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1 Chapter One: Universals of Interpersonal Communication This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. The Interpersonal Communication Book 11th Ed. The Interpersonal Communication Book 11th Ed. Joseph A. DeVito

2 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Kata Komunikasi atau Communication dalam bahasa Inggris berasal dari kata latin communis yang berarti ”sama” Istilah pertama ( communis) adalah istilah yang paling sering disebut sebagai asal usul kata komunikasi, yang merupakan akar dari kata – kata latin lainnya yang mirip. atau communicare berarti ” membuat sama ” ( to make common ). Komunikasi

3 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Bab I Komunikasi Apa itu Komunikasi? Komunikasi menyarankan bahwa suatu pikiran, suatu makna, atau suatu pesan dianut secara sama akan tetapi definisi kontenporer menyarankan bahwa komunikasi merujuk pada cara berbagi hal – hal tersebut, seperti dalam kalimat ” kita berbagi pikiran ” ” kita mendiskusikan makna ” ” kita mendiskusikan makna ” ” mengirimkan pesan ”. ” mengirimkan pesan ”. Kata lain yang mirip dengan komunikasi adalah komunitas yang juga menekankan kesamaan atau kebersamaan. Komunitas merujuk pada sekelompok orang yang terkumpul atau hidup bersama untuk mencapai tujuan tertentu dan mereka berbagi makna dan sikap. Tanpa komunikasi tidak akan ada komunitas.

4 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon4 HAKEKAT KOMUNIKASI  Sesuai kodratnya “ Homo Socius, homo luden, homo economicus dan homo sapien “, manusia tidak dapat hidup sendiri, manusia membutuhkan interaksi untuk memenuhi kebutuhannya.  Manusia dikatakan sebagai mahluk sosial yang memiliki konsekuensi dimana manusia membutuhkan interaksi antara sesamanya. Interaksi dapat terwujud bila terjadi komunikasi

5 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon5  Homo Socious : manusia makhluk sosial  Homo ludens : manusia yg tertawa, senang  Homo economicus : manusia ekonomis  Homo sapien: manusia bijaksana

6 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon6 TUJUAN KOMUNIKASI  Komunikasi bertujuan untuk kelangsungan hidup, memupuk hubungan dan memperoleh kebahagiaan  Pengembangan kepribadian  Eksistensi & aktualisasi diri  Mengenal diri sendiri dan orang lain

7 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication   Fungsi Komunikasi Komunikasi Sosial Komunik asi ekspresif Komunikasi ritual Komunikas i Instrument al Terdapat empat fungsi Komunikasi:

8 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication  PEMBENTUKAN KONSEP DIRI Konsep diri adalah pandangan kita mengenal siapa diri kita, dan kita hanya bisa peroleh lewat informasi yang di berikan orang lain kepada kita.  Manusia yang tidak pernah berkomunikasi dengan manusia lain tidak mungkin mempunyai kesadaran bahwa dirinya adalah manusia. Kita sadar bahwa kita manusia karena orang orang di sekeliling kita menunjukan kepada kita lewat perilaku verbal dan nonverbal mereka bahwa kita manusia,bahkan kita pun tidak akan pernah menyadari nama kita adalah bahwa kita adalah lelaki, perempuan, pintar, atau menyenangkan. bila tidak ada orang orang disekitar kita yang menyebut kita demikian. I. Komunikasi Sosial Fungsi komunikasi social sebagai komunikasi social setidaknya mengisyaratkan bahwa komunikasi itu penting untuk membangun konsep diri kita, aktualisasi diri, untuk kelangsungan hidup, untuk memperoleh kebahagiaan, terhindar dari tekanan dan ketegangan, antara lain lewat komunikasi yang bersifat menghibur, dan memupuk hubungan dengan orang lain. Melalui komunikasi kita bekerjasama dengan anggota masyarakat untuk mencapai tujuan bersama.

