2Nonverbal behaviour plays an important role in human communication
3Similarities between verbal & non verbal They are rule –governedIntentionality
4Differences Verbal & Nonverbal communication Awareness and AttentionOvert and Covert RulesControlPublic Versus Private StatusHemispheric Spezialitation
5Functions of nonverbal messages: 1. reinforce the verbal message2. contradict the verbal message - a tone of voice that sounds angry when you say you aren't angry3. regulate the conversation4. supplement or replace the verbal message5. establish relationships - hugging a loved one
6-Mehrabian, 1972 : 93 percent of all social meaning in face to face communication is conveyed through nonverbal cuesBirdwhistell’s estimate ( 1970) of 65 % is the nonverbal cues
7Dubrin describes nonverbal communications as a “silent message” that accompanies verbal messages but that also can stand alone.Nonverbal communication conveys the feeling behind a message and is typically seen in a person’s posture, facial expressions, appearance, vocal inflections, the interpersonal distance between the communicators, and the environment. Cross-cultural differences can also affect nonverbal communications.
8Komunikasi Antar Budaya memberi batasan – batasan : Komunikasi non verbal adalah komunikasi tanpa kataKomunikasi non verbal terjadi bila individu berkomunikasi tanpa menggunakan suaraSetiap hal yg dilakukan seseorang yg diberi makna oleh orang lainStudi mengenai ekspresi wajah, sentuhan, gerak isyarat, bau, perilaku mata dll.
9Batasan – batasan umum komunikasi non – verbal : Perilaku verbal maupun non verbal, mengacu pada komunikasi bersifat metakomunikasi.Perilaku non verbal komunikatif : Perilaku non verbal dalam situasi interaksi selalu mengkomunikasikan sesuatu.Komunikasi non verbal dikendalikan oleh aturan : Aturan – aturan pada komunikasi non – verbal tidak mudah dikenali dan aturan – aturannya sangat bervariasiPerilaku non verbal bermakna rangkapberada dalam konteks :Komunikasi non – verbal terjadi dalam suatu konteks ( situasi,lingkungan , dan konteks akan membantu untuk menentukan makna dari setiap perilaku non verbal)Perilaku non verbal adalah perilaku normalTindakan – tindakan non – verbal saling terintegrasiPerilaku non verbal dapat dipercaya ( Believable )
11Types of Nonverbal Communication Paralinguistics variations in pitch, speed, volume and pauses that convey meaningThe FaceThe Body : Hair, Physique,Dress and Adorment,ArtifactsKinesicsphysical/GesturedHaptics the communication of touchProxemicsthe communication of space and proximity.Time/Chronemicsthe effects of time on communication
12I.PARALANGUAGEParalanguage refers to any message that accompanies and supplements languageCara bagaimana orang mengucapkan lambang – lambang verbal.Petunjuk verbal menunjukkan apa yg diucapkanParalinguistik mencerminkan bagaimana cara mengucapkannya.
13ParalanguageVocalic Forms : pitch, rate of speech,rhythm, coughs, giggles, nasality, pauses, silenceWith spoken language,paralinguistic cues such as loudness, rate of speaking, tone, interjections, pitch variation, use of pauses can have a major influence on whether and how one reacts to the individual and his/her verbalizations
15“Apakah ini wajah yang meluncurkan seribu kapal?”
16When we are feeling defensive, our speech is often abrup/ kasar When we are angry or excited, our speech tends to become more rapid and higher pitched.When we are bored or feeling down, our speech tends to slow and take on a monotone quality.When we are feeling defensive, our speech is often abrup/ kasar
17Written FormsThe form of a word or statement is also important to interpretation in written language use.Visual appearance of written materials, in term of punctuation, spelling, neatness, the use of space of margins and between words, the document is printed or handwritten, colour of ink are likely to influence the reader’s reaction to the words and its source
18THE FACE The Face is a central aspect of one’s appearance Providing the primary source of information as to one’s emotional state : happines,fear,surprise, sadnes, anger,disgust, contempt, interest
19Komunikasi Wajah /Facial expressions : Adalah gerakan – gerakan wajah yang akan dikomunikasikan dalam hubungan antar pribadi untuk mengekspresikan emosi. Ada delapan kategori komunikasi wajah : bahagia, sedih, terkejut, takut, marah, muak, jijik, rasa tertarik.Facial expressions may be unintentional or intentional.
20EYE GAZEThe eyes are perhaps the most important component of the facial system in terms of communicationBased on direction and duration of eye gaze, or the absence thereof, cues provided that serve as the basis of inferences as to : interest, readiness to interact, attractionPupil size may also to be importantPupil of the eye can be an indication of interest or attraction
21Eye Communication Monitor Feedback Secure Attention and Interest Regulate or Control ConversationSignal Nature of RelationshipSignal Status and AggressionCompensate for Distance
22Eye contact, an important channel of interpersonal communication, helps regulate the flow of communication.And it signals interest in others. Furthermore, eye contact with audiences increases the speaker's credibility. Teachers who make eye contact open the flow of communication and convey interest, concern, warmth and credibility.Eye contact -- Degree, frequency: staring, quick glances, none, etc.
