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Dihimpun oleh: E.Djayadi, M.Mokoginta, Nunuk H., A.Nuril, dan Soemarno PSL-PDKLP-PPSUB 2013 MODAL SOSIAL DALAM KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Dihimpun oleh: E.Djayadi, M.Mokoginta, Nunuk H., A.Nuril, dan Soemarno PSL-PDKLP-PPSUB 2013 MODAL SOSIAL DALAM KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Dihimpun oleh: E.Djayadi, M.Mokoginta, Nunuk H., A.Nuril, dan Soemarno PSL-PDKLP-PPSUB 2013 MODAL SOSIAL DALAM KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN

2 Diunduh dari: ……….5/1/2013 DEFINISI Modal sosial adalah bagian-bagian dari organisasi sosial seperti kepercayaan, norma dan jaringan yang dapat meningkatkan efisiensi masyarakat dengan memfasilitasi tindakan-tindakan yang terkoordinasi. Modal sosial juga didefinisikan sebagai kapabilitas yang muncul dari kepercayaan umum di dalam sebuah masyarakat atau bagian-bagian tertentu dari masyarakat tersebut. Selain itu, konsep ini juga diartikan sebagai serangkaian nilai atau norma informal yang dimiliki bersama di antara para anggota suatu kelompok yang memungkinkan terjalinnya kerjasama.

3 Diunduh dari: ……….5/1/2013 DEFINISI Modal sosial merupakan penampilan organisasi sosial, seperti kepercayaan, norma-norma (atau hal timbal balik), dan jaringan (dari ikatan-ikatan masyarakat), yang dapat memperbaiki efisiensi masyarakat dengan memfasilitasi adanya koordinasi dan kerjasama bagi keuntungan bersama. Modal sosial mencerminkan kemampuan yang timbul dari adanya kepercayaan (trust) dalam sebuah komunitas. Modal sosial merupakan suatu rangkaian proses hubungan antar manusia yang ditopang oleh jaringan, norma- norma dan kepercayaan social yang memungkinkan efisien dan efektifnya koordinasi dan kerjasama untuk keuntungan dan kebajikan bersama. Modal sosial adalah aturan-aturan, norma-norma, kewajiban-kewajiban, hal timbal balik dan kepercayaan yang mengikat dalam hubungan sosial, struktur sosial dan pengaturan-pengaturan kelembagaan masyarakat yang memungkinkan para anggota untuk mencapai hasil sasaran individu dan masyarakat.

4 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 DEFINIFTION OF SOCIAL CAPITAL

5 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 Social capital is a complex theory with many dimensions, types, levels and determinants and although different authors identify different dimensions of social capital all authors seem to agree that social capital is multi-dimensional.dimensionstypes levelsdeterminants Further research is needed to conceptualize the various dimensions within a workable framework. Although widely debated, it is now accepted that social capital exists at the micro, meso and macro levels. Again it is identified that further work is required to conceptualize the various levels, and ownership of social capital as well as the types, to establish an agreed framework and definition. Much work is still required to move the understanding of social capital determinants from the applied theory area to have empirical support. It is now widely accepted that social capital can be increased in the short term however there is a lack of understanding of the processes and how they operate to build or improve social capital structure. Although there has been very little work directly on social capital and natural resource management there are studies that can be applied to the area. Much work is required to understand the interaction of social capital and natural resource management outcomes. Social Capital

6 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 DEFINITIONS OF SOCIAL CAPITAL There are therefore numerous definitions of social capital found in the literature. A considerable number of definitions have been listed in the table below (adapted from Adler and Kwon 2002). They vary depending on whether their focus is primarily on (1) the relations an actor maintains with other actors, (2) the structure of relations among actors within a collectivity, or (3) both types of linkages (Adler and Kwon 2002). A focus on external relations have also been called 'bridging' (Woolcock 1998) or 'communal' (Oh et al. 1999) and a focus on internal relations 'bonding' or 'linking'. Similar categorization could be done according to other criteria such as strong or weak ties, horizontal or vertical, open or closed, structural or cognitive, geographically dispersed or circumscribed, and instrumental or principled (further discussion of these types and categorizations can be found in the types of social capital section). In table 2 below the external definitions are those that focus primarily on the relations as actors maintain with other actors the internal are those that focus on the structure of relations among actors within a collectivity and both types of linkages (Adler and Kwon 2002). 1.Adler, Paul S, and Seok-Woo Kwon 'Social Capital: Prospects For a New Concept.' Academy of Management. The Academy of Management Review 27: Oh, H., M. Kilduff, and D.J. Brass "Communal social capital, linking social capital, and economic outcomes." in Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management. Chicago. 3.Woolcock, Michael "Social capital and economic development: Towards a theoretical synthesis and policy framework." Theory and Society 27:

7 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 DEFINITIONS OF SOCIAL CAPITAL Authors Definitions of Social Capital Baker 'a resource that actors derive from specific social structures and then use to pursue their interests; it is created by changes in the relationship among actors'; (Baker 1990, p. 619). Belliveau, O'Reilly, Wade 'an individual's personal network and elite institutional affiliations' (Belliveau et al. 1996, p. 1572). Bourdieu 'the aggregate of the actual or potential resources which are linked to possession of a durable network of more or less institutionalized relationships of mutual acquaintance or recognition' (Bourdieu 1986, p. 248). 'made up of social obligations ('connections'), which is convertible, in certain conditions, into economic capital and may be institutionalized in the form of a title of nobility' (Bourdieu 1986, p. 243). Bourdieu Wacquant 'the sum of the resources, actual or virtual, that accrue to an individual or a group by virtue of possessing a durable network of more or less institutionalized relationships of mutual acquaintance and recognition' (Bourdieu and Wacquant 1992, p. 119). Boxman, De Graai. Flap 'the number of people who can be expected to provide support and the resources those people have at their disposal' (Boxman et al. 1991, p. 52). Burt 'friends, colleagues, and more general contacts through whom you receive opportunities to use your financial and human capital' (Burt 1992, p. 9). 'the brokerage opportunities in a network' (Burt 1997, p. 355). Knoke 'the process by which social actors create and mobilize their network connections within and between organizations to gain access to other social actors' resources' (Knoke 1999, p. 18). Portes 'the ability of actors to secure benefits by virtue of membership in social networks or other social structures' (Portes 1998, p. 6).

8 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 DEFINITIONS OF SOCIAL CAPITAL Internal/ Bonding/ Linking Brehm Rahn 'the web of cooperative relationships between citizens that facilitate resolution of collective action problems' (Brehm and Rahn 1997, p. 999). Coleman 'Social capital is defined by its function. It is not a single entity, but a variety of different entities having two characteristics in common: They all consist of some aspect of social structure, and they facilitate certain actions of individuals who are within the structure' (Coleman 1990, p. 302). Fukuyama 'the ability of people to work together for common purposes in groups and organizations' (Fukuyama 1995, p. 10). 'Social capital can be defined simply as the existence of a certain set of informal values or norms shared among members of a group that permit cooperation among them' (Fukuyama 1997). Inglehart 'a culture of trust and tolerance, in which extensive networks of voluntary associations emerge' (Inglehart 1997, p. 188). Portes Sensenbrenn er 'those expectations for action within a collectivity that affect the economic goals and goal' seeking behavior of its members, even if these expectations are not oriented toward the economic sphere' (Portes and Sensenbrenner 1993, p. 1323). Putnam 'features of social organization such as networks, norms, and social trust that facilitate coordination and cooperation for mutual benefit' (Putnam 1995, p. 67). Thomas 'those voluntary means and processes developed within civil society which promote development for the collective whole' (Thomas 1996, p. 11).

9 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 DEFINITIONS OF SOCIAL CAPITAL Both types Loury 'naturally occurring social relationships among persons which promote or assist the acquisition of skills and traits valued in the marketplace... an asset which may be as significant as financial bequests in accounting for the maintenance of inequality in our society' (Loury 1992, p. 100). Nahapiet Ghoshal 'the sum of the actual and potential resources embedded within, available through, and derived from the network of relationships possessed by an individual or social unit. Social capital thus comprises both the network and the assets that may be mobilized through that network' (Nahapiet and Ghoshal 1998, p. 243). Pennar 'the web of social relationships that influences individual behavior and thereby affects economic growth' (Pennar 1997, p. 154). Schiff 'the set of elements of the social structure that affects relations among people and are inputs or arguments of the production and/or utility function' (Schiff 1992, p. 160) Woolcock 'the information, trust, and norms of reciprocity inhering in one's social networks' (Woolcock 1998, p. 153).

10 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 DEFINITIONS OF SOCIAL CAPITAL Social Capital Theory Social capital theory is incredibly complex with researchers and practitioners approaching it from various disciplines and backgrounds for various applications. The result is considerable diversity, controversy and disagreement surrounding the theory. Components of the theory: 1.Dimensions 2.Levels 3.Types 4.Determinants 5.Benefits 6.Downsides

11 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 DIMENSIONS OF SOCIAL CAPITAL Dimensions of Social Capital Theory As previously identified, social capital theory suffers from much criticism for being poorly defined and conceptualized. This problem largely stems form the fact that social capital is multi-dimensional with each dimension contributing to the meaning of social capital although each alone is not able to capture fully the concept in its entirety. The main dimensions are commonly seen as: 1.Trust (Coleman 1988; Collier 1998; Cox 1997; Kawachi et al. 1999a; Kilpatrick 2000; Leana and Van Buren III 1999; Lemmel 2001; Putnam 1993; Putnam et al. 1993; Snijders 1999; Welsh and Pringle 2001) 2.Rules and norms governing social action (Coleman 1988; Collier 1998; Fukuyama 2001; Portes and Sensenbrenner 1993) 3.Types of social interaction (Collier 1998; Snijders 1999) 4.Network resources (ABS 2002; Kilpatrick 2000; Snijders 1999) 5.Other network characteristics (Burt 1997; Hawe and Shielle 2000; Kilpatrick 2000; Putnam 1995) Other authors have identified different groups of dimensions, for example Liu and Besser (2003) identified four dimensions of social capital: informal social ties, formal social ties, trust, and norms of collective action. Narayan and Cassidy (2001) identify a range of dimensions illustrated in figure 5. 1.Coleman, James S 'Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital.' The American Journal of Sociology 94: S95. 2.Collier, Paul 'Social Capital and Poverty.' World Bank. 3.Burt, R 'The Contingent Value of Social Capital.' Administrative Science Quarterly 42: Fukuyama F 'Social capital, civil society and development.' Third World Quarterly 22: Narayan, Deepa, and Michael F. Cassidy "A dimensional approach to measuring social capital: development and validation of a social capital inventory." Current Sociology 49: Putnam, R "Bowling alone: America's declining social capital." Journal of Democracy 6: Snijders, T.A.B "Prologue to the measurement of social capital." The Tocqueville Review 20:

12 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 DIMENSIONS OF SOCIAL CAPITAL The dimensions of social capital defined by Narayan and Cassidy (2001). Source: Narayan and Cassidy (2001).

13 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 DIMENSIONS OF SOCIAL CAPITAL Piazza-Georgi (2002) posited that Woolcock (1998) was the first to attempt a dissection of the concept of social capital within a unified conceptual framework. She goes on to state that Woolcock does this by defining four dimensions of social capital, in two pairs of opposing concepts: embeddedness and autonomy, and the macro and the micro level. Four dimensions of social capital defined by Michael Woolcock (1998). Source: Woolcock (1998).