9 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon9 Ramu: the wolf boy Ramu is eating raw meat. What do Ramu’s behaviors suggest about how we developt self concepts

10 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Komunikasi Ekspresif  Erat kaitannya dengan komunikasi sosial adalah komunikasi ekspresif yang dapat dilakukan baik sendirian ataupun dalam kelompok.  Komunikasi ekspresif tidak otomatis bertujuan mempengaruhi orang lain, namun dapat dilakukan sejauah komunikasi tersebut menjadi intrumen untuk menyampaikan perasaan kita.  Perasaan – perasaan terutama dikomunikasikan melalui pesan – pesan nonverbal. Perasaan sayang, peduli, rindu, simpati,gembira, sedih, takut, prihatin, marah dan benci dapat disampaikan lewat kata – kata, namun terutama lewat perilaku nonverbal. Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon10

11 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Fungsi Komunikasi Ritual  Suatu komunitas sering melakukan upacara – upacara berlainan sepanjang tahun dan sepanjang hidup, yang disebut para Antropolog sebagai Rites of pasage, mulai dari upacara kelahiran, sunatan, ulang tahun (nyanyi Happy Brithday dan pemotongan kue), pertunangan, (melamar, tukar cincin) siraman, pernikahan (ijab- qobul, sungkem kepada orang tua, sawer dan sebagainya) ulang tahun, perkawinan, hingga upara kematian.  Dalam acara – acara itu orang mengucapkan kata –kata atau menampilkan perilaku- perilaku tertentu yang bersifat simbolik.  Ritus –ritus lain seperti berdoa (sholat, sembahyang, misa) membaca kitab suci, naik haji, upacara bendera (termasuk menyanyikan lagu kebangsaan), upacara wisuda, perayaan lebaran (idul fitri) atau Natal, juga adalah komunikasi ritual.  Mereka yang berpartisipasi dalam bentuk komunikasi ritual tersebut menegaskan kembali komitmen mereka kepada tradisi keluarga, suku, bangsa, negara, atau agama mereka. Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon11

12 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon12 Komunikasi Instrumental  Komunikasi Intrumental mempuyai beberapa tujuan umum: menginfomasika, mengajar, mendorong, mengubah sikap dan keyakinan, dan mengubah perilaku atau tindakan dan juga untuk menghibur. Bila diringkas, maka kesemua tujuan tersebut dapat disebut membujuk (persuasif).

13 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon13 If your lips keep from slips Five things observe with care; To whom you speak, of whom you speak, And how, and when, and where. W.E. Norris

14 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Interpersonal Communication  Interpersonal Communication is the communication that takes place between two person who have an established relationships ( Joseph De Vito )  Communication between two person  The creating and sharing of meaning between people who are in relationship  Investigating how relationships begin, the maintenance of relationships, and the dissolution of relationships ( Berger; 1979, Dainton & Stafford, 2000). Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon14

15 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication KOMUNIKASI INTERPERSONAL  Komunikasi Interpersonal dapat diartikan pertukaran makna antar orang – orang yang saling berkomunikasi.  Pengertian proses mengacu pada perubahan dan tindakan(action) yg berlangsung terus – menerus. Diantara pihak – pihak yg berkomunikasi diharapkan terjadi perubahan sikap, pendapat dan perilaku.  Komunikasi interpersonal juga merupakan pertukaran, yaitu tindakan menyampaikan dan menerima pesan secara timbale balik. Makna, sesuatu yang dipertukarkan dalam proses tersebut.  Makna adalah kesamaan pemahaman diantara orang – orang yg berkomunikasi terhadap pesan – pesan yg digunakan dalam proses komunikasi.

