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Triarko Nurlambang Staf Pengajar di Jurusan Geografi UI Pengantar Riset Pasar Riset Geografi Pemasaran.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Triarko Nurlambang Staf Pengajar di Jurusan Geografi UI Pengantar Riset Pasar Riset Geografi Pemasaran."— Transcript presentasi:

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2 Triarko Nurlambang Staf Pengajar di Jurusan Geografi UI Pengantar Riset Pasar Riset Geografi Pemasaran

3 Pengantar MENGAPA DIPERLUKAN RISET DALAM KEGIATAN PEMASARAN ?

4 Science for Life TEMUAN SAINTIFIK DAN TEKNOLOGI TELAH MENCIPTAKAN EVOLUSI (REVOLUSI ?) KEHIDUPAN DI DUNIA Knowledge is like light. Weightless and intangibles, it can easily travel the world, enlightening the lives of people everywhere Temuan mesin beban dan jangkauan Temuan optik (mikroskop dan teleskop) Temuan alat audio Temuan alat transportasi Temuan teknologi pangan Temuan komputer Temuan teknologi kesehatan, bersih, energi, material, instrumentasi, dll.

5 Consumer Evolution QuestionIs there a new economy? What’s really changed? Who do customers think they are? What is today ‘s business cycle? Who’s in control? What’s your REAL value proposition Topic Use of technology changes our psychology Our perception of time and space has changed Your products must help people do things better Business is cycleEverything is global Commodities aren’t sustainable proportions Theme Basic business rules still apply We are in a period of concentration You can’t separate yourself from your customer Your business must operate in tune with your customers cycles Scalable business can’t survive in niche markets Don’t sell products, sell something that meets a need Old psychology The future is predictable Unlimited growth was the goal of business Producers controlled product development Business cycles were a few years long Your could survive in inches Market competitiveness is based primarily on price New psychology We live in an uncertain world We can’t waste resources and we must be future oriented Customers need products which make them more effective There are several cycles of change running simultaneously To be sustainable you must be global Customers demand products which are effective when they use them Business strategy Don’t bet on tomorrow Retreat to your core competency Redo your brandGet your cycles in sync with cultural change Define a global market Find a universal need; not a fad. Sumber: Grantham dan Judith, 2002

6 Science for Life PENGETAHUAN UNTUK MEMBANGUN KORPORAT Innovation and value creation Learning Process Knowledge Based Management Leading Corporate Masalah : (nilai --> budaya)+ knowledge gaps

7 Science for Life Membangun kemampuan daya saing C ompetence C reative C onnection Commitment

8 Science for Life ( ) PRODUCT DRIVEN (Production-driven, technology driven) (1980s) MARKET - DRIVEN (Market focused, customer - driven) (1990s) MARKET DRIVING (Innovation - driven)

9 Implementation Performance monitoring Refining strategies and program Situation Analysis Understand the environment and the market Identify threats and opportunities Assess the competitive position Strategy Development Define the business scope and served market segments Establish competitive advantages Set performance objective Marketing Program Development Product and channel decision Communication decisions Pricing Personal selling decisions

10 Definisikan masalah dan tujuan riset Bangun Rencana Riset Kumpulkan data dan informasi Analisis informasi Sampaikan Temuan Riset

11 Riset Pasar Tahapan Identifikasi kebutuhan Definisikan masalah Rancangan Riset Pengumpulan data Analisis data Interpretasi hasil Metode Internal data Observasi Survei Focus Groups Interview Eksperimen

12 Analisis Pasar Analisis Lingkungan Tren Makro Bisnis Perubahan Struktural Kenali situasi “hulu” Kenali situasi “hilir” Analisis Probabilitas Tingkat pengaruhnya terhadap perusahaan Analisis Kompetitor Definisikan kompetitor SWOT Identifikasi competitors: prestasi, tujuan, strategi, structur biaya Konflik, kompetisi, koeksistensi, kerjasama, kolusi

13 Analisis Internal Strengths/ kekuatan Weaknesses/ kelemahan Constraints/ hambatan Uncertainties/ ketidakpastian Customer requirements/ kebutuhan pelanggan

