Nonverbal behaviour plays an important role in human communication
Similarities between verbal & non verbal They are rule –governed Intentionality
Differences Verbal & Nonverbal communication Awareness and Attention Overt and Covert Rules Control Public Versus Private Status Hemispheric Spezialitation
–Functions of nonverbal messages: 1. reinforce the verbal message 2. contradict the verbal message - a tone of voice that sounds angry when you say you aren't angry 3. regulate the conversation 4. supplement or replace the verbal message 5. establish relationships - hugging a loved one
-------- Mehrabian, 1972 : 93 percent of all social meaning in face to face communication is conveyed through nonverbal cues Birdwhistell’s estimate ( 1970) of 65 % is the nonverbal cues
Dubrin describes nonverbal communications as a “silent message” that accompanies verbal messages but that also can stand alone. Nonverbal communication conveys the feeling behind a message and is typically seen in a person’s posture, facial expressions, appearance, vocal inflections, the interpersonal distance between the communicators, and the environment. Cross-cultural differences can also affect nonverbal communications.
Komunikasi Antar Budaya memberi batasan – batasan : Komunikasi non verbal adalah komunikasi tanpa kata Komunikasi non verbal terjadi bila individu berkomunikasi tanpa menggunakan suara Setiap hal yg dilakukan seseorang yg diberi makna oleh orang lain Studi mengenai ekspresi wajah, sentuhan, gerak isyarat, bau, perilaku mata dll.
Batasan – batasan umum komunikasi non – verbal : Perilaku verbal maupun non verbal, mengacu pada komunikasi bersifat metakomunikasi. Perilaku non verbal komunikatif : Perilaku non verbal dalam situasi interaksi selalu mengkomunikasikan sesuatu. Komunikasi non verbal dikendalikan oleh aturan : Aturan – aturan pada komunikasi non – verbal tidak mudah dikenali dan aturan – aturannya sangat bervariasi Perilaku non verbal bermakna rangkap berada dalam konteks :Komunikasi non – verbal terjadi dalam suatu konteks ( situasi,lingkungan, dan konteks akan membantu untuk menentukan makna dari setiap perilaku non verbal) Perilaku non verbal adalah perilaku normal Tindakan – tindakan non – verbal saling terintegrasi Perilaku non verbal dapat dipercaya ( Believable )
Types of Nonverbal Communication Paralinguistics variations in pitch, speed, volume and pauses that convey meaning The Face The Body : Hair, Physique,Dress and Adorment,Artifacts Kinesicsphysical/Gestured Haptics the communication of touch Proxemicsthe communication of space and proximity. Time/Chronemicsthe effects of time on communication
I.PARALANGUAGE Paralanguage refers to any message that accompanies and supplements language Cara bagaimana orang mengucapkan lambang – lambang verbal. Petunjuk verbal menunjukkan apa yg diucapkan Paralinguistik mencerminkan bagaimana cara mengucapkannya.
Paralanguage Vocalic Forms : pitch, rate of speech,rhythm, coughs, giggles, nasality, pauses, silence With spoken language,paralinguistic cues such as loudness, rate of speaking, tone, interjections, pitch variation, use of pauses can have a major influence on whether and how one reacts to the individual and his/her verbalizations
“Apakah ini wajah yang meluncurkan seribu kapal?” Apakah ini wajah yang meluncurkan seribu kapal?”
When we are angry or excited, our speech tends to become more rapid and higher pitched. When we are bored or feeling down, our speech tends to slow and take on a monotone quality. When we are feeling defensive, our speech is often abrup/ kasar
Written Forms The form of a word or statement is also important to interpretation in written language use. Visual appearance of written materials, in term of punctuation, spelling, neatness, the use of space of margins and between words, the document is printed or handwritten, colour of ink are likely to influence the reader’s reaction to the words and its source
THE FACE The Face is a central aspect of one’s appearance Providing the primary source of information as to one’s emotional state : happines,fear,surpri se, sadnes, anger,disgust, contempt, interest
Komunikasi Wajah /Facial expressions : Adalah gerakan – gerakan wajah yang akan dikomunikasikan dalam hubungan antar pribadi untuk mengekspresikan emosi. Ada delapan kategori komunikasi wajah : bahagia, sedih, terkejut, takut, marah, muak, jijik, rasa tertarik. Facial expressions may be unintentional or intentional.
EYE GAZE The eyes are perhaps the most important component of the facial system in terms of communication Based on direction and duration of eye gaze, or the absence thereof, cues provided that serve as the basis of inferences as to : interest, readiness to interact, attraction Pupil size may also to be important Pupil of the eye can be an indication of interest or attraction
Eye Communication Monitor Feedback Secure Attention and Interest Regulate or Control Conversation Signal Nature of Relationship Signal Status and Aggression Compensate for Distance
Eye contact, an important channel of interpersonal communication, helps regulate the flow of communication. And it signals interest in others. Furthermore, eye contact with audiences increases the speaker's credibility. Teachers who make eye contact open the flow of communication and convey interest, concern, warmth and credibility. Eye contact -- Degree, frequency: staring, quick glances, none, etc.