14 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 TYPES OF SOCIAL CAPITAL Attempts to more thoroughly conceptualize social capital have resulted in many authors identifying different types and characteristics, the most common being the distinction of structural and cognitive, and bonding and bridging. Although not always called the same thing, the distinction between bridging and bonding (and often linking as well) is common in the literature. Aldridge, Halpern et al. (2002) identified these main types of social capital. Bonding is horizontal, among equals within a community whereas bridging is vertical between communities (Dolfsma and Dannreuther 2003). Wallis (1998) and Wallis and Crocker et al (1998) referred to bonding capital as localized which he defined as being found among people who live in the same or adjacent communities, and bridging capital, which extends to individuals and organizations that are more removed. Bridging social capital is closely related to thin trust, as opposed to the bonding (splitting) social capital of thick trust (Anheier and Kendall 2002). 1.Aldridge, Stephen, David Halpern, and Sarah Fitzpatrick Social Capital: A Discussion Paper. London, England: Performance and Innovation Unit.Anheier, Helmut, and Jeremy Kendall 'Interpersonal Trust and Voluntary Associations.' British Journal of Sociology 53: Wallis, Allan "Social capital and community building.(Building Healthier Communities: Ten Years of Learning)(part 2)." National Civic Review 87: Wallis, Allan, Jarle P. Crocker, and Bill Schechter "Social capital and community building, part 1." National Civic Review 87: Dolfsma, Wilfred, and Charlie Dannreuther 'Subjects and boundaries: Contesting social capital-based policies.' Journal of Economic Issues 37:

15 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 TYPES OF SOCIAL CAPITAL The other important distinction of social capital, developed by Norman Uphoff and Wijayaratna (2000) spans the range from structural manifestations of social capital to cognitive ones (Grootaert and Van Bastelaer 2002a). Structural social capital facilitates mutually beneficial collective action through established roles and social networks supplemented by rules, procedures and precedents (Hitt et al. 2002). Cognitive social capital, which includes shared norms, values, attitudes, and beliefs, predisposes people towards mutually beneficial collective action (Krishna and Uphoff 2002; Uphoff 1999). Cognitive and structural forms of social capital are commonly connected and mutually reinforcing (Uphoff and Wijayaratna 2000). 1.Grootaert, Christiaan, and Thierry Van Bastelaer. 2002a. 'Conclusion: measuring impact and drawing policy implications.' Pp in The Role of Social Capital in Development, edited by Thierry Van Bastelaer. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press. 2.Hitt, Michael A, Ho-Uk Lee, and Emre Yucel 'The importance of social capital to the management of multinational enterprises: Relational networks among Asian and Western firms." Asia Pacific Journal of Management 19: Krishna, Anirudh, and Norman Uphoff 'Mapping and measuring social capital through assessment of collective action to conserve and develop watersheds in Rajasthan, India." Pp , in The Role of Social Capital in Development, edited by Thierry Van Bastelaer. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press. 4.Uphoff, Norman "Understanding social capital: Learning from the analysis and experience of participation." Pp in Social Capital: A multifaceted perspective, edited by Ismail Serageldin. Washington, DC: World Bank. 5.Uphoff, Norman, and C. M. Wijayaratna "Demonstrated Benefits from Social Capital: The Productivity of Farmer Organizations in Gal Oya, Sri Lanka." World Development 28:

16 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 TYPES OF SOCIAL CAPITAL There are numerous other examples in the literature; for example, whether its ties are strong (intensive and repeated) or weak (temporary and contingent); vertical (operating through formal hierarchical structures) or horizontal (in which authority is more decentralized); open (civically engaged and exercising open membership) or closed (protective and exercising closed membership); geographically dispersed or circumscribed; and instrumental (membership as social collateral for individual wants) or principled (membership as bounded solidarity) (Heffron 2000). These varieties of types of social capital require further exploration to establish a widely agreed upon framework, vital for empirical analysis (Van Deth 2003). 1.Heffron, John M 'Beyond community and society: The externalities of social capital building.' Policy Sciences 33: Van Deth, Jan W "Measuring social capital: orthodoxies and continuing controversies." International Journal of Social Research Methodology 6: 79.

17 The determinants are numerous and varied and there is both a lack of consensus and a lack of evidence to support the propositions. Several influential studies have suggested that social capital's roots are buried in centuries of cultural evolution (Fukuyama 1995; Putnam et al. 1993). Other investigators suggest that social capital can be created in the short term to support political and economic development (Brown and Ashman 1996; Fox 1994). Aldridge, Halpern et al (2002) suggested that the main determinants of social capital include: history and culture; whether social structures are flat or hierarchical; the family; education; the built environment; residential mobility; economic inequalities and social class; the strength and characteristics of civil society; and patterns of individual consumption and personal values. Pantoja (1999) identified a different set again, including: family and kinship connections; wider social networks of associational life covers the full range of formal and informal horizontal arrangements; networks; political society; institutional and policy framework which includes the formal rules and norms that regulate public life; and social norms and values. The majority of these claims originate in applied theory and stem from much work done on other concepts such as network analysis, civic society, cultural studies, education, psychology, and many others. Even where empirical research has been performed, the findings have questionable validity. 1.Brown, L. David, and Darcy Ashman 'Participation, Social Capital, and Intersectoral Problem Solving: African and Asian Cases.' World Development 24: Fox,J 'The difficult transition from clientelism to citizenship: Lessons from Mexico.' World Politics 46: Fukuyama, Francis Trust : the social virtues and the creation of prosperity. London: Hamish Hamilton. 4.Pantoja, E "Exploring the concept of social capital and its relevance for community based development: the case of minin areas in Orissa, India." South Asia Infrastructure Unit, World Bank. DETERMINANTS OF SOCIAL CAPITAL Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013

18 The importance of social capital theory is apparent from the literature with many empirical studies that purport to show the importance of social capital to a very wide-ranging set of socioeconomic phenomena (Durlauf 2002a; Krishna 2001). Adam and Roncevic (2003) stated that: 'despite problems with its definition as well as its operationalization, and despite its (almost) metaphorical character, social capital has facilitated a series of very important empirical investigations and theoretical debates which have stimulated reconsideration of the significance of human relations, of networks, of organizational forms for the quality of life and of developmental performance'. 1.Adam, Frane, and Borut Roncevic 'Social Capital: Recent Debates and Research Trends.' Social Science Information 42: Durlauf, Steven N. 2002a. 'On the empirics of social capital.' The Economic Journal 112: Krishna, Anirudh 'Creating and Harnessing Social Capital.' Pp. pp in Social Capital: A multifaceted perspective, edited by Ismail Serageldin. Washington, DC: World Bank 'Moving from the Stock of Social Capital to the Flow of Benefits: The Role of Agency.' World Development 29: Benefits and Importance OF SOCIAL CAPITAL Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013

19 Requena (2003) suggested that the importance of social capital lies in that it brings together several important sociological concepts such as social support, integration and social cohesion. This view is supported by Rothstein (2003) who stated that the real strength of social capital theory is the combination of macro-sociological historical structures with micro- level causal mechanisms, a rare feature in the social sciences. The literature recognizes social capital as important to the efficient functioning of modern economies, and stable liberal democracy (Fukuyama 2001; Kenworthy 1997), as an important base for cooperation across sector and power differences, and an important product of such cooperation (Brown and Ashman 1996), and Lyon (2000) described the importance of social capital in shaping regional development patterns. It is clear that social capital is of importance in societal wellbeing. Some aspects of the concept, such as inter-personal trust, are clearly desirable in themselves while other aspects are more instrumental (Bankston and Zhou 2002). Optimism, satisfaction with life, perceptions of government institutions and political involvement all stem from the fundamental dimensions of social capital (Narayan and Cassidy 2001). 1.Brown, L. David, and Darcy Ashman 'Participation, Social Capital, and Intersectoral Problem Solving: African and Asian Cases.' World Development 24: Fukuyama F 'Social capital, civil society and development.' Third World Quarterly 22: Kenworthy, Lane 'Civic Engagement, Social Capital, and Economic Cooperation.' American Behavioral Scientist 40: Lyons, Mark 'Non-profit organisations, social capital and social policy in Australia." Pp in Social capital and public policy in Australia, edited by Ian Winter. Melbourne: National Library of Australia. 5.Narayan, Deepa, and Michael F. Cassidy "A dimensional approach to measuring social capital: development and validation of a social capital inventory." Current Sociology 49: Rothstein, Bo "Social capital, economic growth and quality of government: The causal mechanism." New Political Economy 8: Benefits and Importance OF SOCIAL CAPITAL Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013

20 Social capital is charged with a range of potential beneficial effects including: 1.facilitation of higher levels of, and growth in, gross domestic product (GDP); 2.facilitation of more efficient functioning of labor markets; 3.lower levels of crime; and 4.improvements in the effectiveness of institutions of government (Aldridge et al. 2002; Halpern 2001; Kawachi et al. 1999b; Putnam et al. 1993). Social capital is an important variable in educational attainment (Aldridge et al. 2002; Israel et al. 2001), public health (Coulthard et al. 2001; Subramanian et al. 2003), community governance, and economic problems (Bowles and Gintis 2002), and is also an important element in production (Day 2002). Economic and business performance at both the national and sub- national level is also affected by social capital (Aldridge et al. 2002). Others have emphasized the importance of social capital for problem solving and how only certain types of social capital contribute to this (Boyte, 1995). 1.Aldridge, Stephen, David Halpern, and Sarah Fitzpatrick Social Capital: A Discussion Paper. London, England: Performance and Innovation Unit. 2.Bowles, Samuel, and Herbert Gintis 'Social Capital and Community Governance.' The Economic Journal 112: Boyte, H 'Beyond Deliberation: Citizenship as Public Work.' in PEGS conference, edited by Civic Practices Network. 4.Coulthard, M, A Walker, and A Morgan 'Assessing people's perceptions of their neighbourhood and community involvement (Part 1'quot; London: Health Development Agency. 5.Day, Ronald E 'Social capital, value, and measure: Antonio Negri's challenge to capitalism.' Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 53: Israel, Glenn, Lionel Beaulieu, and Glen Hartless 'The influence of family and community social capital on educational achievement." Rural Sociology 66: Subramanian, S. V., Kimberly A. Lochner, and Ichiro Kawachi "Neighborhood differences in social capital: a compositional artifact or a contextual construct?" Health & Place 9: Benefits and Importance OF SOCIAL CAPITAL Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013

21 The same characteristics of social capital that enable beneficial, productive benefits have the potential to cause negative externalities. Potential downsides of social capital include: 1.Fostering behavior that worsens rather than improves economic performance; 2.Acting as a barrier to social inclusion and social mobility; 3.Dividing rather than uniting communities or societies; 4.Facilitating rather than reducing crime, education underachievement and health- damaging behavior. (Aldridge et al. 2002). The same orchestrating mechanisms that reduce transaction costs in market exchange can have negative consequences (Carroll and Stanfield 2003); Erickson (2002) supports this identifying the following paradox: 'every feature of social structure can be social capital in the sense that it produces desired outcomes, but also can be a liability in the sense that it produces unwanted results'. Social capital can become a constraint to individuals' actions and choices (Wall et al. 1998). For example, there is a particularly high risk of negative social capital in urban poverty situations (Small 2002). A stock of social capital is simultaneously productive and perverse. Simplistically speaking, the make up of these types determines the structure of the overall social capital present. As this is highly context specific further research is required to understand the causal relationships that determine the realization of productive, or perverse, social capital. 1.Aldridge, Stephen, David Halpern, and Sarah Fitzpatrick Social Capital: A Discussion Paper. London, England: Performance and Innovation Unit. 2.Carroll, Michael C, and James Ronald Stanfield 'Social capital, Karl Polanyi, and American social and institutional economics.' Journal of Economic Issues 37: Small, Mario Luis "Culture, cohorts, and social organization theory: Understanding local participation in a Latino housing project." The American Journal of Sociology 108: Wall, Ellen, Gabriele Ferrazzi, and Frans Schryer "Getting the goods on social capital." Rural Sociology 63: Disadvantages OF SOCIAL CAPITAL Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013

22 Further to dimensional problems, social capital has been located at the level of the individual, the informal social group, the formal organization, the community, the ethnic group and even the nation (Bankston and Zhou 2002; Portes 1998; Sampson et al. 1999).dimensional There are divergent views in the literature; some authors posit social capital at the individual level, some the community level and others have a more dynamic view. Kilby (2002) stated that social capital exists within levels or scales as one feels belonging to family, community, profession, country, etc, simultaneously. Adler and Kwon (2002) supported this stating that social capital's sources lie in the social structure within which the actor is located. Thus, social capital can be thought of as having an individual and an aggregate component (Buys and Bow 2002). That is, social capital belongs to the group and can be used by the group or individuals within the group (Kilpatrick et al. 1998; Sander 2002). 1.Adler, Paul S, and Seok-Woo Kwon 'Social Capital: Prospects For a New Concept.' Academy of Management. The Academy of Management Review 27: Bankston, Carl L, and Min Zhou 'Social Capital as a Process: The Meanings and Problems of a Theoretical Metaphor.' Sociological Inquiry 72: Buys, Laurie, and Val Bow 'The impact of privacy on social capital.' in Social Change in the 21st Century Conference. Brisbane: QUT. 4.Kilpatrick, Sue, Rowena Bell, and Ian Falk 'Groups of Groups: the role of group learning in building social capital.' Pp. 13. Launceston: Centre for Research and Leaning in Regional Australia. 5.Sampson, Robert J, Jeffrey D Morenoff, and Felton Earls "Beyond Social Capital: Spatial dynamics of collective efficiancy for children." American Journal of Sociological Review 64: Sander, Thomas H "Social capital and new urbanism: leading a civic horse to water." National Civic Review 91: LEVELS AT WHICH SOCIAL CAPITAL IS LOCATED Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013

