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Pengembangan Kurikulum Pendidikan Dokter Berbasis Kompetensi Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Bagian Pendidikan Dokter Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Pengembangan Kurikulum Pendidikan Dokter Berbasis Kompetensi Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Bagian Pendidikan Dokter Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Pengembangan Kurikulum Pendidikan Dokter Berbasis Kompetensi Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Bagian Pendidikan Dokter Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada

2 Topik Pembahasan  Sejarah Competency-based movement  Definisi dan karakteristik kompetensi  Pengembangan kurikulum berbasis kompetensi

3 Sejarah Competency- based movement

4 Historical Perspective (1)  Dimulai di USA thn 1960-an, di UK thn 1970-an, di Jerman thn 1980-an, di Australia thn 1990-an.  Bloom (1950an): tujuan pendidikan menurut domain kognitif, afektif, psikomotor  Bloom (1971) : Tujuan instruksi khusus dalam bentuk ‘observable students behavior’ : states, lists, names, selects, calculates  mendapat kritikan

5 Historical Perspective (2)  Reaksi terhadap pendekatan behaviour dari Bloom, muncul: Mastery Learning (Bloom, 1974) Criterion-referenced testing (Popham, 1978) Competency-based education (Burke et al, 1975) Minimum competency testing (Jaeger and Tittle, 1980)

6 Historical Perspective (3)  Competency-based movement, upaya untuk: Mendekatkan dunia pendidikan tinggi dengan dunia nyata (dunia kerja) yang akan dihadapi mhs setelah lulus Fokus pada outcome (outcome-based education) Outcomes pendidikan dinyatakan dalam ‘observable competencies’ Pendekatan pada ‘competence development’

7 Historical Perspective (4)  Survei thd para dosen di Universitas di Australia, Hongkong, Swedia dan UK (Bowden, 1989) ttg: apa yang harus dicapai mahasiswa di akhir program pendidikan?  Contoh Jawaban: Understanding Electricity Understanding What is a field? Understanding concept of current, voltage Understanding Kirchoff’s Laws

8 Historical Perspective (5)  Harvey (1993) : Survey thd employers di UK ttg yang harus dikuasai oleh seorang sarjana (graduates): Effective Communication Problem-solving ability Analytical skills Team work Flexibility and adaptability

9 Historical Perspective (6)  Harvey (1993) : Survey thd employers tentang kedudukan specialist subject knowledge dibanding kriteria lain: Employers who see subject area as relevant to recruitment: ranking 46 out of 62 Employers who do not see subject are as important : ranking 57 out of 62

10 Historical Perspective (7)  Mengapa pengetahuan ttg disiplin ilmu (subject knowledge) dianggap tidak penting oleh employers? Ketidakmampuan lulusan untuk mengaplikasikan (lulusan terlalu teoritis) Short life of factual knowledge (mudah dilupakan setelah lulus)

11 Historical Perspective (8)  Competency-based Movement  Australian Dept of Education and Training (1987): The function of higher education is …to increase individual’s capacity to learn, …to analyse problem, …to deal with new information

12

13 Definition of Competencies (1)  Competencies combine appropriate supporting knowledge and professional attitude, and they are performed reliably in natural settings without assistance. Chambers, 1993, J. Dent Educ

14 Definition of Competencies (2)  Professional competence is the habitual and judicious use of communication, knowledge, technical skills, clinical reasoning, emotions, values, and reflection in daily practice to improve the health of the individual patient and community: What you know How you use what you know How you add to what you know Epstein and Hundert, 2002, JAMA

15 What is Competency? (3)  seperangkat tindakan cerdas dan penuh tanggungjawab dimiliki seseorang sebagai syarat untuk dianggap mampu oleh masyarakat dalam melaksanakan tugas-tugas di bidang pekerjaan tertentu (SK Mendiknas No. 045/U/2002)

16 Competency is… (4)  A skill performed to a specific standard under specific conditions

17 Features of a Competency Statement  Focuses on outcome performance  Integrates a broad range of related knowledge and skills objectives  Contextualized – related to a practical task in the field  Drawn from multiple domains, including affective and moral dimensions  Include professional behaviours relevant to the task  Indicates a level of expected ability

18 Elemen Kompetensi (SK Mendiknas No.045/U/2002)  a. Landasan Kepribadian  b. Penguasaan ilmu dan ketrampilan  c. Kemampuan berkarya  d. Sikap dan perilaku berkarya menurut tingkat keahlian berdasarkan ilmu dan ketrampilan yang dikuasai  e. Pemahaman kaidah kehidupan bermasyarakat sesuai dengan pilihan keahlian dalam berkarya

19 Six Characteristics of Competencies  1) competencies are context-bound;  2) they are indivisible (knowledge, skills and attitudes are integrated);  3) they are subject to change;  4) they are connected to activities and tasks;  5) learning and development processes are conditional for competencies

20 Pengembangan Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi

21 A competency-based education  Consists of functional analysis of occupational roles, translation of these roles into outcomes, and assessment of trainees' progress on the basis of their demonstrated performance of these outcomes (British Medical Journal, 2002)

22 Building a Competency-based Education  problem, task, setting  Identify essential competencies for practice  Determine competency components: objectives and performance levels  Identify learning activities and strategies  Develop assessment tools and standards for competency (Criterion-Reference)

23 Identifikasi Kompetensi Lulusan Menurut SK Mendiknas 045/U/2002, kompetensi inti ditentukan secara nasional oleh organisasi profesi, perguruan tinggi dan masyarakat pengguna. Kompetensi inti adalah kurikulum nasional

24 Cara Identifikasi Kompetensi Lulusan (1)  Analisis kegiatan lulusan di tempat kerja: Catatan pribadi Observasi Analisis pekerjaan Critical Incident Technique Expert Judgement

25 Cara Identifikasi Kompetensi Lulusan (2)  Masalah yang dihadapi bangsa Indonesia  Kondisi makro sosial, politik dan ekonomi

26 Contoh ?

27 Identifikasikan komponen kompetensi dan outcome perantara  Dari hasil studi empiris

28 Rumuskan kriteria penilaian atau performance indicator

29 Disain pengalaman belajar atau program instruksional  Metode pembelajaran  Media pembelajaran  Penjadwalan/sekuen

30 Disain Assessment system


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