Effect of Positive Eye Contact Effect of Negative Eye Contact Interested and attentive Friendly and approachable Honest and straightforward Disinterested and remote Arrogant and proud Shifty and Untrustworthy
If you roll your eyes you might as well say, 'I'm so over what you're saying' Pleasant, direct eye contact is maintained by looking at the area between the nose and mouth and occasionally to the eyes
THE BODY Appearance plays an important role in interpersonal relations, particularly in initial impression Physical attractiveness is not only important to dating preferences but also is often a predictor of how successful,popular, sociable, credible, etc A number of factor contribute to appearance : hair, physique, dress,adorment, artifacts
Hair Hair and beard length,color, and style also important non verbal message sources There factors contribute to overall attractiveness May also serve as the basis of inferences as to one’s personality,age, occupation,attitudes, beliefs, and values
PHYSIQUE Physique include : body type, size and shape Who appear to be soft,round & overweight (endomorphs)--- affectionate,calm, cheerful,extroverted, forgiving, kind, warm Who appear to be muscular,bony, and athletic – looking (mesomorph)- active, argumentative, assertive, competitive, confident, dominant, optimistic People who are thin & thin in appearance ( ectomorph) -- aloof, anxious, cautious,cool, introspective,meticulous,sensitive, shy
Dress & Adorment Dress fulfills a number of functions for us humans, self- assertion, self denial, concealment, group identification, display of status or role Cosmetics, jewerlry,eyeglasses, tattoos, hair waves, false eyelashes, body piercings Our social idendity and image is defined, sustained and positively or negatively modified by communication through appearance
Artifacts Technology, furniture, decorative items. Cars, home -- objects –that provide from which other my draw inferences about our financial resources, aesthetic preferences, personality, status, occupation
GESTURES-KINESIC Movement of body, head, arms, legs, or feet - Kinesics - also play important role in human communication Gesture, be purposeful – messages which are intended to achieve a particular purpose ---- or incidental and unintended
In the video A World of Gestures, people from all over the world demonstrate the remarkable diversity of international gestures. Can you guess the meaning of this Japanese gesture? a. I'm scared like a bunny b. I've been hearing things about you c. I'm angryI'm scared like a bunnyI've been hearing things about youI'm angry
In A World of Gestures, we see this gesture performed by a woman from Iran. Can you guess what this Iranian gesture means? a. Good luck to you b. You will always be number one for me c. "Screw You" (obscene)Good luck to youYou will always be number one for me"Screw You" (obscene) In A World of Gestures, this woman from France demonstrates this gesture. Can you try to guess what this French gesture means? a. I don't believe you b. I wish I hadn't seen that c. I am looking at a very handsome manI don't believe youI wish I hadn't seen thatI am looking at a very handsome man
Greetings/Farewells -- How are they done? Brief? With warmth, or formality? A clenched fist usually indicates angry and frustrated emotions but can also be used to signify success when the arm is thrust upwards with a clenched fist
Touching your face can indicate tense and nervous behaviour, or indicate confusion or embarrassment. "peace" and "okay."
TOUCH Touch is another source of messages that plays a central role in greetings, the expression of intimacy, and acts of aggression Level of contact and comfort with touching vary to some extent from one culture to another Haptics the study of how we use touch to communicate
III. Proxemics Proxemics the communication of space and proximity. Edward T. Hall (1963) mengenalkan istilah Proxemics. Proxemics merupakan cara bagaimana orang – orang yang terlibat dalam suatu tindak komunikasi berusaha untuk merasakan dan menggunakan ruang ( space). Skala jarak social, digunakan untuk mengukur tingkat kesukaan atau pilihan
Proxemics Fluctuations in each category depend on a number of factors: the culture in which conversation takes places,the ages of interactants,topic being discussed, setting, nature of the relationships, attitutes and feeling of individual
Body positioning and the way space is used play important roles in human interaction Slouching communicates 'I'm so not interested in being here ' Good posture communicates, 'I am listening and paying attention'
Physical environment : building,furniture, décor, lighting, cilor schemes result of human decision making -- elements of our physical environment also serve a number of informational functions. Directing behaviour: each environment with its furniture, décor, color serves as a source of information that may impact on the people present. Provide symbolic value : structures and their contents, by virtue of their size, shape, use of space, décor, may also symbolic significance for us Regulating : environment may also provide the basis for information that regulates-encourages or discourages - interaction
Faktor – faktor yang mempengaruhi komunikasi ruang Status : orang dengan status setara menjaga jarak yg lbh dekat dengan daripada orang dng status berbeda. Konteks: makin besar ruang fisik tempat kita berada, makin kecil jarak pribadi. Kultur Masalah yang dibahas: bicara masalah pribadi, jarak makin dekat. Usia dan Jenis kelamin Evaluasi positif dan negatif : menjaga jarak lbh jauh antara kita dng kita nilai negatif.
Cultural Use of Space In North American corporate offices, for instance, the boss is usually physically isolated in a very separate private room. This tends to minimize his or her personal contact with ordinary workers. In contrast, Japanese offices commonly are set up with the boss's desk at the end of a row of pushed together desks used by subordinate employees. This maximizes his interaction with them.
The objects of our physical environment also serve as non verbal information sources, providing clues as to how they are to be understood, related to, and whether and how they are to be used
KOMUNIKASI TEMPORAL /CHRONEMICS menyangkut penggunaan waktu bagaimana kita mengaturnya, bagaimana bereaksi dan pesan yang dikomunikasikan
TIME Time, timing, timeliness can also be significant in the communication process. The way time is shared in conversation Timing plays a role in interaction at two levels of analysis : (1) micro, (2) macro Micro conversational time- use characteristic : the speed at which we talk, the number and extend of pauses and interruptions, our “talk –to-silence” ratio, our patterns of conversational “turn taking”. There factors can play an important role in term of message transmission, reception and interpretation Too little talking - disinterest Macrolevel : general decisions as to whether to even engage in conversation at a particular point in time Timeliness-being “late” or “early”- be a potential information source
The meaning of verbal & non verbal messages depend not only on the messages that are available but also on our individual ways of processing information and on our social interactions with others Our verbal & non verbal behaviours – some intentionally enacted-create a pool of messages that is part of the environment that surrounds us
!" Nord Chinese gesture for "Thank you for serving me!" South Chinese gesture for "Thank you for serving me!"