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Savitri Prihatiningsih Block Development Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Department of Medical Education Gadjah Mada University School of Medicine.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Savitri Prihatiningsih Block Development Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Department of Medical Education Gadjah Mada University School of Medicine."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Block Development Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Department of Medical Education Gadjah Mada University School of Medicine Titi Savitri

2 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Macro Level Formulate competencies and the breakdown Selecting problems Defining the phase Allocating the competencies into each phase

3 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Meso Level Dividing each phase into several learning units/Block Decide the name or themes of the block (preferably integrated themes – not necessarily discipline) Allocating competences into each block Allocating problems for each block Deciding which core disciplines involved (if the name of block is integrated theme)

4 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Micro Level Developing blue print blocks (outcome, problems, participating disciplines) Each block team identify contents of each block: –Knowledge –Skills –Behaviour –Values –Insights etc

5 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Curriculum Macro Year/phase Meso Block/module/unit Micro Three levels of curriculum design

6 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Comparison Curriculum is the blueprint for the building(at macro and meso level) Instructional planning (block or module development) is the process of constructing the building (at micro level)

7 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Curriculum coordinator Year/Phase coordinator Block coordinator Three levels of coordination

8 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Macro curriculum Meso Curriculum Micro Curriculum Correspondence Accumulation Connection Integration Comprehensiveness

9 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Curriculum Coordinator Year/Phase Coordinator Block Coordinator Correspondence Accumulation Connection Integration Comprehensiveness

10 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih derived from block theme and comprises a broad outline of block content, broad final objectives of the block and list of disciplines to participate in the block Blueprint block is designed by Curriculum Committee Blueprint block is the main instrument to control the curriculum content

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12 Design Block Implement Block Evaluate Block

13 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Stages of Block Development 1. Analyse and discuss Blue Print Block 2. List the relevant topics 3. Order related topics 4. Identify the key topics

14 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih 4. Identify the key topics Competences Preceeding Blocks (year 1) Phases of Education Priorities

15 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih 5. Designing Conceptual Framework

16 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih 5. Designing Conceptual Framework To visualise The relationship Among different concepts Matrix Hierarchical Central Axis

17 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Matrix ChildhoodAdolescentAdulthoodElderly Analyse/Ass essment of health problems Diarrhoea Diphtery Gastroenter itis Drug abuse Traffic injury HIV/AIDS Reproducti ve Health Menopause Post menopause Prevention Strategy Developing and implementin g health programmes Communicati on skills

18 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Hierarchical

19 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Central Axis Nutrition and Food Safety

20 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih 5. Designing Conceptual Framework 6. Formulate detailed objectives 7. Develop Block Books

21 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih 7. Develop Block Books Divide the block into different parts Determine the order in which the different block parts should be presented: –From simple to complex –From concrete to abstract –From familiar to unfamliar

22 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih 7. Develop Block Books Spread the study load evenly Identify integrated subjects – teaching formats Outline the sequence of the different block parts and the amount of time available Calculate hours Recommended learning resources Assessment Write the text Block evaluation

23 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih BLOCK Book for Tutor 1.Introduction 2.Table of Contents 3.Blok Objectives 4.Topic Tree 5.Week 1: 1.Objectives 2.Scenario 3.Review of Content (depth and breadth) 4. Teaching and Learning Activities 5. Learning Resources 6. References 6. Assesment 7. List of Block Constructors 8. List of Block Contributors 9. Resources of Persons 10.Block References 11.Block Schedule

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26 Problem Objectives Type Format

27 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Scenario Definition “A problem consists of a neutral description of an event or a set of phenomena that are in need of explanation in terms of underlying processes, principles or mechanisms” Function 1.As the trigger to achieve block objectives 2.To activate prior knowledge 3.To stimulate self-directed learning

28 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Developing Scenario Format: 1.Narative 2.Graphics 3.Pictures 4.Audiovisual Make variations of different formats

29 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Good scenario is: 1.Relevant with the outcome of the blocks 2.Realistics 3.Logics 4.Appropriate 5.Interesting and motivating 6.Precise d. Number of scenario

30 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih THE ROLE OF PROBLEMS New information is better processed and retained Problem solving skills are enhanced Integration of knowledge is stimulated Students learn how to learn Independent study Student motivation is enhanced

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32 Conditions to be met by problems Build on students’ prior knowledge Stimulate elaboration Relevant context Stimulate self-directed learning Offer motivation (open-ended, controversial issues) Evidence-based

33 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Different types of problems 1.The explanation problem 2.The discussion problem 3.The strategy problem 4.The study problem 5.The application problem 6.The multilevel problem

34 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih The explanation problem Purpose: to understand structure and mechanism. Consisting of description of phenomena Good for early year

35 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih The application problem Purpose: to apply knowledge, understanding and skills Stimulate belajar bila A number of questions and assignments Integration

36 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih The multi-level problem Purpose: to study mechanism in more in depth To follow up the problem Weakness: Needs more time to developbutuh waktu banyak,. Description of disease from complain to treatment

37 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih The Strategy Problem Purpose: students learn rational clinical reasoning and decision making based on knowledge and understanding of the underlying process Management strategy Invite simulation of real medical practice A descriptin of complaints with data from history, physical examination