23 Brewer (2003) stated that although social capital was originally conceived as a community-wide concept, it should be observable at the individual level. Baum and Ziersch (2003) disagreed with this, identifying that Bourdieu identified it at the individual level and that Putnam since at the community level. Coleman argued that social capital is not an attribute of individuals but a context-dependent aspect of social structure (Hogan and Owen 2000; Robinson 2000). Glaeser, Laibson et al (2002) identified that post-Coleman literature has almost universally viewed social capital as a community-level attribute. Social capital and civil society are essentially social and collective property of social systems, not a characteristic of individuals (Newton 2001). The key empirical difference between human and social capital is that social capital inheres in relations between individuals and groups, not in individuals per se (Edwards and Foley 1998). The general consensus in the literature is that social capital is identifiable from the individual level to the level of the nation however it is clear that social capital is evident at any level where there is identification and belonging. The classification into micro (individual), meso (group) and macro (societal) is useful in analysis of social capital. 1.Baum, FE, and AM Ziersch 'Social Capital.' Journal of Epidemiology Community Health 57: Brewer, Gene A 'Building Social Capital: Civic Attitudes and Behavior of Public Servants.' Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 13: Edwards, Bob, and Michael Foley 'Civil society and social capital beyond Putnam.' American Behavioural Scientist 42: Glaeser, Edward L, David Laibson, and Bruce Sacerdote 'An economic approach to social capital.' The Economic Journal 112: Hogan, David, and David Owen 'Social capital, active citizenship and political equality in Australia.' Pp in Social capital and public policy in Australia, edited by Ian Winter. Melbourne: National Library of Australia. 6.Newtonj, K "Trust, social capital, civil society, and democracy." International Political Science Review 22: LEVELS AT WHICH SOCIAL CAPITAL IS LOCATED Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013

24 The goods produced by social capital can also occur at different levels of the social structure (Paxton 1999). It can be a private good or a public good depending on the level (Aldridge et al. 2002). Onyx and Bullen (2001) supported this identifying that social capital appears to be both a private and a public good. There is not consensus in the literature however. Coleman (1988) argued that social capital is a public good, however Fukuyama posited that it is in fact a private good (Fukuyama 2001; Fukuyama 2002). Fukuyama (2002) suggested that social capital is not a public good but a private good that produces extensive positive and negative externalities. This is supported by Dasgupta (1999) who stated that 'social capital is a private good that is nonetheless pervaded by externalities, both positive and negative'. Illustration of the interaction of levels at which social capital exists. 1.Coleman, James S 'Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital.' The American Journal of Sociology 94: S95. 2.Paxton, Pamela "Is social capital declining in the United States? A multiple indicator assessment." The American Journal of Sociology 105: Onyx, Jenny, and Paul Bullen "The different faces of social capital in NSW Australia." Pp in Social Capital and Participation in Everyday Life, edited by Eric M. Uslaner. London: Routledge. 4.Fukuyama, F 'Social capital, civil society and development.' Third World Quarterly 22: 'Social capital and development: The coming agenda.' SAIS Review 22: LEVELS AT WHICH SOCIAL CAPITAL IS LOCATED Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013

25 Enhanced social capital can improve environmental outcomes through decreased costs of collective action, increase in knowledge and information flows, increased cooperation, less resource degradation and depletion, more investment in common lands and water systems, improved monitoring and enforcement (Anderson et al. 2002). There is a growing interest in social capital and its potential impact for affecting collective action in sustainable renewable natural resource institutions (Rudd 2000; Sobels et al. 2001; Walters 2002). Pretty and Ward (2001) identified that where social capital is well-developed, local groups with locally developed rules and sanctions are able to make more of existing resources than individuals working alone or in competition. Social capital indicates a community's potential for cooperative action to address local problems (Fukuyama 2001). As it lowers the costs of working together, social capital facilitates cooperation and voluntary compliance with rules (Isham and Kahkonen 2002). The norm of generalized reciprocity assists in the solution of problems of collective action. Adler and Kwon (2002) identified that it transforms individuals from self-seeking and egocentric agents with little sense of obligation to others into members of a community with shared interests, a common identity, and a commitment to the common good. Brewer (2003) believed that denser networks increase the likelihood that people will engage in collective action. There is also evidence linking social capital to greater innovation and flexibility in policy making (Knack 2002). 1.Adler, Paul S, and Seok-Woo Kwon 'Social Capital: Prospects For a New Concept.' Academy of Management. The Academy of Management Review 27: Anderson, C. Leigh, Laura Locker, and Rachel Nugent 'Microcredit, Social Capital, and Common Pool Resources.' World Development 30: Brewer, Gene A 'Building Social Capital: Civic Attitudes and Behavior of Public Servants.' Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 13: Isham, Jonathan, and Satu Kahkonen 'How do participation and social capital affect community-based water projects? Evidence from Central Java, Indonesia." Pp. 155, in The Role of Social Capital in Development, edited by Thierry Van Bastelaer. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press. 5.Knack, Stephen 'Social capital and the quality of government: Evidence from the states.' American Journal of Political Science 46: Pretty, Jules, and Hugh Ward "Social capital and the environment." World Development 29: Social Capital and Natural Resource Management Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013

26 In the field of development it offers the potential for more participatory, sustainable and empowering approaches in theory and practice (Chhibber 1999). Krishna and Uphoff (2002) found that an index of social capital variables is positively and consistently correlated with superior development outcomes. Social and human capital, embedded in participatory groups within rural communities has been central to equitable and sustainable solutions to local development problems (Pretty and Frank 2000). Grootaert and Van Bastelaer (2002a) stated that social capital has a profound impact in many different areas of human life and development: it affects the provision of services, in both urban and rural areas; transforms the prospects for agricultural development; influences the expansion of private enterprises; improves the management of common resources; helps improve education; can contribute to recovery from conflict; and can help compensate for a deficient state. Social capital is critical for poverty alleviation and sustainable human and economic development (Dolfsma and Dannreuther 2003). It represents a potential link between policy level thinking and community level action (Pretty and Ward 2001). The mobilization of social capital requires a high degree of sensitivity to the specific nature of the societies involved in order to have positive effects (McHugh and Prasetyo 2002). Social capital reduces the costs associated with working together thereby facilitating collective action (Ostrom 1994). There is a need for further research in this area. 1.Chhibber, Ajay 'Social capital, the state, and development outcomes.' Pp in Social Capital: A multifaceted perspective, edited by Ismail Serageldin. Washington, DC: World Bank. 2.Dolfsma, Wilfred, and Charlie Dannreuther 'Subjects and boundaries: Contesting social capital-based policies.' Journal of Economic Issues 37: Grootaert, Christiaan, and Thierry Van Bastelaer. 2002a. 'Conclusion: measuring impact and drawing policy implications.' Pp in The Role of Social Capital in Development, edited by Thierry Van Bastelaer. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press. 4.McHugh, Rebecca, and Raphael Jane Prasetyo "Social capital in Asia: A proposal for discussion." The International Scope Review 4. 5.Ostrom, Elinor "Consituting social capital and collective action." Journal of Theoretical Politics 6: Pretty, Jules, and B.R. Frank "Participation and social capital formation in natural resource management: Achievements and lessons." in Plenary paper for International Landcare 2000 Conference. Melbourne, Australia. 7.Pretty, Jules, and Hugh Ward "Social capital and the environment." World Development 29: Social Capital and Natural Resource Management Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013

27 Diunduh dari: social.html……….4/1/2013 the three dimensions of social capital and its relation with social performance: relational capital involves interpersonal networking, organizational capital involves the quality and effectivenes of organizations and ecosystems to deliver value and institutional capital refers to the rules of the game -rule of law, protection of contracts, customers and markets-. As organizational capital, both Groupon and Facebook have serious shortcomings that customers and now stockholders are starting to recognize -and price-. As institutions, both have dangerously loose rules and regulations. THE THREE DIMENSIONS OF SOCIAL CAPITAL

28 Diunduh dari: social.html……….4/1/2013 In Finland, Petri Ruuskanen (2001) has proposed a distinction between the sources, mechanisms and outcomes of social capital, stressing the importance of keeping these dimensions apart in the measurement of social capital. Sources, mechanisms and outcomes of social capital according to Ruuskanen's presentation

29 Diunduh dari: social.html……….4/1/2013 The sources of social capital are considered separately at three different levels, i.e. the individual, community and society. A similar distinction is made by David Halpern, who distinguishes between the micro, meso and macro level of social capital (Halpern 2005). The mechanisms of social capital, trust and communication, facilitate the flow of information from one individual to another and make it easier for people to maintain contact with one another. According to Ruuskanen both the sources and the outcomes of social capital are apparently context-dependent, whereas its mechanisms seem to work in the same way across different contexts. (Ruuskanen 2001.) Trust is variably considered as either a source or an outcome of social capital. Michael Woolcock (2000), for example, takes the view that trust is an outcome rather than a feature or source of social capital. Some definitions of social capital do not mention trust at all. This is the case with the OECD definition of social capital, even though trust does appear in the OECD statistical framework. Indeed most research in OECD countries recognizes trust as an important dimension of social capital (Ilmonen 2005). In international comparisons the measure of trust has uncovered clear country differences in social capital. Sources, mechanisms and outcomes of social capital

30 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 SOCIAL CAPITAL FRAMEWORK 1.Boeck, Thilo & Fleming, Jennie (2005). Social policy—a help or a hindrance to social capital? Social Policy and Society, 4(3), Field, John (2003). Social capital. London: Routledge. 3.Morrow, Virginia (2002). Children's experiences of "community" implications of social capital discourses. In Catherine Swann (Ed.), Social capital and health— insights from qualitative research (pp.9-28). London: HDA. 4.Onyx, Jenny & Bullen, Paul (2000). Measuring social capital in five communities. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 36(1), Putnam, Robert (2000). Bowling alone—the collapse and revival of American community new. New York: Simon & Schuster. :

31 Diunduh dari: trust-you.html……….4/1/2013 RECIPROCITY Reciprocity - do i trust you? SOCIAL CAPITAL FRAMEWORK

32 Diunduh dari: TRUST Definitions of trust typically refer to a situation characterised by the following aspects: One party (trustor) is willing to rely on the actions of another party (trustee); the situation is directed to the future. In addition, the trustor (voluntarily or forcedly) abandons control over the actions performed by the trustee. As a consequence, the trustor is uncertain about the outcome of the other's actions; he can only develop and evaluate expectations. The uncertainty involves the risk of failure or harm to the trustor if the trustee will not behave as desired. Trust can be attributed to relationships between people. It can be demonstrated that humans have a natural disposition to trust and to judge trustworthiness that can be traced to the neurobiological structure and activity of a human brain, and can be altered e.g. by the application of oxytocin. Conceptually, trust is also attributable to relationships within and between social groups (families, friends, communities, organisations, companies, nations etc.). It is a popular approach to frame the dynamics of inter-group and intra-group interactions in terms of trust. When it comes to the relationship between people and technology, the attribution of trust is a matter of dispute. The intentional stance demonstrates that trust can be validly attributed to human relationships with complex technologies. However, rational reflection leads to the rejection of an ability to trust technological artefacts. SOCIAL CAPITAL FRAMEWORK

33 Diunduh dari: ……….5/1/2013 Trust is one of several social constructs, an element of the social reality. Other constructs, frequently discussed together with trust, are: control, confidence, risk, meaning and power. Trust is naturally attributable to relationships between social actors, both individuals and groups (social systems). Because trust is a social construct, it is valid to discuss whether trust can be trusted (e.g. ), i.e. whether social trust operates as expected. Society needs trust because it increasingly finds itself operating at the edge between confidence in what is known from everyday experience, and contingency of new possibilities. Without trust, all contingent possibilities should be always considered, leading to a paralysis of inaction. Trust can be seen as a bet on one of contingent futures, the one that may deliver benefits. Once the bet is decided (i.e. trust is granted), the trustor suspends his or her disbelief, and the possibility of a negative course of action is not considered at all. Because of it, trust acts as a reductor of social complexity, allowing for actions that are otherwise too complex to be considered (or even impossible to consider at all); specifically for cooperation. Sociology tends to focus on two distinct views: the macro view of social systems, and a micro view of individual social actors (where it borders with social psychology). Similarly, views on trust follow this dichotomy. Therefore, on one side the systemic role of trust can be discussed, with a certain disregard to the psychological complexity underpinning individual trust. The behavioural approach to trust is usually assumed while actions of social actors are measurable, leading to statistical modelling of trust. This systemic approach can be contrasted with studies on social actors and their decision-making process, in anticipation that understanding of such a process will explain (and allow to model) the emergence of trust. SOCIAL CAPITAL FRAMEWORK

34 Diunduh dari: important.html……….5/1/2013 Trust in each other gives strength and vitality to our relationships. It gives us inner happiness, which is priceless. It brings joy all around and life appears brighter and brighter. Its fragrance spreads far and wide. Trust keeps us in a positive mental framework. When you trust each other you feel self-confident. The feeling of believing others is electrifying. It not only provides sense of security but provides us new zeal to fight the vagaries of life. Trusting each other gives us a sense of deep bonding. It signifies that we are united to fight the battles ahead. Is Trust Important?