14 Konsep-konsep Kunci Marketing/ pemasaran The marketing imagination Marketing mix (4P) Opportunity and market definition (peluang dan definisi pasar) Segmentation Targeting Positioning Perceptual mapping (pemetaan persepsi) Models of consumer buying (model kebiasaan belanja konsumen) Organizational buying (organisasi pembelajaan ) Organization buying roles (peran organisasi pembelanjaan) Market plan (rencana pasar) Methods of market research Environmental analysis SWOT Internal analysis Positioning strategies Generic strategies for new, growth, mature, and declining markets

15 Struktur Bangun Pemasaran Peluang dan definisi pasar Segmentation Targeting Positioning Rancangan dan implementasi rencana pemasaran

16 Definisi Pasar  Apa Produk nya?  Bagaimana tipe pelanggan?  Bagaimana situasi Geografis Bagaimana Tahapan produksi dan sistem distribusi nya?

17 Segmentasi Pasar Variabel Demografis Geografi Psycho-graphics Benefit/ manfaat Pertanyaan kunci Apa yang dibeli? Bagaimana cara mereka membeli? Dimana mereka membeli? Kapan mereka membeli? Kenapa mereka membeli? Siapa yang membeli?

18 Mengenal Pemasaran secara lebih rinci pada segmen yang lebih kecil Komunitas pembeli siapa saja? Niche marketing (ceruk pemasaran) One-to-one marketing (satu per satu) Relationship marketing (hubungan pemasaran, mis.nya MLM/ Multi-Level Marketing atau Harley-Davidson Club)

19 Targeting Variabel Kunci Ukuran dan potensi penjualan/ sales Potensi pertumbuhan Profitabilitas Kekuatan dan kelemahan pesaing Pengorganisasian kekuatan dan kelemahan Ketepatan Strategi Sumberdaya yang diperlukan Pendekatan Fokus pada segmen tertentu/ single/tunggal Fokus Produk Fokus Pasar Dominasi Pasar

20 Positioning Pendekatan Atribut Produk dan Manfaatnya Usage occasions (saat kejadian) atau fungsi Kategori pengguna/ pelanggan Keunggulan relatif terhadap pesaing

21 Perceptual Mapping (pemetaan persepsi) Light Mild Heavy Bitter

22 Perilaku Pelanggan (Consumer Behavior) Proses pengambilan keputusan, dimana para pelanggan menjadi membeli dan menggunakan produk. Dipengaruhi oleh Proses berpikir/ Thinking processes Proses perasaan/ Feeling processes Proses sosial/ Social processes

23 Bagaimana Pelanggan jadi membeli? Stimulasi Eksternal dan internal – mengenal permasalahan Mencari informasi dan alternatif dalam memenuhi keperluannya/ kebutuhannya Evaluasi alternatif Justifikasi Subjektif Sikap dan pilihan Membeli/ purchase Perilaku setelah membeli/ Post-purchase behavior

24 Kategori Konsumsi Pemecahan masalah konsumsi Perilaku kebiasaan membeli/ belanja Pendorong belanja/ Impulse buying

25 Organizational Buying Different from consumer buying Size and concentration Multiple decision makers Complexity of decisions Close and intricate (many details) relations Professional buyers

26 Organizational Buying Roles Per Webster and Wind, Users Gatekeepers Influencers Deciders Approvers Buyers

27 Organizational Buying Situations Straight rebuy Modified rebuy New task buying Problem recognition Problem defined Responsibilities assigned Search and evaluation Choice among alternatives

28 Types of Products and Services Raw materials Components and partially processed materials Capital goods Ancillary (additional services) equipment Supplies Services

29 Science for Life “ Society continuously expects new ideas, inventions and innovations from private citizens, enterprises, as well as from persons working in scientific and technological development” (International Small Business Congress, 2000) Research Idea generation Idea screening Concept development and testing teruskan stop Marketing Strategy Development Business analysis Product Development Market testing Commer- cialization

30 Marketing Plan A detailed and focused strategy for designing a marketing mix to meet consumer needs and wants and to realize a sustainable competitive advantage