16 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Figure 14: Human communication involves the construction of meaning (O'Brien, 1990

17 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Benefit Intelektual  Pemahaman mendalam ttg diri anda, org lain dan hubungan  Tahu ttg bagaimana, mengapa, apa KAP  Memahami teori, riset ttg perilaku manusia Praktis  Keefektifan dalam kehidupan pribadi, sosial & profesional.  Ketrampilan interpersonal sangat penting utk kesuksesan profesi dan hubungan  Mencegah kekerasan ditempat kerja  Mengurangi kecelakaan kecil berkaitan dengan medis& memperbaiki komunikasi dokter & pasien  Membangun, memelihara hubungan yg bermakna Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon17

18 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon18 Interpersonal Comm  Talking with coworkers  Giving or responding to a compliment  Making a new friends  Asking for a date  Communicating through instant messaging  Maintaining & repairing relationships  Breaking off relationships  Applying for a jobs  Giving directions  Persuading a supervisor

19 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon19 Nature of Interpersonal Comm  Interpersonal communication involves interdependent individuals  Interpersonal Communication is inherently relational  Interpersonal Communication exists on a continuum  Interpersonal Communication involves verbal & nonverbal messages  Interpersonal communication exist in varied form.

20 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon20 Interdependent individuals  Takes places between people who are in some way connected  Interdependent:  (1) what one person does has an impact on the other person  (2) the actions of one person have consequences for other person

21 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon21 Inherently Relational  IC is invevitably and essentially relational in nature  IC takes place within a relationship; it impacts the relationships, it defines of relationships  The communication takes place in a relationships is in part a function of that relationship  The way you communicated is determined in a great part by the kind of relationship that exist between you & the other person  The way you commnunicate, the way you interact, will you kind of relationships you develop.

22 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon22 Exists on a Continuum :That ranges from relatively impersonal to highly interpersonal ( Miller, 1978,1990)  Impersonal  Individuals are likely to respond to each other according to the roles.  Interact according to the rules of society  The individuals some measure of predictability  Little self – disclosure & little emotional content  Personal  React to each others as unique individuals. They act on the basis of personal information  Interact on the basis of personally establish rules  Your ability to predict & explain behaviors increases

23 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon23 Involves Verbal & Non verbal messages  Interpersonal interaction exchange of both verbal & non verbal messages  The messages will vary greatly depending on the other factors involved in the interaction

24 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon24 Exist in Varied Forms  Often Face-to-Face  Online   Mailing List Groups  Instant Messaging  Chat Groups

25 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication human_com_3rd_jc 25 THE FORMS of Human Communication Computer-Mediated  Skills-Related:  Increasing security in e- communication.  Combining CMC with face-to-face communication.

26 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon26  Face to face  CMC  Menggambarkan siapa kita sebenarnya/karakter personal  Berinterupsi/bersaing dalam pertukaran informasi  Penampilan diatur sesuai pesan yg diinginkan  Karakter personal disembunyikan  Penyampaian pesan bergiliran, tdk dapat diinterupsi, waktu berbicara terbatas

27 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon27

28 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon28 Varies in Effectivenes  Vary greatly Effectivenes & Satisfaction  Highly successful, some are total failures.  Give joy & others give grief

29 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon29 Areas of Interpersonal Communication  Interpersonal Interaction  Health Communication  Family Communication  Intercultural Communication  Business and Organizational  Social and Personal Relationships Microsoft Image

30 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon30  Dyadic Primacy  Dyadic Coalitions  Dyadic Consciousness Nature of Interpersonal Communication Microsoft Image

31 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon31 Dyadic Primacy  Two person relationship  an exchange of information between two people  Dyads are always central to interpersonal relationships

32 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon32 Dyadic Coalitions  Two person relationships formed by members of a larger group for achieving a mutually desired benefit or goal (Wilmot 1999)  Coalitions – whether in the family, among friends, or at work – may be productive or unproductive

33 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon33 Dyadic Consciousness  Your interpersonal relationships depend on what you think about relationship  You begin to see yourself as part of pair, team, couple  Relationship becomes more involved  Individuals sacrifice their own desires or needs for the well-beng relationships

34 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon34 Purposes of Interpersonal Communication  To Learn  To Relate  To Influence  To Play  To Help Microsoft Image