35 Diunduh dari: 10.html……….5/1/2013 This is a 1.0 version of a formula for measuring trust in relationships. It's intended to use a formula for assessing the complex and intangible dynamic of trust. It basically says that trust is the multiplication of weighted expectations and delivery on expectations, divided by the multiplication of expectation clarity and usefulness of feedback. It's actually based on intensive work I've done recently in client organizations on trust building between individuals, managers and departments. The Trust Equation 1.0 !

36 Diunduh dari: ……….5/1/2013 The computation of trust in social networks has attracted the interest of a large number of researchers. Such an interest is explained by the relevant benefits that the usage of trust can bring in multiple application domains, e.g. trust metrics have been incorporated in Recommender Systems to raise their accuracy. Existing approaches to computing trust in social networks can be classified into two categories: Explicit, in which a user can declare to trust/distrust other users Implicit, in which user activities are analyzed to infer trust values In this project we illustrate both the features of explicit approaches and implicit ones and we show how trust metrics can be incorporated in a Recommender System. Trust in Social Internetworking

37 Diunduh dari: effective-networks/……….5/1/2013 It seems that markets, our dominant form of economic transactions, are not really designed to optimize trust. As Charles Green states: The reason is simple: trust is not a market transaction, it’s a human transaction. People don’t work by supply and demand, they work by karmic reciprocity. In markets, if I trust you, I’m a sucker and you take advantage of me. In relationships, if I trust you, you trust me, and we get along. We live up or down to others expectations of us. Trust is an emergent property of effective networks

38 Diunduh dari: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collaboration……….5/1/2013 Collaboration is working together to achieve a goal. [1] It is a recursive [2] process where two or more people or organizations work together to realize shared goals, (this is more than the intersection of common goals seen in co-operative ventures, but a deep, collective, determination to reach an identical objective) — for example, an intriguing endeavor [3][4] that is creative in nature [5] —by sharing knowledge, learning and building consensus. Most collaboration requires leadership, although the form of leadership can be social within a decentralized and egalitarian group. [6] In particular, teams that work collaboratively can obtain greater resources, recognition and reward when facing competition for finite resources. [7] Collaboration is also present in opposing goals exhibiting the notion of adversarial collaboration, though this is not a common case for using the word. [1]recursive [2] [3][4] [5] [6] [7] Structured methods of collaboration encourage introspection of behavior and communication. [6] These methods specifically aim to increase the success of teams as they engage in collaborative problem solving. Forms, rubrics, charts and graphs are useful in these situations to objectively document personal traits with the goal of improving performance in current and future projects. [6] 1."collaboration". Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 11th Edition. Retrieved September 18, 2012 from CollinsDictionary.com."collaboration" 2.Marinez-Moyano, I. J. Exploring the Dynamics of Collaboration in Interorganizational Settings, Ch. 4, p. 83, in Schuman (Editor). Creating a Culture of Collaboration. Jossey-Bass, ISBN Creating a Culture of Collaboration.ISBN Collaborate, Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary, 2007Collaborate, Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary, Collaboration, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2007Collaboration, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Collaboration, Oxford English Dictionary, Second Edition, (1989). (Eds.) J. A. Simpson & E. S. C. Weiner. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 6.Spence, Muneera U. "Graphic Design: Collaborative Processes = Understanding Self and Others." (lecture) Art 325: Collaborative Processes. Fairbanks Hall, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. 13 April Oregon State UniversityCorvallis, Oregon 7.Wagner, Caroline S. and Loet Leydesdorff. Globalisation in the network of science in 2005: The diffusion of international collaboration and the formation of a core group.Loet LeydesdorffGlobalisation in the network of science in 2005: The diffusion of international collaboration and the formation of a core group COLLABORATION

39 CollaborationCollaboration is a working practice whereby individuals work together to a common purpose to achieve business benefit. Key features of collaboration tools are: 1.Synchronous collaboration such as online meetings and instant messaging 2.Asynchronous collaboration such as shared workspaces and annotations 3.Many organizations are also looking at Free-form Collaboration tools to improve collaboration and reduce the number of s used for collaboration. 4.Collaboration, at the conceptual level, involves: 5.Awareness - We become part of a working entity with a shared purpose 6.Motivation - We drive to gain consensus in problem solving or development 7.Self-synchronization - We decide as individuals when things need to happen 8.Participation - We participate in collaboration and we expect others to participate 9.Mediation - We negotiate and we collaborate together and find a middle point 10.Reciprocity - We share and we expect sharing in return through reciprocity 11.Reflection - We think and we consider alternatives 12.Engagement - We proactively engage rather than wait and see What is Collaboration? Diunduh dari: ……….5/1/2013http://www.aiim.org/What-is-Collaboration

40 Collaboration relies on openness and knowledge sharing but also some level of focus and accountability on the part of the business organization. Governance should be established addressing the creation and closing of team workspaces with assignment of responsibility for capturing the emergent results of the collaborative effort for preservation in the repository. What is Collaboration? Diunduh dari: ……….5/1/2013http://www.aiim.org/What-is-Collaboration

41 Collaboration Cycle Diunduh dari: ……….5/1/2013http://www.aiim.org/What-is-Collaboration

42 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 MEASUREMENT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL

43 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 MEASUREMENT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL There is considerable debate and controversy over the possibility, desirability and practicability of measuring social capital, yet without a measure of the store of social capital, its characteristics and potential remain unknown (Durlauf 2002b; Falk and Harrison 1998). Measurement attempts are flawed by problems with separating form, source and consequences (Adam and Roncevic 2003; Onyx and Bullen 2001; Sobels et al. 2001). An example is trust, which is commonly seen as a component of social capital. Some authors equate trust with social capital (Fukuyama 1995; Fukuyama 1997), some see trust as a source of social capital (Putnam et al. 1993), some see it as a form of social capital (Coleman 1988), and some see it as a collective asset resulting from social capital construed as a relational asset (Lin 1999). 1.Adam, Frane, and Borut Roncevic 'Social Capital: Recent Debates and Research Trends.' Social Science Information 42: Coleman, James S 'Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital.' The American Journal of Sociology 94: S95. 3.Durlauf, Steven N. 2002a. 'On the empirics of social capital.' The Economic Journal 112: b. 'Symposium on social capital: Introduction.' The Economic Journal 112: Falk, Ian, and Sue Kilpatrick 'What is Social Capital? The study of interaction in a rural community.' Pp. 27. Launceston: Centre for Research and Leaning in Regional Australia 6.Fukuyama, Francis Trust : the social virtues and the creation of prosperity. London: Hamish Hamilton 'Social capital and the modern capitalist economy: Creating a high trust workplace.' Stern Business Magazine 'Social capital, civil society and development.' Third World Quarterly 22: 'Social capital and development: The coming agenda.' SAIS Review 22:

44 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 MEASUREMENT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL Collier (2002) identified that social capital is difficult, if not impossible to measure directly and that for empirical purposes the use of proxy indicators is necessary. Social capital has constructs that are inherently abstract and require subjective interpretation in their translation into operational measures, that are invariably indirect surrogates of their associated constructs (Grootaert et al. 2002; Narayan and Cassidy 2001). Callahan (1996) supported this, identifying that while it is hard to measure social capital directly, it can be inferred from its powerful effects. The choice of indicators to measure social capital is also guided by the scope of the concept and the breadth of the unit of observation used (Collier 2002). 1.Collier, Paul 'Social Capital and Poverty.' World Bank 'Social capital and poverty: a microeconomic perspective.' Pp in The Role of Social Capital in Development, edited by Thierry Van Bastelaer. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press. 3.Collier, Paul, and Jan Willem Gunning 'Explaining African economic performance.' Journal of Economic Literature 37: Narayan, Deepa, and Michael F. Cassidy "A dimensional approach to measuring social capital: development and validation of a social capital inventory." Current Sociology 49:

45 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 MEASUREMENT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL Social capital is such a complex concept that it is not likely to be represented by any single measure or figure. The multiple dimensions require sets of indicators to be effective (Cox and Caldwell 2000). Considerations of measurement of social capital inevitably reflect the conceptual debates about social capital itself, in particular, whether social capital can be measured at an individual or community level (Baum and Ziersch 2003). 1.Cox, Eva 'Building social capital.' Health Promotion Matters 4: 1-4. Social Capital Integrated Questionnaire (SOCAP IQ) The purpose of this paper is to introduce the Integrated Questionnaire for the Measurement of Social Capital (SC-IQ with a focus on applications in developing countries. The tool aims to generate quantitative data on various dimensions of social capital as part of a larger household survey (such as the Living Standards Measurement Survey or a household income/expenditure survey). Specifically, six dimensions are considered: groups and networks; trust and solidarity; collective action and cooperation; information and communication; social cohesion and inclusion; empowerment and political action. The paper addresses sampling and data collection issues for implementing the SC-IQ and provides guidance for the use and analysis of data. The tool has been pilot-tested in Albania and Nigeria and a review of lessons learned is presented. 1.Albania Field Test: Integrated Questionnaire for the Measurement of Social Capital 2.Report of Social Capital Household Survey Pilot in Adamawa State, Nigeria 3.Social Capital Household Survey in Osun State, Nigeria 4.Social Capital (Pilot) Survey in Enugu State, Nigeria 5.Integrated Questionnaire for the Measurement of Social Capital 6.Cuestionario Integrado para la Medicion del Capital Social. (http://go.worldbank.org/KO0QFVW770)http://go.worldbank.org/KO0QFVW770

46 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 MEASUREMENT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL Measuring social capital clearly has an intrinsic appeal (Inkeles 2000) however, as Fukuyama (2001) states, 'one of the greatest weaknesses of the social capital concept is the absence of consensus on how to measure it'.] The measurement of social capital and the assessment of its contribution are certainly in their infancy (Fox 1997). Daniere, Takahashi et al (2002a) suggested that existing measures of social capital are subject to criticism because researchers often define terms differently and because it is difficult to develop concrete, tangible evidence of social capital that lends itself to quantitative analysis. Durlauf (2002) supported this, positing that many definitions mix functional and causal conceptions of social capital and that causal definitions of social capital are necessary for successful empirical analysis. 1.Fox. J 'The World Bank and social capital: contesting the concept in practice.' Journal of International Development 9: Daniere, Amrita, Lois M Takahashi, and Anchana NaRanong. 2002a. 'Social capital and environmental management: culture, perceptions and action among slum dwellers in Bangkok." in Social Capital and Economic Development: Well- being in Developing Countries, edited by Sunder Ramaswamy. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Eglar. 3.Inkeles, Alex 'Measuring social capital and its consequences.' Policy Sciences 33:

47 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 MEASUREMENT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL Paxton (1999) identified the widening gap between the concept of social capital and its measurement. The popularity of the term seems to have encouraged the use of overly-aggregated, heterogeneous indexes (Knack 2002). Due to the abstract nature of social capital and varying definitions, it is often measured inconsistently between studies (Liu and Besser 2003). Previous studies provide little rationale for how their measures of social capital connect to the theoretical definition of social capital (Paxton 1999). 1.Knack, Stephen 'Social capital and the quality of government: Evidence from the states.' American Journal of Political Science 46: Liu, Amy Qiaoming, and Terry Besser 'Social capital and participation in community improvement activities by elderly residents in small towns and rural communities." Rural Sociology 68: Paxton, Pamela "Is social capital declining in the United States? A multiple indicator assessment." The American Journal of Sociology 105: 88. Qualitative Studies Portes and Sensenbrenner (1993) examine what happens to immigrant communities when some of their members succeed economically, and wish to leave the community. Their interviews reveal the pressures that strong community ties can place on members; so strong are these ties that some members have Anglicized their names to free themselves of the obligations associated with community membership. Fernandez-Kelley (1996) interviewed and observed young girls in urban ghetto communities in Baltimore, and discovered that normative pressures to leave school, have a baby while still a teenager, and reject formal employment were very powerful. Surrounded on a daily basis by violence, unemployment, and drug addicts, the girls’ only way of establishing their identity and status was through their bodies. Anderson (1995) studied the role of "old heads," long-term elderly members of the poor urban African-American community, as sources of social capital. "Old heads" once provided wisdom and guidance to the young, but their advice and input today is being increasingly ignored as respect for the elderly declines, and as the community continues to fragment economically. (http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTSOCIALDEVELOPMENT/EXTTSOCIALC APITAL/0,,contentMDK: ~menuPK:418220~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~theSitePK: ~isCURL:Y,00.html )