23Effect of Positive Eye Contact Interested and attentiveFriendly and approachableHonest and straightforwardEffect of Negative Eye ContactDisinterested and remoteArrogant and proudShifty and Untrustworthy
24If you roll your eyes you might as well say, 'I'm so over what you're saying' Pleasant, direct eye contact is maintained by looking at the area between the nose and mouth and occasionally to the eyes
25THE BODYAppearance plays an important role in interpersonal relations, particularly in initial impressionPhysical attractiveness is not only important to dating preferences but also is often a predictor of how successful,popular, sociable, credible, etcA number of factor contribute to appearance : hair, physique, dress,adorment, artifacts
26HairHair and beard length,color, and style also important non verbal message sourcesThere factors contribute to overall attractivenessMay also serve as the basis of inferences as to one’s personality,age, occupation,attitudes, beliefs, and values
27PHYSIQUE Physique include : body type, size and shape Who appear to be soft,round & overweight (endomorphs)--- affectionate,calm, cheerful,extroverted, forgiving, kind, warmWho appear to be muscular,bony, and athletic – looking (mesomorph)- active, argumentative, assertive, competitive, confident, dominant, optimisticPeople who are thin & thin in appearance ( ectomorph) -- aloof, anxious, cautious,cool, introspective,meticulous,sensitive, shy
28Dress & AdormentDress fulfills a number of functions for us humans, self- assertion, self denial, concealment, group identification, display of status or roleCosmetics, jewerlry,eyeglasses, tattoos, hair waves, false eyelashes, body piercingsOur social idendity and image is defined, sustained and positively or negatively modified by communication through appearance
29Artifacts Technology, furniture, decorative items. Cars, home -- objects –that provide from which other my draw inferences about our financial resources, aesthetic preferences, personality, status, occupation
30GESTURES-KINESICMovement of body, head, arms, legs, or feet - Kinesics - also play important role in human communicationGesture, be purposeful – messages which are intended to achieve a particular purpose ---- or incidental and unintended
33diversity of international gestures. In the video A World of Gestures, people from all over the world demonstratethe remarkablediversity of international gestures.Can you guess the meaning of this Japanese gesture?a. I'm scared like a bunny b. I've been hearing things about you c. I'm angry
34you guess what this Iranian gesture means? In A World of Gestures, we see this gesture performed by a woman from Iran. Canyou guess what this Iranian gesture means?a. Good luck to you b. You will always be number one for me c. "Screw You" (obscene)In A World of Gestures, this woman from France demonstrates this gesture.Can you try to guesswhat this French gesture means?a. I don't believe you b. I wish I hadn't seen that c. I am looking at a very handsome man
35A clenched fist usually indicates angry and frustrated emotions but can also be used to signify success when the arm is thrust upwards with a clenched fistGreetings/Farewells -- How are they done? Brief? With warmth, or formality?
36Touching your face can indicate tense and nervous behaviour, or indicate confusion or embarrassment. "peace" and "okay."
38TOUCHTouch is another source of messages that plays a central role in greetings, the expression of intimacy, and acts of aggressionLevel of contact and comfort with touching vary to some extent from one culture to anotherHaptics the study of how we use touch to communicate
40III. Proxemics Proxemics the communication of space and proximity. Edward T. Hall (1963) mengenalkan istilah Proxemics.Proxemics merupakan cara bagaimana orang – orang yang terlibat dalam suatu tindak komunikasi berusaha untuk merasakan dan menggunakan ruang ( space).Skala jarak social, digunakan untuk mengukur tingkat kesukaan atau pilihan
42ProxemicsFluctuations in each category depend on a number of factors: the culture in which conversation takes places,the ages of interactants,topic being discussed, setting, nature of the relationships, attitutes and feeling of individual
43Body positioning and the way space is used play important roles in human interaction Slouching communicates'I'm so not interested in being here'Good posture communicates, 'I am listening and paying attention'
44Physical environment : building,furniture, décor, lighting, cilor schemes result of human decision making -- elements of our physical environment also serve a number of informational functions.Directing behaviour: each environment with its furniture, décor, color serves as a source of information that may impact on the people present.Provide symbolic value : structures and their contents, by virtue of their size, shape, use of space, décor, may also symbolic significance for usRegulating : environment may also provide the basis for information that regulates-encourages or discourages - interaction
45Faktor – faktor yang mempengaruhi komunikasi ruang Status : orang dengan status setara menjaga jarak yg lbh dekat dengan daripada orang dng status berbeda.Konteks: makin besar ruang fisik tempat kita berada, makin kecil jarak pribadi.KulturMasalah yang dibahas: bicara masalah pribadi, jarak makin dekat.Usia dan Jenis kelaminEvaluasi positif dan negatif : menjaga jarak lbh jauh antara kita dng kita nilai negatif.
46Cultural Use of SpaceIn North American corporate offices, for instance, the boss is usually physically isolated in a very separate private room. This tends to minimize his or her personal contact with ordinary workers. In contrast,Japanese offices commonly are set up with the boss's desk at the end of a row of pushedtogether desks used by subordinate employees. This maximizes his interaction with them.
47The objects of our physical environment also serve as non verbal information sources, providing clues as to how they are to be understood, related to, and whether and how they are to be used
48KOMUNIKASI TEMPORAL /CHRONEMICS menyangkut penggunaan waktu bagaimana kita mengaturnya, bagaimana bereaksi dan pesan yang dikomunikasikan
49TIMETime, timing, timeliness can also be significant in the communication process.The way time is shared in conversationTiming plays a role in interaction at two levels of analysis : (1) micro, (2) macroMicro conversational time- use characteristic : the speed at which we talk, the number and extend of pauses and interruptions, our “talk –to-silence” ratio, our patterns of conversational “turn taking”.There factors can play an important role in term of message transmission, reception and interpretationToo little talking - disinterestMacrolevel : general decisions as to whether to even engage in conversation at a particular point in timeTimeliness-being “late” or “early”- be a potential information source
50The meaning of verbal & non verbal messages depend not only on the messages that are available but also on our individual ways of processing information and on our social interactions with othersOur verbal & non verbal behaviours – some intentionally enacted-create a pool of messages that is part of the environment that surrounds us
51!" Nord Chinese gesture for "Thank you for serving me!" South Chinese gesture for "Thank you for serving me!"