38 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Seven Clinical Step Approach Identify central aspects What information should be obtained from history, px, lab investigation? Relate this with 1 Try to discover causal relationship that would explain findings Generate list of hypothesis Consider dx Drap up management plan

39 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih The Discussion Problem To foster understanding of different points of view regarding on issue To reflect critically on the standards To understand different points of view Stimulate thinking about personal points of view Useful for end block Clear problem, opinions

40 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih The Study Problem To do independent study of a particular subject To master specific content Stimulate specific learning activities

41 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Three main considerations in Developing a problem 1. Learning outvcome (competencies) 2. Types 3. Format

42 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Contoh: Tujuan: a.Mampu melakukan pemeriksaan ANC b.Mampu melakukan konseling dan memberikan informasi tentang proses dan tanda-tanda kehamilan dan persalinan Pertanyaan yang ingin dimunculkan a.Bagaimana ANC b.Bagaimana tanda-tanda & proses kehamilan c.Bagaimana tanda-tanda & proses persalinan d.Bagaimana melakukan konseling dan memberi informasi pada ibu hamil

43 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih PERBEDAAN TIPE MASALAH 1.Masalah yang membutuhkan penjelasan 2.Masalah yang diperlukan untuk mengembangkan pandangan 3.Masalah yang diperlukan untuk melatih penalaran 4.Masalah untuk melatih menerapkan pengetahuan 5.Masalah untuk melatih memacu mahasiswa belajar 6.Masalah untuk berbagai tingkat pendidikan dan profesi

44 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Different Format of Scenarios 1.Narrative 2.Phenomenons- singkat menggambarkan pasien 3.SOEP (Subjective, objective, evaluate, plan) – roblem pack - Terbungkus banyak masalah yang tersembunyi 4.Sign pack – problems presented in phase 5.Verbatim – doctor-patient encounter 6.Correspondence – referral letter

45 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Menyusun Skenario a.Format yang bisa dipilih: 1.Narasi 2.Grafik 3.Gambar 4.Audiovisual Usahakan format skenario dalam suatu blok bervariasi sehingga akan meningkatkan daya tarik blok b. Sumber skenario bisa dari pengalaman pribadi, percakapan dokter-pasien, media masa, artikel jurnal, laporan penelitian dan lain sebagainya

46 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Format yang dipilih Narrative Imud (19 tahun) premi gravida hamil 7 bulan, memeriksakan ANC sejak kehamilan 2 bulan. Sekarang merasakan gerakan bayi makin keras. Payudaranya bertambah besar dan semua pakaiannya menjadi sesak. Kadang-kadang rahimnya kontraksi keras lalu hilang. Ia takut kalau melahirkan bayi sebelum cukup umur.

47 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih PETUNJUK PENYUSUNAN SKENARIO 1.Hubungkan dengan prior knowledge 2.Hubungkan dengan objektif secara jelas 3.Pertimbangkan tingkat kerumitan masalah 4.Pertimbangkan struktur yang memadai untuk diskusi 5.Pilih kata nyata yang erat dengan profesi 6.Pilih masalah-masalah yang multi disiplin 7.Pertimbangkan panjang/ pendeknnya masalah yang ingin dimunculkan

48 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih PETUNJUK PENYUSUNAN SKENARIO Waktu untuk belajar mandiri Waktu untuk fase pelaporan Variasi pengalaman belajar Jumlah skenario dalam satu blok Sekuen skenario Waktu yang tersedia untuk penulisan skenario

49 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih 8.Pertimbangkan waktu yang diperlukan Pemahaman : Diskusi Belajar Membuat laporan 9.Variasi aktivitas belajar 10.Urutan masalah yang akan dimunculkan 11.Memilih kejadian yang dapat membangun citra profesi 12.Relevan dan dapat memicu belajar

50 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Sumber Belajar

51 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Learning Resources 1.Relevants 2.Accessible

52 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Supporting Learning Activities Core Activities 1.SGD (Small Group Discussion) 2.SDL (Self Directed Learning) Supporting 1.Lectures 2.Laboratory Practice 3.Skills Practice 4.Exposure to workplace 5.Reflective activities

53 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Function of Lecture in PBL 1. Overview 2. Clarification of difficult topics 3.Correct misconceptions 4.Provide framework 5.Refreshing 6.Stimulate students 7.Lack of learning resources

54 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Function of Laboratory Practice 1.To enhance students’ understanding 2.To stimulate through “learning by discovery”,

55 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Function of Skills Lab 1.Training skills systematically in an integrated fashion 2.Skills should be relevant to block themes

56 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Exposure to workplace - Motivate students - Professional development - Contextual learning - Relevant knowledge

57 Copyright@Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Kesimpulan  Blok merupakan kerangka kurikulum PBL  Bagian dari hirarki PBL yang terletak antara thema sentral dengan modul  Dalam blok akan terjadi interaksi dan integrasi berbagai bidang ilmu  Penyusunan blok perlu tim perancang  Untuk menyusun modul perlu mengidentifikasi topic tree lebih dahulu  Skenario disusun berdasar objective yang perlu dicapai pada modul atau blok

58 Copyright@Titi Savitri PrihatiningsihThanks

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