48 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 MEASUREMENT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL Stone (2001) posited that there are insufficient tools for empirical measurement available and this is an area where further research is required despite the extensive work of the Australian Bureau of Statistics (2002), Bullen and Onyx (1998), Lochner, Kawachi et al (1999), Onyx and Bullen (2000) and Stone and Hughes (2002). 1.Bullen, Paul, and Jenny Onyx 'Measuring Social Capital in Five Communities in NSW.' Pp. 49: Centre for Australian Community Organisations and Management (CACOM) CACOM Working Paper Series (No 41). 2.Lochner, Kimberly A, Ichiro Kawachi, and Robert T Brennan 'Social capital and neighborhood mortality rates in Chicago.' Social Science & Medicine 56: Lochner, Kimberly, Ichiro Kawachi, and Bruce P. Kennedy 'Social capital: a guide to its measurement.' Health Place 5: Quantitative Studies Knack and Keefer (1997) use indicators of trust and civic norms from the World Values Survey for a sample of 29 market economies. They use these measures as proxies for the strength of civic associations in order to test two different propositions on the effects of social capital on economic growth, the "Olson effects" (associations stifle growth through rent-seeking) and "Putnam effects" (associations facilitate growth by increasing trust). Narayan and Pritchett (1997) construct a measure of social capital in rural Tanzania, using data from the Tanzania Social Capital and Poverty Survey (SCPS). This large-scale survey asked individuals about the extent and characteristics of their associational activity, and their trust in various institutions and individuals. They match this measure of social capital with data on household income in the same villages (both from the SCPS and from an earlier household survey, the Human Resources Development Survey). They find that village-level social capital raises household incomes. (http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTSOCIALDEVELOPMENT/EXTTSO CIALCAPITAL/0,,contentMDK: ~menuPK:418220~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~the SitePK:401015~isCURL:Y,00.html )

49 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 MEASUREMENT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL Cavaye (2004) identified the following issues in the measurement of social capital that remain unresolved: 1.A clear understanding of the context and purpose of the measurement of social capital 2.Understanding the limitations of evaluation and measurement, and ensuring that the interpretation of measures is held within these limitations 3.The practical mechanics of gaining community feedback such as community representation and coverage, feedback to communities, use in local decision making, and resourcing measurement 4.Benchmarking vs. measures of incremental change 5.Dealing with qualitative information, diversity, variation and complexity 6.The nature and rigor of indicators 7.The interpretation and use of measurement information 8.How evaluation itself can contribute to fostering social capital. How is Social Capital Measured? Social capital has been measured in a number of innovative ways, though for a number of reasons obtaining a single "true" measure is probably not possible, or perhaps even desirable. 1.First, the most comprehensive definitions of social capital are multidimensional, incorporating different levels and units of analysis. 2.Second, any attempt to measure the properties of inherently ambiguous concepts such as "community", "network" and "organization" is correspondingly problematic. 3.Third, few long-standing surveys were designed to measure "social capital", leaving contemporary researchers to compile indexes from a range of approximate items, such as measures of trust in government, voting trends, memberships in civic organizations, hours spent volunteering. Measuring social capital may be difficult, but it is not impossible, and several excellent studies have identified useful proxies for social capital, using different types and combinations of qualitative, comparative and quantitative research methodologies. (http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTSOCIALDEVELOPMENT/EXTTSOCI ALCAPITAL/0,,contentMDK: ~menuPK:418220~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~the SitePK:401015~isCURL:Y,00.html)

50 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 MEASUREMENT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL Fukuyama (2001) posited that producing anything like a believable census of a society's stock of social capital is a nearly impossible task, since it involves multiplying numbers that are either subjectively estimated or simply non-existent. Measurement of social capital becomes self fulfilling as one tends to find what one is looking for but does not tend to question the path (White 2002). In fact, the concepts usefulness appears to be limited in that it is difficult to operationalise using proxy measures that are distinct from the predicted effects (Krishna 1999; Sobels et al. 2001; Woolcock 1998). This is further supported by Stone (2001) who stated that 'where social capital has been measured to date, it has often been done so using 'questionable measures', often designed for other purposes, and without sufficient regard to the theoretical underpinnings of the concept to ensure validity or reliability'. The act of measuring social capital can and probably will affect the stock of capital that is being assessed, which adds further questions to the suitability of attempts to empirically measure social capital (MacGillivray and Walker 2000; Popay 2000). 1.Krishna, Anirudh 'Creating and Harnessing Social Capital.' Pp. pp in Social Capital: A multifaceted perspective, edited by Ismail Serageldin. Washington, DC: World Bank 'Moving from the Stock of Social Capital to the Flow of Benefits: The Role of Agency.' World Development 29: MacGillivray, Alex, and Perry Walker 'Local Social Capital: Making it Work on the Ground." Pp in Social Capital: Critical Perspectives, edited by Tom Schuller. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 4.Popay, Jennie "Social capital: The role of narrative and historical research." Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 54: White, Leroy "Connection matters: exploring the implications of social capital and social netowrks for social polcy." Systems Research and Behavioral Science 19: Woolcock, Michael "Social capital and economic development: Towards a theoretical synthesis and policy framework." Theory and Society 27:

51 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 MEASUREMENT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL Grootaert and Van Bastalaer (2002a) on the other hand posited that it is possible to measure social capital and its impact. Onyx and Bullen (2000b) claimed they have developed a reliable and valid measure of social capital one that is relatively easy to apply. Ideal indicators recognize that social capital can be expressed through attitudes and expectations; through reported, recorded and observed actions and activities; and by comparing people’s interpretations of how things happened or are expected to happen (Cox and Caldwell 2000). Ideally, measures of social capital should be thoroughly based on, and tied to, the conceptual framework for the specific study. 1.Grootaert, Christiaan 'Social capital: the missing link.' Pp in Social Capital and Participation in Everyday Life, edited by Eric M. Uslaner. London: Routledge. 2.Grootaert, Christiaan, and Thierry Van Bastelaer. 2002a. 'Conclusion: measuring impact and drawing policy implications.' Pp in The Role of Social Capital in Development, edited by Thierry Van Bastelaer. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press b. 'Introduction and Overview.' Pp. 1-7 in The Role of Social Capital in Development, edited by Thierry Van Bastelaer. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.

52 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 MEASUREMENT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL Cavaye (2004) described the development of consistent frameworks and that there are no best indicators, rather some key characteristics that guide the choice of indicators such as: 1.Specificity targeted to the variable to be measured, 2.Measurability - ease of measurement, 3.Comprehensiveness - measures of a range of social characteristics, 4.Reliability and rigor, 5.Continuity ability to translate across situations and be consistent in local state or national frameworks. The challenge is to develop consistent indicators that can allow conclusions to be drawn across local, state and national frameworks (Cavaye 2004). 1.Cavaye, Jim 'Social Capital: A Commentary on Issues, Understanding and Measurement.' Pp. 27. Australia: Obersatory PASCAL - Place Management, Social Capital and Learning Regions. Diunduh dari: Building Social Capital in Virtual Learning Communities

53 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 MEASUREMENT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL A report by the Productivity Commission (2003) made the following observation about the measurement of social capital: Like the theoretical literature, the empirical literature is evolving. Because social capital as a concept is relatively new, multifaceted and imprecise, 'hard data' on it are not readily available. Inevitably, many early studies have had to rely on rough proxies for social capital and/or have been somewhat experimental. Hence, the results need to be interpreted with care; in most cases they are 'suggestive', rather than definitive. Social Capital Assessment Tool (SOCAT) The SOCAT is a multifaceted instrument designed to collect social capital data at the household, community and organizational levels. It is an integrated quantitative/qualitative tool. An important feature is the detailed information about structural and cognitive social capital that is collected at the level of the household, which is crucial to link social capital information with poverty and household welfare outcomes. 1.Community Profile and Asset Mapping 2.Community Questionnaire 3.Household Questionnaire 4.Organization Profile Interview Guides 5.Organizational Profile Scoresheet 6.Social Capital Assessment Tool (SOCAT) in its entirety EXTTSOCIALCAPITAL/0,,contentMDK: ~menuPK:418220~pagePK:148956~ piPK:216618~theSitePK:401015,00.html

54 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 MEASUREMENT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL Some authors have applied various indicators of social capital in different contexts. Examples include: 1.Trust (Cox and Caldwell 2000; Glaeser et al. 2000; Guenther and Falk 1999); 2.Membership (Baum and Ziersch 2003); 3.Membership and trust (Lappe et al. 1997; Lochner et al. 2003); 4.Membership, trust and norms of reciprocity (Isham et al. 2002; Skrabski et al. 2003; Staveren 2003); and 5.Network resources (Zhao 2002). 1.Baum, FE, and AM Ziersch 'Social Capital.' Journal of Epidemiology Community Health 57: Cox, Eva, and Peter Caldwell 'Making policy social.' Pp in Social capital and public policy in Australia, edited by Ian Winter. Melbourne: National Library of Australia. 3.Glaeser, Edward L, David I Laibson, Jose A Scheinkman, and Christine L Soutter 'Measuring trust.' The Quarterly Journal of Economics 115: Glaeser, Edward L, David Laibson, and Bruce Sacerdote 'An economic approach to social capital.' The Economic Journal 112: Guenther, John, and Ian Falk 'Measuring trust and community capacity: social capital for the common good.' Pp. 90. Launceston: Centre for Research and Leaning in Regional Australia. 6.Lappe, Frances, Moore Du Bois, and Paul Martin 'Building social capital without looking backward.' National Civic Review 86: Isham, Jonathan, and Satu Kahkonen 'How do participation and social capital affect community-based water projects? Evidence from Central Java, Indonesia." Pp. 155, in The Role of Social Capital in Development, edited by Thierry Van Bastelaer. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press. 8.Zhao, Yandong "Measuring the social capital of laid-off Chinese workers." Current Sociology 50:

55 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 MEASUREMENT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL Grootaert (2001) identified the indicators as having all been used in empirical studies. Indicators of social capital (Source: Grootaert 2001) Horizontal associations 1.Number and type of associations or local institutions 2.Extent of membership in local associations 3.Extent of participatory decision making 4.Extent of kin homogeneity within the association 5.Extent of income and occupation homogeneity within the association 6.Extent of trust in village members and households 7.Extent of trust in government 1.Extent of trust in trade unions 2.Perception of extent of community organization 3.Reliance on networks of support 4.Percentage of household income from remittances 5.Percentage of household expenditure for gifts and transfers

56 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 MEASUREMENT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL Grootaert (2001) identified the indicators as having all been used in empirical studies. Indicators of social capital (Source: Grootaert 2001) Civil and political society 1.Index of civil liberties 2.Percentage of population facing political discrimination 3.Index of intensity of political discrimination 4.Percentage of population facing economic discrimination 5.Index of intensity of economic discrimination 6.Percentage of population involved in separatist movement 7.Gastil's index of political rights 8.Freedom House index of political freedoms 1.Index of democracy 2.Index of corruption 3.Index of government inefficiency 4.Strength of democratic institutions 5.Measure of 'human liberty' 6.Measure of political stability 7.Degree of decentralization of government 8.Voter turnout 9.Political assassinations 10.Constitutional government changes 11.Coups

57 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 MEASUREMENT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL Grootaert (2001) identified the indicators as having all been used in empirical studies. Indicators of social capital (Source: Grootaert 2001) Social integration 1.Indicator of social mobility 2.Measure of strength of 'social tensions' 3.Ethnolinguistic fragmentation 4.Riots and protest demonstrations 5.Strikes 6.Homicide rates 7.Suicide rates 1.Other crime rates 2.Prisoners per 100,000 people 3.Illegitimacy rates 4.Percentage of single- parent homes 5.Divorce rate 6.Youth unemployment rate Legal and governance aspects 1.Quality of bureaucracy 2.Independence of court system 3.Expropriation and nationalization risk 1.Repudiation of contracts by government 2.Contract enforceability 3.Contract-intensive money

58 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 MEASUREMENT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL Putnam's indicators of social capital for the United States Source: Putnam (2000) cited in Productivity Commission (2003). Putnam's indicators of social capital for the United States Measures of community or organizational life: 1.Percentage of individuals who served on a committee of a local organization in the last year (0.88a) 2.Percentage of individuals who served as an officer of some club or organization in the last year (0.83) 3.Civic and social organizations per 1000 population (0.78) 4.Mean number of club meetings attended in the last year (0.78) 5.Mean number of group memberships (0.74) Measures of engagement in public affairs: 1.Turnout in presidential elections, 1988 and 1992 (0.84) 2.Percentage of individuals who attended public meeting on town or school affairs in last year (0.77) Measures of community volunteerism: 1.Number of non-profit organizations per 1000 population (0.82) 2.Mean number of times worked on a community project in last year (0.65) 3.Mean number of times did volunteer work last year (0.66) Measures of informal sociability: 1.Percentage of individuals who agree that 'I spend a lot of time visiting friends' (0.73) 2.Mean number of times entertained at home last year (0.67) Measures of social trust: 1.Percentage of individuals who agree that 'most people can be trusted' (0.92) 2.Percentage of individuals who agree that 'most people are honest' (0.84) The figure in brackets indicates the item's coefficient of correlation with the final constructed measure across the individual states of the United States.