35 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon35

36 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon36  Source-Receiver  Encoding-Decoding  Messages  Feedback Messages Elements of Interpersonal Communication

37 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon37 Source - receiver 1. Masing – masing orang memformulasikan dan mengirin pesan – pesan (source function) dan juga menerima dan memahami pesan- pesan (receiver functions). 2. Source-receiver sebagai satu kesatuan yg tdk terpisahkan 3. Siapa anda, apa yang anda percaya, apa yang anda nilai, apa yang anda inginkan, apa yang telah anda ceritakan dan apa sikap – sikap anda semua mempengaruhi apa yang anda katakan, bagaimana anda mengatakannya, apa pesan – pesan yg anda terima dan bagaimana anda menerima mereka. 4. Masing –masing orang adalah unik; komunikasi masing – masing orang juga unik.

38 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon38 Encoding - Decoding  Encoding mengacu kepada tindakan menghasilkan pesan – pesan sebagai contoh, berbicara – menulis.  Decoding mengacu pada tindakan memahami pesan sebagai contoh, mendengar dan membaca.

39 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Messages Signal – signal yang memberikan stimuli atau rangsangan bagi seorang penerima – seperti yang berhubungan dengan pendengaran (mendengar), visual (melihat), tactile (sentuhan), penciuman (mencium), gustatory ( rasa), atau kombinasi. Anda berkomunikasi secara antar pribadi melalui gesture dan sentuhan,dengan kata – kata dan kalimat. Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon39

40 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon40 Feedfoward Messages  Information you provide before sending your primary message (Richards, 1951)  Reveals some thing about the message to come

41 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Feedback Reactions and responses to messages The response to a message that receiver sends to the source Feedback indicate to the sender whether and how that messages was heard, seen, and interpreted. Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon41

42 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon42 Feedback Messages  Melalui proses komunikasi antar pribadi, anda mempertukarkan umpan balik – pesan – pesan dikirim balik ke pembicara mengenai reaksi pada apa yang dikatakan ( Clement & Frandsen, 1976 ).  Umpan balik memberitahukan pembicara apa akibatnya, apa yang dimiliki oleh pendengar.  Dasar dari umpan balik, pembicara akan membetulkan, merubah, memperkuat, menekankan kembali, atau merubah isi atau bentuk pesan.

43 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon43 Types of Feedback  Positive-Negative  Person Focused-Message Focused  Immediate-Delayed  Low-Monitoring-High Monitoring  Supportive-Critical

44 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon44  Positive Feedback  Smiles, applaus, and head nods signifying approval) tells the speaker that he or she should continue speaking in the same general mode  Negative Feedback  Frowns, boos, puzzled looks, gestures signifying disapproval tells the speaker that something is wrong

45 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon45  Person Focused  Feedback may center on the person  “You’re so sweet,” “ You’ve got a great smile  Message Focused  Can you repeat the phone number?  Your argument is a good one

46 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon46 Elements of Interpersonal Communication Types of Noise  Physical  Physiological  Psychological  Semantic Microsoft Image

47 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon47 NOISE  Any stimulus that interferes with the process of sharing meaning  Is anything that interferes with your receiving a message

48 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon48 Physical Noise  Interference that is external both speaker and listener  It interferes with the physical transmission of the signal or messages

49 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon49 Psychological Noise  Mental interference in speaker or listener  preconceived ideas, wandering thoughts, biases and prejudices, closed mindedness,

50 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon50 Physiological noise  Barriers within the sender or receiver such as: visual empairments, hearing loss, articulation problems,and memory loss  Fisik yang menghambat pembicara/pendengar  Kehilangan pendengaran, masalah artikulasi, kehilangan memori, kerusakan visual  Gangguan yg bersifat biologis terhadap proses komunikasi: pembicara lelah, sakit & lapar

51 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon51 Semantic Noise  Speaker and Listener have different meaning systems  Language or dialectical differences,  Slang (bahasa pasaran), jargon (kata khas, teknis yg digunakan untuk ungkapan tertentu),overly complex terms

52 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon52 Communication context  Context  Physical Dimension  Social-Psychological Dimension  Cultural Context  Ethics Microsoft Image

53 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon53

54 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon54 Physical Context  Its location, the environmental conditions ( temperature, lighting,noise level), The distance between communicators, seating arrangements.