31 Rasional vs Intuisi Terprogram vs Tidak Terprogram Terstruktur vs Tidak Terstruktur a b c d 1 2 * * vs

32 DATA Pengetahuan yang tersebar INFORMASI Mengumpulkan pengetahuan yang tersebar ANALISIS Kategorisasi dan klasifikasi informasi INTELLIGENCE Implikasi untuk pembuatan keputusan

33 1. Metode Saintifik: observasi seksama, formulasi hipotesa, logika sistematik, prediction, dan pengujian 2. Aktifitas Riset: melalui jalan inovatif untuk mengatasi permasalahan 3. Metode ganda (Multiple methods): nilai dalam memanfaatkan lebih dari satu metode dalam rangka menambah hasil yang lebih dipercaya 4. Interdependensi model dan data 5. Nilai dan biaya informasi 6. Skeptisme yang Sehat: skeptisme yang sehat dengan memanfaatkan asumsi yang tepat yang ditetapkan oleh pengelola tentang bagaimana pasar itu ‘bekerja’ 7. Etika pemasaran: memberikan manfaat, baik yang berasal dari sponsor maupun dari pelanggan

34 Science for Life FMIPA UI (Research and Product Development) - Idea generating - idea screening - concept dev. & testing - product development PT BTL (Investasi dan Pemasaran) - Marketing strategy - Market testing - Product development - Commercialization MSLB “KAVERA ” Net-Profit Reinvestment FMIPA UI, PT BTL, Inovator Share New Product derivatives 1, 2, 3…dst Center of excellent for LIDAH BUAYA Pengmbg bisnis per-LIDAH BUAYA-an Contoh 2

35 POSITIONING The act of designing the company’s offering an image to occupy a distinctive place in the target market’s mind Heartshare Marketshare Voiceshare Mindshare ROI KOGNITIFKOGNITIF Afektif Konatif Model Komunikasi Merek Korporat  Identitas korporat  Komunikasi pemasaran  Citra Korporat Strong Positio n 3 langkah mencapai POSISI YANG KOKOH 1.Merumuskan model nilai nasabah (customer value) 2. Mengembangkan hirarki customer value 3. Menetapkan paket customer value Customer Relation Management Positioning Elements: Pricing Prod. Quality Service Distribution MODEL PENINGKATAN POSITIONING KORPORAT Contoh 3

36 MENGEMBANGKAN HIRARKI CUSTOMER VALUE HARVESTING Strategi Komunikasi Pemasaran RISET TERHADAP NASABAH UNTUK: 1.Mengetahui awarerness level dan pemahaman terhadap korporat berikut produk/ jasa 2.Mengetahui kebiasaan nasabah dalam memanfaatkan jasa bank 3.Mengetahui ekspektasi nasabah terhadap elemen positioning 4.Membandingkan dengan pesaing (perceptual mapping) MENETAPKAN STRATEGI DAN TAKTIK PAKET CUSTOMER VALUE MERUMUSKAN MODEL NILAI NASABAH BANK 1.Nasabah Bank Bukopin 2.Nasabah bank kompetitor Review Visi, Misi, Tujuan dan Strategi BUKOPIN LANGKAH TAKTIS YANG DIPERLUKAN Contoh 4

37 METODOLOGI Survey kuantitatif dengan face to face interview menggunakan kuesioner terstruktur POTRET - Perceptual Mapping Bank Bukopin & bank kompetitor Lokasi pengambilan sampel: di kantor bank/ATM wawancara: di rumah/kantor responden Metode Sampling: Non-Probability Sampling Practical Area Sampling & Convenient Sampling Contoh 5

38 Bank BRI Bank Jabar Bank Niaga Bank BTN Bank Danamon Bank Lippo Bank BNI 46 Bank Mandiri Bank BCA Bank Bukopin 1% 2% 3% 5% 7% 78% 0% 1% 4% 7% 23% 15% 22% 0% 4% 12% BANK UTAMA YANG DIGUNAKAN Nasabah [n = 550]Non Nasabah [n = 550]

39 BANK YANG DIKETAHUI ( TOP OF MIND ) 1% 2% 7% 8% 10% 19% 47% 2% 3% 6% 3% 11% 23% 32% 2% 0% Bank Astra Graha Bank BII Bank BTN Bank Danamon Bank Jabar Bank Lippo Bank Bali Bank Mandiri Bank BRI Bank BNI 46 Bank BCA Bank Bukopin Nasabah [n = 550]Non Nasabah [n = 550]