59 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 MEASUREMENT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL Social capital can be seen as the structure and quality of social networks. As such, the core dimensions of social capital are seen to be networks of social relations (structure), which are characterized by norms of trust and reciprocity (quality). Core dimensions of social capital and their characteristics (Stone, 2001) Structure of social relations: networks Quality of social relations: norms Type: Informal / formal Size / capacity: Limited / extensive Spatial: Household / global Structural: Open / closed Dense / sparse Homogenous / heterogeneous Relational: Vertical / horizontal Norms of trust: 1.Social trust 1.Familiar / personal 2.Generalized 2.Civic / institutional trust Norms of reciprocity: 1.In-kind v in lieu 2.Direct v indirect 3.Immediate v delayed

60 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 MEASUREMENT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL Stone (2001) stated that 'by linking social capital measurement directly to theoretical understandings of the concept, we are able to: first, recognize that social capital is a multidimensional concept comprising social networks, norms of trust, and norms of reciprocity; second, understand social capital properly as a resource to action; and third, empirically distinguish between social capital and its outcomes'. This provides a sound basis for developing a measurement framework but much work is required to ensure the indicators relate to this theoretical understanding. If we break down one of the core dimensions, social networks, the complexity becomes immediately evident. The networks are broken into informal and formal and the types evident at the macro level listed. For each of the types listed in the table a series of questions could be developed. However the problem of how they relate to the theoretical understanding remains unresolved. Other problems also become evident. This macro level analysis of social capital is of little use to the majority of studies that investigate social capital at the meso level.level 1.Stone, Wendy "Measuring social capital: Towards a theoretically informed measurement framework for researching social capital in family and community life." Family Matters Autumn: Stone, Wendy, and Jody Hughes "Social capital: empirical meaning and measurement validity." Pp. 64. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies.

61 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 MEASUREMENT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL Other issues remain unresolved such as spatial and temporal issues, externalities, feedback loops, and the role of chance in shaping both the structure and the outcomes. It is implausible to add bridging capital to bonding capital and subtract perverse social capital. Thus an amount of social capital should not be sort, not even qualitatively. Instead, social capital should be analysed in terms of a composite of its disparate, yet interrelated, components. Therefore, social capital building initiatives should aim to improve the structure of social capital rather than increase social capital per se.building Types of Informal and Formal Networks (Stone, 2001) Informal networksFormal networks of social relations 1.Family household 2.Family beyond the household 3.Friends / intimates 4.Neighbors Non-group based civic relations: 1.Good deeds 2.Individual community or political action Associations / groups based on relationships: 1.Antenatal 2.Childcare 3.Education 4.Sport / leisure 5.Music / art 6.Church 7.Charity 8.Voluntary 9.Self help Work based: 1.Colleagues 2.Associations 3.Institutional 4.State

62 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 MEASUREMENT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL Natural resource managementNatural resource management applications of social capital can involve micro to macro level analysis. The primary level of interest is the meso level as studies focus on the application of social capital theory to an area of common interest: natural resource management. The focus can be on micro individuals; meso - groups of individuals, groups of like groups, groups of natural resource management groups, or national natural resource management groups; or macro societal. This situation is further complicated when taking into account various institutions associated with natural resource management, including voluntary, non-government, government and private sector. The structural elements of social capital will be different depending on the level of study, as will be the relationships between determinants, structure, manifestations and levels, even those levels not under investigation.

63 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 MEASUREMENT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL Levels at which social capital operates within natural resource management.

64 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 MEASUREMENT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL Building Social Capital A fundamental question is whether social capital can be increased in the short term. This question is further complicated by the debate over whether social capital can be measured, as without measurement, change cannot be determined.measured According to Putnam (1993), social capital is largely determined by historical factors; it can thus not be enhanced in the short term. This view has been challenged in the literature. Petersen (2002) posited that social capital creation is possible be definition. This is supported by Schmid (2000) and Uslaner and Dekker (2001) who saw social capital development as a by-product of other activities. Falk and Harrison (1998) suggested that it is possible to build social capital in the short term and that this is also known as capacity building. Social capital can be produced by the government, nongovernmental organizations, local societal actors and external actors in the civil society, both in combination and in isolation (Huntoon 2001). 1.Falk, Ian, and Lesley Harrison 'Indicators of Social Capital: social capital as the product of local interactive learning processes." Pp. 23. Launceston: Centre for Research and Leaning in Regional Australia. 2.Putnam, Robert D "The prosperous community: Social capital and public life." The American Prospect 4. 3.— "Bowling alone: America's declining social capital." Journal of Democracy 6: — Bowling alone : the collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon & Schuster. 5.Putnam, Robert D, Robert Leonardi, and Raffaella Y Nanetti Making democracy work : civic traditions in modern Italy. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. 6.Schmid, A. Allan "Affinity as social capital: its role in development." The Journal of Socio- Economics 29: Uslaner, Eric M "Volunteering and social capital: how trust and religion shape civic participation in the United States." Pp in Social Capital and Participation in Everyday Life, edited by Eric M. Uslaner. London: Routledge.

65 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 MEASUREMENT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL Building Social Capital Insufficient attention has been paid to the variety of locations where social capital can be generated, inhibited, and appropriated, and the role played by other actors, such as public institutions in this process (Heller 1996; Preece 2002). To better explain the production of social capital, analytical frameworks need to account for widely varying outcomes in terms of time, space and social groups (Fox 1996; Lorensen 2002; Minkoff 1997). Soubeyran and Weber (2002) posited that social capital can be created through repeated exchange and face-to-face contacts, which is facilitated by geographic proximity. Maloney, Smith et al (2000) suggested that there is a lack of research into generation, maintenance, and destruction of social capital. 1.Heller, Patrick 'Social capital as a product of class mobilization and state intervention: Industrial workers in Kerala, India." World Development 24: Fox.J 'How does civil society thicken? the political construction of social capital in rural Mexico.' World Development 24: Maloney, William, A., Graham Smith, and Gerry Stoker "Social capital and associational life." Pp in Social Capital: Critical Perspectives, edited by Tom Schuller. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 4.Lorensen, Marianna 'Building social capital.' Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences 94: Minkoff, Debra C "Producing Social Capital: National Social Movements and Civil Society." American Behavioral Scientist 40:

66 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 MEASUREMENT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL Building Social Capital Onyx and Bullen (2000a) believed that the development of social capital requires the active and willing engagement of citizens within a participative community. Social capital building exercises initiated by the state have been identified as weak due to distant ties, therefore social capital building must occur through outsourcing by government (Onyx and Bullen 2001; Taylor 2000; Warner 1999). This supports Lowndes and Wilson's (2001) theory that the best way for government to increase social capital is to be involved in indirect social capital building. Warner (2001) posited that local government is better placed to create local social capital through community based interventions. Cox and Caldwell (2000) identified that the key social dynamics for building social capital occur in the non-intimate and non-exclusive groups. Falk and Harrison (1998) had a different view, suggesting that social capital building can be equated with capacity building in terms of community development. The use of social capital in any of its forms does not deplete the supply of social capital (Lyons 2000; Turner 1999). Some authors suggest that use of social capital in fact enhances the supply of social capital. From this debate it is clear that some authors conceptualize social capital as either a flow or stock resource (Walker and Kogut 1997). There is limited understanding of the processes and how they operate to build or improve social capital structure. 1.Onyx, Jenny, and Paul Bullen "Sources of social capital." Pp in Social capital and public policy in Australia, edited by Ian Winter. Melbourne: National Library of Australia. 2.— "The different faces of social capital in NSW Australia." Pp in Social Capital and Participation in Everyday Life, edited by Eric M. Uslaner. London: Routledge. 3.Warner, Mildred "Social capital construction and the role of the local state." Rural Sociology 64: — "Building social capital: the role of local government." The Journal of Socio-Economics 30: Walker, G, and B Kogut "Social Capital, Structural Holes and the Formation of an Industry Network." Organization Science: A Journal of the Institute of Management Sciences 8: 109.

67 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 A NEW CONCEPTUALISTION OF SOCIAL CAPITAL Any conceptualization of social capital aims to simplify the complexity of the social world to assist in the development of an understanding of the structures and processes that affect a variety of outcomes. The challenge is to make tradeoffs between competing objectives simplification to facilitate increased understanding, and maintenance of the complexity to maximize validity. In the past, many efforts to conceptualize social capital have resulted in over-simplification and therefore questionable operationalization. There are considerable unknowns surrounding our current understanding of social capital theory. We know that various relationships exist between determinants, structural elements and consequences or manifestations but interactions are largely unknown. Anything that has an impact on social interactions can be seen as a determinant and any situation arising because of social interactions can be seen as a manifestation. We know some of the elements in between but have little understanding of the processes. This highlights the importance of establishing a rigorous conceptualization, as the appropriate operationalization of social capital must be based on a rigorous conceptualization.

68 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 A NEW CONCEPTUALISTION OF SOCIAL CAPITAL The conceptualization designed for the purposes of this study details processes and relationships operating between the determinants of social capital, the structure, or elements of social capital, and the consequences or manifestations of social capital. The literature review identified a wide range of determinants that have been linked to social capital including history and culture, social structures, family, education, environment, mobility, economics, social class, civil society, consumption, values, networks, associations, political society, institutions, policy, and social norms at various levels. Clearly the factors listed here play an important role in determining the characteristics of the social capital structure however the causal factors and functional relationships are largely unknown. Some studies have focused on some of the factors in-so-much as detailing the social capital of the circumstance, for example, family, trust, or networks, but have not studied factors as determinants of multi level, multi dimensional social capital. Diunduh dari: your-social-capital.html /1/2013http://pinoycareercoach.blogspot.com/2012/03/enhancing- your-social-capital.html

69 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 A NEW CONCEPTUALISTION OF SOCIAL CAPITAL The links between determinants, structural elements and consequences or manifestations are currently not well understood and generally grossly oversimplified.

70 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 A NEW CONCEPTUALISTION OF SOCIAL CAPITAL It attempts to take into account factors such as causal relationships, specific contexts, externalities, levels, feedback loops and chance. Conceptualization of social capital simplifying the complexity of the social world into a diagram outlining relationships between determinants, structure (or elements) and consequences.

71 Diunduh dari: ……….15/12/2012 MODAL SOSIAL Kemampuan masyarakat untuk bekerjasama demi mencapai tujuan bersama di dalam berbagai komunitas disebut modal sosial. Kemampuan bekerjasama muncul dari kepercayaan umum di dalam sebuah masyarakat atau di bagian paling kecil dalam masyarakat. Modal sosial dapat dilembagakan (menjadi kebiasaan) dalam kelompok yang paling kecil ataupun kelompok masyarakat yang besar seperti negara. Kerjasama yang dilandasi kepercayaan akan terjadi apabila dilandasi oleh kejujuran, keadilan, keterbukaan, saling peduli, saling menghargai, saling menolong di antara anggota kelompok (warga masyarakat). Pihak luar komunitas (kelompok) akan memberikan dukungan, bantuan dan kerjasama kepada kelompok apabila kelompok tersebut bisa dipercaya, artinya kepercayaan merupakan modal yang sangat penting untuk membangun jaringan kemitraan (kerjasama) dengan pihak luar.