55 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon55 Social Context  The Nature of the relationships that exists between the participants  The roles and the games that people play  The cultural rules of the society in which people are communicating  Friendliness or unfriendliness, formality or informality, seriusness or humorousness  Communication takes places among the family members, friend, work associates or strangers influences what and how messages are formed, shared, and interpreted

56 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon56 Psychological Context  The mood and feelings each person brings to the conversation

57 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon57 Cultural Context  The values, attitudes, beliefs,, and ways of behaving that are shared by a group of people and passed down from one generation to the next  Cultural penetrates into every aspect of our lives, affecting how we thinks, talk (what you say & how you say it), behave, interaction

58 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon58 Ethics in Interpersonal Communication  Interpersonal comm involves ethics  Each comm act has a moral dimension, a rightness or wrongness  Communication choices need to be guided by ethical considerations as well as by concerns with effectiveness & satisfaction.

59 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon59 Competence  Your ability to communicate effectively is your interpersonal competence ( Spitzberg & Cupach,1989;Wilson & Sabee,2003 )  A Measure of the quality of your intellectual and physical interpersonal performance

60 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon60 Principles of Interpersonal Communications

61 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon61 Interpersonal Communication is ambiguous  Message that can be interpreted as having more than one meaning  Ambiguity occurs because people use words that can be interpreted differently  Different people will derive different meaning from the “same” message

62 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon62 Interpersonal Relationships May Be Symmetrical or Complementary  Symmetrical  The two indviduals mirror each other’s behavior (Bateson,1972)  If one member is passionate, the other member is passionate  The relationship is one of equality  The emphasis on minimizing the differences between two individuals  Complementary  Two individuals engage in different behaviours  The behavior of one serves as the stimulus for the other’s complementary behavior  The differences between the parties are maximized  One superior and the other inferior

63 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon63

64 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon64 Interpersonal Communication  Is a Series of Punctuated Events  Communication events are continuous transactions  Everyone separates communication sequences into stimuli and responses the basis of his or her own perspective  This tendency to divide communication transactions into sequences of stimuli and responses (Watzlawick, Beavin, & Jackon,1967).  Punctuation is crucial step in interpersonal communication Microsoft Image

65 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon65

66 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon66 IC is Inevitable,Irreversible, Unrepeatable  Inevitability: you’re communicating even though you might not think you are not even want to be  Irreversibility: what you have communicated remains communicated; you cannot uncommunicate  Unrepeatability every one and everything is constantly changing  Some one can never recapture the exact same situation, frame of mind, or relationship dynamics that defined a previous iterpersonal act

67 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon67 IC Refers to Content and Relationship  Messages refers to content  Messages refers to relationship  The content dimension maybe the same,but the relationship aspect maybe different  The relationship aspect may be the same and the content dimension is different

68 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon68  He : Saya akan pergi bowling besok. Teman- teman akan membentuk tim ( memfokuskan pada isi dan mengacuhkan implikasi hubungan dari pesan)  She: Mengapa kita tidak pernah melakukan bersama – sama? (merespon pada hubungan, mengabaikan implikasi isi pesan, & mengekspresikan ketidaksenangan karena diabaikan dalam pengambilan keputusan)  He: Kita dapat melakukan/pergi bersama lain kali; besok saat mereka membentuk tim ( memusatkan perhatian hanya pada isi)

69 Chapter 1: Universals of Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon69 Understanding Interpersonal Skills Increasing Mindfulness  Create and Recreate Categories  Be Open to New Information and Points of View  Beware of First Impressions  Think Before You Act


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