40 24% 47% 44% 64% 36% 17% 9% 11% 23% 39% 45% 74% Bank pemerintah Jumlah Outlet/kantor bank Jaringan ATM yang luas Keamanan (tingkat kesehatan bank) Kecepatan pelayanan Lokasi yang strategis PERTIMBANGAN DALAM MEMILIH BANK Nasabah [n = 550]Non Nasabah [n = 550]

41 APAKAH PERNAH BERPINDAH BANK Nasabah [n = 550] Non Nasabah [n = 550] Tidak 68% Ya 32% Tidak 71% Ya 29% Nasabah Non-nasabah Lokasi Bank/ATM jauh(24%) (18%) Kurang puas pelayanannya(17%) (22%) Potongan administrasi besar(13%) (17%) Karena ada kasus rush/likuidasi(13%) (16%) Lokasi bank yang dituju mudah dijangkau(12%) (10%) Rekomendasi kantor (10%) (6%) Mengapa Pindah Bank ?

42 Non Nasabah [n=550]Nasabah [n=550] LOKASI KANTOR BANK YANG BIASA DI DATANGI 3% 4% 37% 54% 5% 11% 49% 34% Lokasi dekat tempat belanja Lokasi dekat kampus/sekolah Lokasi dekat rumah Lokasi dekat kantor/tempat usaha

43 Riset Geografi Pemasaran Dalam pendekatan Marketing Mix (4P), Geografi Pemasaran menitikberatkan pada salah satu P yaitu PLACE Bagaimana kita dapat merumuskan PLACE dalam kaitannya dengan urusan Pemasaran / Pasar ? Komponen dasar PLACE (geografi): a. Titik b. Garis c. Ruang/Area d. Kombinasi diantara ketiga komponen di atas Metode Penelitian yang digunakan pada prinsipnya sama dengan Riset Pemasaran dan Penelitian Geografi lainnya Teknik Analisisnya menggunakan pendekatan keruangan/ spatial

44 Knowledge Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Creativity Professionalism Level of Year Broad knowledge and understanding of areas of Geography. Fluency in subject vocabulary Problem solving ability. Evidence of understanding. Ability to apply concepts to novel situations. Ability to bring together different facets of material, and to draw appropriate conclusions. Ability to review, assess and criticise one's own work and that of others in a fair and professional manner. Ability to make an original, independent, personal contribution to the understanding of the subject. Ability to act as a practising geographer, to present argument in a skilled and convincing manner and to work alone or in teams 1 Demonstrate a basic understanding of core subject areas, happy with geographical terminology. Demonstrate a knowledge of appropriate supporting analytical techniques (stats., computing, lab and field techniques..) Apply geographical techniques to real situations through class and field examples. Understand that there may be unique or multiple solutions to any issue. Appreciate relative validity of results. Be able to handle material that presents contrasting views on a topic and develop personal conclusions. Draw conclusions from results and identify the relative significance of a series of results. Evaluate the accuracy and reliability of information, results and conclusions. Offer original comment on geographical material. Display or present information in different ways. Be effective in planning time, use of geographical resources including library, computer packages including databases. Present information orally, and written to a high standard. 2 Demonstrate a comprehensive knowledge of specific subject areas. Be able to question the accuracy and completeness of information. Appreciate how different parts of the subject inter-relate. Apply geographical theories to individual situations critically examine the results. Understand that it may be appropriate to draw on multi- disciplinary approaches to analyse and solve geographical problems. To locate and comment on diverse material, add personal research observations and integrate literature based information with personal results. Review existing literature and identify gaps, appraise the significance of results and conclusions. Develop original independent research skills, interpret data and offer personal comment. Be able to display information in a variety of ways. Confident use of computer packages for analysis and information presentation. Confident worker in group and collaborative activities. Produce written work to a high professional standard. 3 Demonstrate a deep understanding of a limited number of specialised subject areas and methods. Appreciate the provisional state of knowledge in subject areas. Understand how to solve problems with incomplete information, how to make appropriate assumptions. To develop appropriate research hypotheses. Question and verify results. Appreciate the breadth of information available. To identify and tap into key elements of the material. Produce coherent reports. Critically appraise information, evidence and conclusions from personal and others work. Gather new information through personal research, draw personal conclusions and show where these insights link to the main subject areas. Be able to set objectives, focus on priorities, plan and execute project work to deadlines. Produce structured, well argued reports. Demonstrate fluency in personal presentations and electronic communication. MA MSc Demonstrate a broad, deep understanding of specialised subject areas and methods. Understand where this knowledge dovetails withthe subject in general. Understand the current limits of knowledge. Demonstrate ability to propose solutions to geographical problems involving appreciation of different approaches, gaps and contradictions in knowledge or data. Differentiation of unique and non-unique answers. Appreciation of reliability of a proposal or result given constraints and assumptions involved. Be able to collate material from a wide range of appropriate geographical and non - geographical sources, integrate personal research material and collate the whole in a coherent, thoughtful and professionally appropriate manner. Be able to work to a specified brief. Perform independent critical evaluation of information, evidence and conclusions, including their reliability, validity and significance. Be able to form and justify judgements in the light of contradictory information. Offer insights into the material under discussion that are independent of data immediately available. Propose investigative approaches to geographical problems utilising geographical and non-geographical methods as appropriate. Be able to make effective confident presentations, answer detailed questions thoughtfully and clearly. Produce substantive reports that are well structured, well reasoned, well presented and clear. Work effectively as a team member and team leader Figure 7:2 Skills matrix for geographers, University of Leeds, 1998 Skills matrix for geographers, University of Leeds, 1998

