first, but then come to oppose each other Nationalism seeks security in space (land) and time (history/ancestry)
The Origins of Cosmopolitanism Cosmopolitanism: ‘The World is my City’ Stoics and Cynics, c. 300 BC - figures like Zeno of Cintium and Cicero in Rome Link to Empire of Alexander; Roman Empire
Ancient Cosmopolitanism During periods of imperial expansion, universalism becomes more attractive Desire to have rational, universalistic, single law Accompanied by universal commonwealth (Cicero) Emphasis on human reason - what unites us together across differences of particular culture
Religious Cosmopolitanism Also the idea of God's kingdom on earth as prior to local cultures and polities St. Peter's 'Jew nor Greek' passage Papacy struggled to assert this-worldly universal authority against princes and kings of Europe Dark Ages and Medieval periods a high point of universalistic claims (300 - 1300 AD)
Cosmopolitan Revival Renaissance revival of Stoic ideals & Holy Roman Empire pretensions, 1400s-1600s In Europe, by 17th c., modern cosmopolitan political theory World federalist ideas: Emeric Cruce, French monk, early 1600s. Called for a permanent assembly of princes (inc Sultan of Turkey) or their delegates to arbitrate international disputes; Sully's 'Grand Design' envisions more permanent federation Penn's 'European Plan' and those of other 17th c Quakers Most plans harked back to universality of Christendom or the Roman Empire
Enlightenment Cosmopolitanism Mid-18th c. ideas of Paine, Voltaire, Kant Viewed religious enthusiasm as backward View patriotic attachments as a barrier to universal reason Paine: 'my country is the world ' and 'my religion is to do good' Kant's Perpetual Peace (1795): unlike Paine or Rousseau, favoured a world government: a constitution and executive body for the family of nations
The Cosmopolitan Cultural Ideal, c. 1750 An elitist ideal: – Competence – Experience – Aristocracy of taste – Access to exotic luxuries – Not available to native plebeians or parvenus Grand Tour, Parisian fashions, Salons, 'Republic of Letters' Already there is a cultural centre (Paris), so cosmopolitanism is inflected and not truly neutral (same claim today with American universalism)
French Revolution Ideas of the Revolution backed by many liberal cosmopolitans like Paine, Cloots Declaration of the Rights of Man is universal But counter-revolutionary forces generate nationalism which turns on cosmopolitanism, 1792-4 Foreigners expelled, Cloots, a Prussian francophile and atheist, is executed Nationalism and Cosmopolitanism: can they be reconciled in a democratic age?
19th Century: the Age of Dualism Most writers waxed eloquently about both cosmopolitanism and nationalism Logical contradictions were glossed over Mazzini: Young Italy, Young Europe Kant: World Government, but importance of the state for freedom Novalis (1807): 'Germanity is cosmopolitanism mixed with the most powerful [national] individuality' Meinecke (1907): 'The best German national feeling also includes the cosmopolitan ideal of a humanity beyond nationality'
Dualism in the United States Religious figures felt that immigration would bring the peoples of the world together in America in fulfilment of God's plan prior to the Second Coming Secular writers looked to the Enlightenment cosmopolitan idea and America's fulfilment of it But while most saw the US as a universal nation, they also felt it to be a more Anglo-Saxon and Protestant nation than England
'The asylum of all nations...the energy of Irish, Germans, Swedes, Poles and Cossacks, and all the European tribes, of the Africans and Polynesians, will construct a new race...as vigorous as the new Europe which came out of the smelting pot of the Dark Ages' 'It cannot be maintained by any candid person that the African race have ever occupied or do promise ever to occupy any very high place in the human family...The Irish cannot; the American Indian cannot; the Chinese cannot. Before the energy of the Caucasian race all other races have quailed and done obeisance' Emerson and 'Double- Consciousness' in American Identity, c. 1846
Socialist Dualism Dualism pervaded even the Socialist International. Second International up to 1917 favoured colonialism and racist assumptions Most American socialists assumed that immigration of 'backward' peoples would retard the onset of socialist revolution In WWI, workers sided with their nations against their class, to the disappointment of many socialist intellectuals