72 Diunduh dari: ……….15/12/2012 MODAL SOSIAL Apa Ikatan Sosial dan Modal Sosial itu? Sebuah komunitas terbangun karena adanya ikatan – ikatan sosial di antara anggotanya. Kita sering mendengar komunitas petani, komunitas tukang becak, perkumpulan nelayan, asosiasi insinyur dan sebagainya. Komunitas warga kelurahan merupakan ikatan sosial di antara semua warga kelurahan yang terdiri dari individu– individu dan atau kelompok – kelompok yang berinteraksi dalam sebuah hubungan sosial yang didasarkan kepada suatu tujuan bersama. Komunitas masyarakat kelurahan bisa digambarkan sebagai berikut :

73 Diunduh dari: ……….15/12/2012 MODAL SOSIAL. Semua masyarakat suatu desa satu sama lain pasti saling berhubungan, hanya saja kualitas hubungan di antara masing – masing warga akan sangat berlainan. Kualitas ikatan sosial akan terbangun apabila di antara warga saling berinteraksi pada waktu yang relatif lama dan mendalam. Biasanya kualitas ikatan sosial tadi akan lebih baik apabila sesama warga tergabung untuk melakukan kegiatan – kegiatan bersama dalam berbagai kelompok atau organisasi atau kegiatan kegiatan yang sifatnya sesaat. Modal dasar dari adanya ikatan sosial yang kuat adalah adanya kerjasama di antara anggota kelompok atau organisasi dalam hal komunitas kelurahan ikatan sosial akan terbanguan apabila ada kerjasama di antara semua warga masyarakat. Kerjasama akan terbangun dengan baik apabila berlandaskan kepercayaan di antara para anggotanya. Kemampuan masyarakat untuk bekerjasama demi mencapai tujuan bersama di dalam berbagai kelompok dan organisasi disebut MODAL SOSIAL. Kemampuan bekerjasama muncul dari kepercayaan umum di dalam sebuah masyarakat atau di bagian – bagian paling kecil dalam masyarakat. Modal sosial bisa dilembagakan (menjadi kebiasaan) dalam kelompok yang paling kecil ataupun dalam kelompok masyarakat yang besar seperti negara.

74 Diunduh dari: ……….15/12/2012 MODAL SOSIAL. Masyarakat yang mempunyai modal sosial yang kuat adalah masyarakat yang guyup (Jawa) dan dinamis. Di Indonesia modal sosial yang paling menonjol adalah gotong royong yang dalam masa sekarang terutama di daerah perkotaan sudah mulai luntur. Untuk apa menumbuhkan modal sosial? Kemampuan komunitas atau kelompok – kelompok untuk bekerjasama dan menumbuhkan kepercayaan baik di antara anggota – anggotanya maupun dengan pihak luar merupakan kekuatan yang besar untuk bekerjasama dan menumbuhkan kepercayaan pihak lain, karena itulah disebut ‘modal sosial’. Jika warga masyarakat saling bekerjasama dan saling percaya yang didasarkan kepada nilai – nilai universal yang ada, maka tidak akan ada sikap saling curiga, saling jegal, saling menindas dan sebagainya sehingga ketimpangan – ketimpangan antara kelompok yang miskin dengan yang kaya akan bisa diminimalkan. Di pihak lain komunitas kelurahan yang kuat dan mempunyai modal yang layak dipercaya akan memudahkan jaringan kerjasama dengan pihak luar.

75 Diunduh dari:... ……….15/12/2012 MODAL SOSIAL Robert Putnam (1993) mendefinisikan modal sosial sebagai suatu nilai mutual trust (kepercayaan) antara anggota masyarakat dan masyarakat terhadap pemimpinnya. Modal sosial didefinisikan sebagai institusi sosial yang melibatkan jaringan atau network, norma-norma dan kepercayaan sosial yang mendorong sebuah kolaborasi sosial untuk kepentingan bersama. Diperlukan adanya suatu sosial network ikatan (jaringan) sosial yang ada dalam masyarakat dan norma yang mendorong produktifitas, komunitas. Putnam melonggarkan pemaknaan asosiasi horizontal, tidak hanya memberikan desiriable out come (hasil pendapatan yang diharapkan) melainkan juga underdesirible The concept of Social Capital is broken down to five sub-categories for operational purposes. These sub- categories capture both the structural and cognitive forms of social capital. The five dimensions of social capital include: 1.Groups and networks; 2.Trust and Solidarity; 3.Collective Action and Cooperation; 4.Social Cohesion and Inclusion; and 5.Information and Communication. (http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTSOCIALDEVELOPMENT/EXTTSOCI ALCAPITAL/0,,contentMDK: ~menuPK:418218~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~th eSitePK:401015,00.html)

76 MODAL SOSIAL Bagaimana Membangun Kepercayaan? Kepercayaan tidak akan tercapai dengan sendirinya, memerlukan proses untuk membangun kepercayaan secara terus menerus. Untuk menumbuhkan kepercayaan setiap kelompok (komunitas) paling tidak membutuhkan 4 hal yang mendasar, yaitu : Penerimaan Sejak awal hubungan, setiap orang membutuhkan jaminan bahwa mereka diterima sepenuhnya, termasuk rasa aman untuk mengemukakan pendapat dan berkontribusi dalam kegiatan kelompoknya. Membutuhkan suasana saling menghargai untuk tumbuhnya penerimaan dalam kelompok, sehingga kelompok tersebut akan tumbuh menjadi komunitas yang kuat. Dalam perkembangan ikatan sosial sebuah komunitas, saling mengenal dengan baik merupakan awal dari tumbuhnya komunitas tersebut, kepercayaan tidak akan tumbuh terhadap orang baru dengan begitu saja, perlu pembuktian dalam sikap dan perilaku masing–masing dalam waktu yang relatif lama. Sikap dan perilaku yang berdasarkan kepada nilai–nilai universal yang diyakini sebagai nilai yang berlaku di seluruh tempat di dunia seperti jujur, adil, kesetiaan, saling melindungi di antara sesama semua warga komunitas. Apabila salah satu warga melakukan kecurangan, maka kepercayaan terhadap orang tersebut otomatis akan luntur. Diunduh dari: ……….15/12/2012

77 MODAL SOSIAL Berbagi Informasi dan Kepedulian Setiap orang yang berhubungan dalam satu komunitas, agar bisa memecahkan masalah bersama, membutuhkan informasi mengenai : Kehidupan, pengalaman, gagasan, nilai masing–masing. Masalah–masalah yang dianggap penting dalam kehidupan mereka. Untuk menumbuhkan kepercayaan,pertukaran informasi yang diberikan di antara warga haruslah informasi yang jujur dan terbuka. Informasi yang diberikan tidak akan berarti apabila dalam hubungan–hubungan tadi tidak didasari kepedulian. Setiap warga yang berhubungan dalam masyarakat akan menggunakan dan terlibat untuk memecahkan masalah di lingkungannya apabila ada kepedulian di antara mereka. Apabila warga masyarakat mempunyai kemampuan dan kemauan saling berbagi, saling peduli, maka kepentingan–kepentingan individu akan mengalah kepada kepentingan–kepentingan komunitas kelompok. Diunduh dari: ……….15/12/2012 Diunduh dari: social-capital-in-social-network-games/……….6/1/2013 People who had reciprocated with the confederate showed a stronger bonding social capital (e.g., perception that they will receive help when needed), as well as stronger trust and presence. The following model shows a mediated model on the effect of trust, presence, and reciprocity on bonding social capital. Reciprocity in itself had a significant but small effect on bonding social capital, but with presence as a mediator, we begin to see how social capital is formed. Reciprocity was a behavioral measure and presence was a psychological measure, suggesting that even without a motivation to be closer to someone, if you engage in reciprocal behavior, that could potentially lead to more bonding social capital.

78 MODAL SOSIAL Menentukan Tujuan Kebutuhan yang ketiga adalah untuk menentukan tujuan bersama. Setiap anggota (warga) tidak akan tertarik dan memberikan komitmen yang dibutuhkan apabila tidak terlibat dalam perumusan tujuan. Proses pengambilan keputusan akan menentukan komitmen warga dalam pelaksanaan pemecahan masalah bersama. Pengorganisasian dan Tindakan Pada tahap awal dalam menentukan tujuan yang hendak dicapai oleh seluruh anggota (warga masyarakat), memastikan ada yang akan bertanggung jawab untuk menggerakan semua kegiatan untuk mencapai tujuan, untuk itu diperlukan seorang atau sekelompok pemimpin. Dalam organisasi, kelompok, atau komunitas warga masyarakat peranan sikap dan perilaku pemimpin sangat dominan untuk menumbuhkan kepercayaan anggotanya. Perilaku pemimpin yang jujur, adil, peduli dan melindungi anggotanya (warga), akan menumbuhkan kepercayaan dari semua unsur komunitasnya. Diunduh dari: ……….15/12/2012 Diunduh dari:. ……….6/1/2013 Mark W. McElroy, (2002) "Social innovation capital", Journal of Intellectual Capital, Vol. 3 Iss: 1, pp

79 MODAL SOSIAL Setelah tujuan ditetapkan, harus ada perencanaan untuk melaksanakan keputusan–keputusan yang sudah dibuat. Hal penting yang harus diketahui adalah kebutuhan–kebutuhan apa yang dirasakan oleh anggotanya untuk memecahkan masalah.Untuk itulah perlunya keterlibatan (partisipasi) warga masyarakat dalam proses menemukenali masalah (kebutuhan) mereka yang akan menjadi dasar perencanaan. Kebutuhan yang ditentukan oleh pemimpin tanpa melibatkan warga masyarakat, sering tidak menjawab masalah yang sebenarnya ada sehingga dapat menghilangkan kepercayaan warga kepada niat baik pemimpinnya. Untuk memastikan bahwa rencana yang sudah dibuat efektif dalam pelaksanaannya, dan semua orang melaksanakan yang menjadi tanggung jawabnya maka harus dilakukan pemantauan dan evaluasi secara terbuka dengan semua warga. Diunduh dari: ……….15/12/2012 Diunduh dari: 6/1/2013 Social capital is your network with people around you which you can utilize to gain access to resources or to be able to get favors or help with situations in everyday life. In Indonesia social capital is important for harvesting fields, repairs on house, for local development and for a sense of belonging.

80 MODAL SOSIAL Bagaimana BKM membangun modal sosial? BKM, sebagai dewan pimpinan kolektif, yang bertanggung jawab untuk menggerakan potensi warga masyarakat kelurahan untuk menanggulangi kemiskinan, mempunyai tugas untuk membangun modal sosial di wilayahnya. Modal sosial yang dibangun akan menjadi modal (potensi) yang sangat besar bagi seluruh warga kelurahan untuk berjaringan di antara sesama warga, maupun dengan pihak luar. Modal sosial yang harus dibangun oleh BKM: 1.Menumbuhkan kerjasama dan kepercayaan di antara anggota BKM 2.Menumbuhkan kerjasama dan kepercayaan antara BKM dengan warga masyarakat 3.Menumbuhkan kerjasama dan kepercayaan antar kelompok masyarakat 4.Menumbuhkan kerjasama dan kepercayaan antara BKM, masyarakat dan pihak luar. Diunduh dari: ……….15/12/2012 Diunduh dari:... ……….6/1/2013 Cultural Capital "Inherited systems of values and attitudes, codes of behavior, and rewards and sanctions, which individuals need to obey and can gain or suffer from as long as they are within that culture, but which they can be freed from by physically moving out" - Stein Kristensen

81 MODAL SOSIAL Menumbuhkan kerjasama dan kepercayaan antar anggota BKM Keterbukaan dan kejujuran di antara anggota BKM, merupakan unsur yang paling penting untuk bekerjasama. Oleh karena itu BKM harus menerapkan pola – pola hubungan yang jujur dan terbuka, dengan cara: 1.Merumukan semua keputusan dan tindakan bersama, tidak ada anggota yang memutuskan sendiri berdasarkan kepentingannya. 2.Menjalin dialog terbuka dengan diskusi – dikusi secara berkala, saling memberikan informasi dan bertukar pengalaman. 3.Mencatat semua kegiatan yang dilakukan dan informasi yang diterima, agar semua anggota bisa mengakses informasi tersebut. 4.Memberikan kesempatan yang sama kepada semua anggota untuk berpendapat dan mengemukakan perasaan – perasaannya dalam suasana saling menghargai. 5. Diunduh dari: ……….15/12/2012 Diunduh dari:

82 MODAL SOSIAL Menumbuhkan kerjasama dan kepercayaan antara BKM dengan masyarakat Sebagai pemimpin kolektif dari masyarakat warga, BKM harus mendapat kepercayaan warganya. Untuk kepentingan tersebut, BKM harus mengembangkan pola – pola hubungan yang dimbal balik antara BKM dengan masyarakat. Beberapa cara menumbuhkan kepercayaan masyarakat yang bisa dilakukan oleh BKM adalah: 1.Menjalankan tugas yang diamanahkan oleh masyarakat dengan pengelolaan yang jujur dan adil. Adil bukan berarti bagi rata, akan tetapi menentukan prioritas berdasarkan kebutuhan yang nyata, bukan untuk kepentingan pribadi. Contohnya dalam menentukan penerima manfaat langsung, harus berdasarkan data KK miskin berdasarkan hasil PS, bukan atas dasar kekeluargaan atau kedekatan. 2.Tidak mencari keuntungan pribadi, akan tetapi menjalankan tugas dan tanggung jawab semata – mata untuk kepentingan kesejahteraan masyarakat. 3.Mampu melindungi masyarakatnya (terutama warga miskin), tidak memihak kepada kelompok tertentu akan tetapi memberikan kesempatan kepada semua warga untuk terlibat dalam keseluruhan kegiatan. 4.Memberikan kesempatan seluas – luasnya kepada warga mayarakat untuk berpartisipasi dalam proses dari menemukenali masalah (refleksi kemiskinan dan pemetaan swadaya,merencanakan (menyusun PJM) dan monitoring evaluasi kegiatan, walaupun keputusan terakhir BKM yang menentukan sebagai pengambil kebijakan. 5.Memberikan informasi mengenai kegiatan BKM, keuangan dan informasi lain yang dibutuhkan masyarakat dalam penanggulangan kemiskinan yang menjadi tanggung jawab BKM. 6.Mempertanggung jawabkan pengelolaan keuangan,kegiatan – kegiatan dan kebijakan yang dikeluarkan (akuntabilitas). Diunduh dari: ……….15/12/2012