45 Ilustrasi Analisis Spatial Titik : lokasi / tempat layanan Garis: jaringan transportasi (jalan, sungai, garis layanan transporatsi udara  dapat mempengaruhi alokasi tempat layanan atau sebaliknya Area: wilayah layanan jasa/ produk tertentu untuk segmen pasar pada entitas wilayah layanan tersebut

46 Sumber : bahan kuliah dari Washington Univ. untuk topik Economic and Spatial Structure of Transportation System (Dr. Jean –Paul Rodrigue) Range : batas jangkauan wilayah layanan (jarak) Threshold : batas optimal pasar (jumlah potensi pasar)

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48 Profitable Market Area Jika target pasar ada dalam wilayah jangkauan layanan Not (always)-Profitable Market Area Jika masih ada target pasar ada diluar jangkauan layanan

49 (Pendekatan Teori Christaller)

50 Melayani hanya satu jenis segmen pasar ( only one kind of demand) Melayani lebih dari satu jenis segmen pasar ( more than one kind of demand)

51 Asumsi: Supply tetap Asumsi: Demand tetap Jika harga barang murah maka permintaan akan meningkat dan sebaliknya Jika harga barang murah maka supply/ penawaran barang akan semakin rendah dan sebaliknya Namun situasi di atas pada kenyataannya (diantaranya ) dipengaruhi oleh faktor- faktor manfaat barang, tingkat pendapatan, inflasi, pajak, dan tabungan

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53 Dipengaruhi oleh aksesibilitas dan prinsip2 Supply-Demand-Price di atas Semakin jauh semakin sedikit jumlah pelanggan/ konsumen yang dapat dilayani (Penurunan kapasitas layanan kepada konsumen karena aspek jarak) Area persaingan ketat: antara convenience, grocery, dan superstore Area persaingan antara grocery, dan superstore

54 Contoh: Intervensi Hotel A terhadap market area Hotel B Competitiveness market area yg tinggi (Contoh Lokasi mempengaruhi Kompetisi dari aspek harga)

55 Untuk menghitung perkiraan titik ‘kritis’ jarak persaingan antara “a” dan “b”

56 Reilly’s Law and Market Areas km 15 km 35 km kmabcde a b14.6 c10.3 d5.6 e12.7 a b c d e

57 Biasanya digunakan untuk mengkaji profitabilitas pelanggan relatif terhadap satu lokasi layanan. Dalam kasus di atas Pelanggan di lokasi A lebih memiliki/mendapat manfaat ketimbang di lokasi B  P(Ca) > P(Cb) 37,5 km Pa

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59 Contoh Kasus Menentukan Lokasi Outlet Pizza Hut


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