The Eclipse of Dualism By the first decade of 1900s in USA: Liberal Progressives Ecumenical Movement in Protestantism - especially in USA WWI pacifists. War affects intellectuals Union of Democratic Control: liberal historians attack nationalistic history writing
The Rise of Cosmopolitan Anti-Nationalism Surrealism in modern art supersedes Futurism, 1920s Most modernist intellectuals move left and the Left become cosmopolitan during inter-war period Marks the beginning of cosmopolitan anti-nationalism Two reasons: reflexivity and war
Interwar Politics, US US: intellectuals and religious elite struggles against Anglo-Protestant nationalism – Immigration restriction – Klan – Prohibition
Interwar Cosmopolitan Politics, Europe Growing peace movements advocate European unity in 1910s French pro-European associations have 100,000s of members in 1920s Paneuropa formed in Austria, led by Coudenhove- Kalergi, early 1920s. HQ provided by Chancellor Seipel of Austria Draws on older European Idea Peace, cosmopolitanism and European Idea linked
Interwar Cosmopolitan Politics, Europe Kalergi has links with French officials like Aristide Briand French foreign minister and pan-European Briand, mid 1920s French premier Herriot: 'United States of Europe', 1925 Pushed initiatives on both world peace (Geneva Protocols) and European federalism Briand's Memorandum on a United Europe, 1929. Presented to League of Nations and sent to European leaders for discussion
Postwar Developments US: emphasises 'nation of immigrants' idea and statue of liberty. Bar on nonwhite immigrants relaxed Europe: moves toward European unity spearheaded by Paneuropean groups with pre-war links Leaders often have background in these organisations (i.e. Spinelli, de Gasperi- EEC commissioner) EEC forms from 1950s. Idealism of European Commission partly driven by cosmopolitan-pacifist motivations ('avoiding war') US cosmopolitanism is cultural, that of Europe is political
Postwar Internationalism World Federalists and Ecumenical Protestants in US strongly back UN as they did the League of Nations. Opposed by many at home New UN human rights legislation. International law begins to come of age
Cosmopolitanism as a Successful 20th c. Movement Many nationalist movements have been successful at taking power. What about cosmopolitan movements? The idea of a permanent assembly of states and of a European Union were dreams that lay unrealised for centuries, why the change? The dream of a universal nation in the US remained a fiction for centuries. Why the change in the 20th c.?
Main Reasons for Intellectual- Political Success 1.Intellectual evolution of liberal-cosmopolitan logic during 1900-14 which began to regard nationalism as reactionary 2.Impact of mass warfare during 1914-45 which accelerated the antinationalist tendency within cosmopolitan thought 3.Increased societal reflexivity: expanding and intensifying networks of conceptual exchange sharpen contradictions between nationalism and cosmopolitanism
Recent Period Expansion of Higher Education and national electronic media Peace and prosperity of 1945-73 Major attitude changes in US among 'baby boom' generation on issues of race, national identity, 1965-73 Rise of a 'postmaterialist' culturally-liberal cohort of university-educated cosmopolitans that are pro-immigration and pro-Europe New 'Cosmopolitan Democracy' advocates in IR and Theory: Held, Giddens, Beck, Nussbaum Beck's 'Cosmopolitan Manifesto', LSE c. 2000
Cosmopolitanism vs Universalism Some (ie David Hollinger) assert that cosmopolitanism emphasises cultural diversity as opposed to universalist uniformity Cultural richness and hybridity as opposed to sterile universalism Nationalists/ethnics argue that hybridity leads to universalism, and that both reflect the same culturally- neutral tendency Nationalists/ethnics also contend that all cosmopolitan projects have certain biases at their core and are cultural imperialisms: (ie Greek, Roman, Russian-Soviet, French-Napoleonic, Turkish-Ottoman, American- 'globalisation')
Modernisation can be Cosmopolitan or Nationalist
Conclusion Cosmopolitanism a long history, much longer than globalisation Can be political or cultural Cosmopolitan ideas gained ground in the 20th c Became anti-nationalist due to ideological evolution and war Political success is linked to both world war and intensifying/extending intellectual exchanges Carried by higher-educated, 'postmaterialist' elites and middle class