83 MODAL SOSIAL Menumbuhkan kerjasama dan kepercayaan antar warga masyarakat Dalam mencapai tujuan penanggulangan kemiskinan, masyarakat tidak bisa bergerak sendiri – sendiri, akan tetapi perlu kerjasama di antara mereka. Untuk dapat bekerjasama diperlukan hubungan sosial yang kuat dan guyup (Jawa). Oleh karena itu BKM perlu menggerakan modal sosial di masyarakat dengan menciptakan hubungan – hubungan tadi dengan berbagai cara di antaranya : 1.Menumbuhkan kepedulian warga dengan menggerakan kesadaran kritis masyarakat terhadap permasalahan bersama terutama yang menyangkut kemiskinan dengan cara melakukan refleksi kritis dengan berbagai pihak, misal melalui Komunitas Belajar Kelurahan; melibatkan seluruh unsur masyarakat di dalam setiap tahapan program dari mulai identifikasi masalah, perencanaan, pelaksanaan sampai monitoring evaluasi. 2.Menggalang kegiatan yang bisa menumbuhkan kebersamaan melalui kelompok – kelompok seperti KSM, sehingga KSM dibentuk bukan hanya sekedar untuk kepentingan pencairan dana BLM akan tetapi menjadi sarana kegiatan bersama. Saling menghargai, saling percaya di antara anggota kelompok akan tumbuh apabila kelompok tersebut dibangun dalam suasana keterbukaan, kejujuran, keikhlasan dan saling peduli di antara anggotanya. Dalam kelompok yang seperti ini yang menjadi hal utama adalah tujuan kelompok bukan tujuan pribadi. Kejujuran dalam pengelolaan KSM juga akan menjadi modal untuk dapat dipercaya oleh kelompok masyarakat yang lain baik warga kelurahan setempat atau pihak lain, sehingga kemungkinan untuk bermitra dengan berbagai pihak menjadi sangat terbuka. Misal: pengembalian dana bergulir dari KSM, akan menumbuhkan kepercayaan dari warga lain, juga BKM terhadap KSM tersebut. Diunduh dari: ……….15/12/2012

84 MODAL SOSIAL Menumbuhkan kerjasama antara BKM dengan pihak luar Apabila kerjasama dan kepercayaan dalam ketiga hal di atas dapat terwujud, hal tersebut merupakan modal bagi BKM untuk dapat dipercaya oleh pihak luar. Apabila kepercayaan pihak luar sudah tumbuh, merupakan keniscayaan bagi para pihak baik itu lembaga swasta, pemerintah maupun individu–individu untuk mau bermitra denngan BKM. BKM yang menjunjung tinggi kejujuran, keterbukaan, keadilan, tidak mementingkan kepentingan pribadi dan bekerja untuk kepentingan penanggulangan kemiskinan merupakan modal sosial yang sangat besar untuk dapat memperoleh kepercayaan dari berbagai pihak baik masyarakat kelurahan maupun pihak luar. Dengan demikian modal sosial ini akan menjadi modal yang sangat penting untuk mengembangkan jaringan dengan berbagai pihak, sehingga masyarakat dapat semkin maju dan sejahtera. Diunduh dari: ……….15/12/2012

85 MODAL SOSIAL Modal Sosial adalah sumberdaya yang dapat dipandang sebagai investasi untuk mendapatkan sumberdaya baru. Seperti diketahui bahwa sesuatu yang disebut sumberdaya (resources) adalah sesuatu yang dapat dipergunakan untuk dikonsumsi, disimpan, dan diinvestasikan. Sumberdaya yang digunakan untuk investasi disebut sebagai modal. Dimensi Modal Sosial cukup luas dan kompleks. Modal Sosial berbeda dengan istilah populer lainnya, yaitu Modal Manusia (human capital). Pada modal manusia segala sesuatunya lebih merujuk ke dimensi individual yaitu daya dan keahlian yang dimiliki oleh seorang individu. Modal Sosial lebih menekankan pada potensi kelompok dan pola-pola hubungan antarindividu dalam suatu kelompok dan antarkelompok dengan ruang perhatian pada jaringan sosial, norma, nilai, dan kepercayaan antarsesama yang lahir dari anggota kelompok dan menjadi norma kelompok. Modal sosial juga sangat dekat dengan terminologi sosial lainnya seperti yang dikenal sebagai kebajikan sosial (social virtue). Perbedaan keduanya terletak pada dimensi jaringan. Kebajikan sosial akan sangat kuat dan berpengaruh jika di dalamnya melekat perasaan keterikatan untuk saling berhubungan yang bersifat timbal balik dalam suatu bentuk hubungan sosial. Menurut Putnam (2000), suatu entitas masyarakat yang memiliki kebajikan sosial yang tinggi, tetapi hidup secara sosial terisolasi akan dipandang sebagai masyarakat yang memiliki tingkat Modal Sosial yang rendah. Diunduh dari: indonesia/... ……….15/12/2012

86 Peranan Modal Sosial dalam Pembangunan Inayah Staf Pengajar pada Jurusan Administrasi Niaga Politeknik Negeri Semarang Jurnal Pengembangan Humaniora Vol. 12 No. 1, April 2012 UNSUR-UNSUR MODAL SOSIAL Blakeley dan Suggate, dalam Suharto (2007) menyatakan bahwa unsur- unsur modal sosial adalah: 1.epercayaan, tumbuhnya sikap saling percaya antar individu dan antar institusi dalam masyarakat; 2.Kohesivitas, adanya hubungan yang erat dan padu dalam membangun solidaritas masyarakat; 3.Altruisme, paham yang mendahulukan kepentingan orang lain; 4.Perasaan tidak egois dan tidak individualistik yang meng-utamakan kepentingan umum dan orang lain di atas kepentingan sendiri; 5.Gotong-royong, sikap empati dan perilaku yang mau menolong orang lain dan bahu-membahu dalam melakukan berbagai upaya untuk kepentingan bersama; dan 6.Jaringan, dan kolaborasi sosial, membangun hubungan dan kerjasama antar individu dan antar institusi baik di dalam komunitas sendiri/ kelompok maupun di luar komunitas/kelompok dalam berbagai kegiatan yang memberikan manfaat bagi masyarakat. (Sumber: Suharto, Edy Modal Sosial dan Kebijakan Publik). Diunduh dari:.. ……….15/1 2/2012

87 Peranan Modal Sosial dalam Pembangunan Inayah Staf Pengajar pada Jurusan Administrasi Niaga Politeknik Negeri Semarang Jurnal Pengembangan Humaniora Vol. 12 No. 1, April 2012 Hasbullah (2006) mengetengahkan enam unsur pokok dalam modal sosial berdasarkan berbagai pengertian modal sosial yang telah ada, yaitu: 1.Participation in a network. Kemampuan sekelompok orang untuk melibatkan diri dalam suatu jaringan hubungan sosial, melalui berbagai variasi hubungan yang saling berdampingan dan dilakukan atas dasar prinsip kesukarelaaan (voluntary), kesamaan (equality), kebebasan (freedom), dan keadaban (civility). Kemampuan anggota kelompok atau anggota masyarakat untuk selalu menyatukan diri dalam suatu pola hubungan yang sinergis akan sangat besar pengaruhnya dalam menentukan kuat tidaknya modal sosial suatu kelompok. 2.Reciprocity. Kecenderungan saling tukar kebaikan antar individu dalam suatu kelompok atau antar kelompok itu sendiri. Pola pertukaran terjadi dalam suatu kombinasi jangka panjang dan jangka pendek dengan nuansa altruism tanpa mengharapkan imbalan. Pada masyarakat dan kelompok-kelompok sosial yang terbentuk yang memiliki bobot resiprositas kuat akan melahirkan suatu masyarakat yang memiliki tingkat modal sosial yang tinggi. 3.Trust. Suatu bentuk keinginan untuk mengambil resiko dalam hubungan- hubungan sosialnya yang didasari oleh perasaan yakin bahwa yang lain akan melakukan sesuatu seperti yang diharapkan dan akan senantiasa bertindak dalam suatu pola tindakan yang saling mendukung. Paling tidak, yang lain tidak akan bertindak merugikan diri dan kelompoknya (Putnam, 1993). Tindakan kolektif yang didasari saling percaya akan meningkatkan partisipasi masyarakat dalam berbagai bentuk dan dimensi terutama dalam konteks kemajuan bersama. Hal ini memungkinkan masyarakat untuk bersatu dan memberikan kontribusi pada peningkatan modal sosial. Diunduh dari:.. ……….15/1 2/2012

88 Peranan Modal Sosial dalam Pembangunan Inayah Staf Pengajar pada Jurusan Administrasi Niaga Politeknik Negeri Semarang Jurnal Pengembangan Humaniora Vol. 12 No. 1, April 2012 Hasbullah (2006) mengetengahkan enam unsur pokok dalam modal sosial berdasarkan berbagai pengertian modal sosial yang telah ada, yaitu: 4.Social norms. Sekumpulan aturan yang diharapkan dipatuhi dan diikuti oleh masyarakat dalam suatu entitas sosial tertentu. Aturan-aturan ini biasanya ter- institusionalisasi, tidak tertulis tapi dipahami sebagai penentu pola tingkah laku yang baik dalam konteks hubungan sosial sehingga ada sangsi sosial yang diberikan jika melanggar. Norma sosial akan menentukan kuatnya hubungan antar individu karena merangsang kohesifitas sosial yang berdampak positif bagi perkembangan masyarakat. Oleh karenanya norma sosial disebut sebagai salah satu modal sosial. 5.Values. Sesuatu ide yang telah turun temurun dianggap benar dan penting oleh anggota kelompok masyarakat. Nilai merupakan hal yang penting dalam kebudaya-an, biasanya ia tumbuh dan berkembang dalam mendominasi kehidupan kelompok masyarakat tertentu serta mempengaruhi aturan-aturan bertindak dan berperilaku masyarakat yang pada akhirnya membentuk pola cultural. 6.Proactive action. Keinginan yang kuat dari anggota kelompok untuk tidak saja berpartisipasi tetapi senantiasa mencari jalan bagi keterlibatan anggota kelompok dalam suatu kegiatan masyarakat. Anggota kelompok melibatkan diri dan mencari kesempatan yang dapat memperkaya hubungan-hubungan sosial dan menguntung-kan kelompok. Perilaku inisiatif dalam mencari informasi berbagai pengalaman, memperkaya ide, pengetahuan, dan beragam bentuk inisiatif lainnya baik oleh individu mapun kelompok, merupakan wujud modal sosial yang berguna dalam membangun masyarakat. Diunduh dari:.. ……….15/1 2/2012

89 Peranan Modal Sosial dalam Pembangunan Inayah Staf Pengajar pada Jurusan Administrasi Niaga Politeknik Negeri Semarang Jurnal Pengembangan Humaniora Vol. 12 No. 1, April 2012 Ridell, (dalam Suharto, 2007) menuliskan tiga parameter modal sosial: 1.Kepercayaan (trust), harapan yang tumbuh di dalam sebuah masyarakat, yang ditunjukkan oleh adanya perilaku jujur, teratur, dan kerjasama berdasarkan norma-norma yang dianut bersama; 2.Norma-norma (norms), norma terdiri pemahaman-pemahaman, nilai-nlai, harapan-harapan, dan tujuan-tujuan yang diyakini dan dijalankan bersama oleh sekelom-pok orang; 3.Jaringan-jaringan (networks), merupakan infrastruktur dinamis yang berwujud jaringan-jaringan kerjasama antar manusia. Jaringan tersebut memfasilitasi terjadinya komunikasi dan interaksi, memungkinkan tumbuhnya kepercayaan dan mem-perkuat kerjasama. Diunduh dari:.. ……….15/1 2/2012 Diunduh dari:... ……….6/1/2013 Nick Llewellyn, Colin Armistead, (2000) "Business process management: Exploring social capital within processes", International Journal of Service Industry Management, Vol. 11 Iss: 3, pp

90 Peranan Modal Sosial dalam Pembangunan Inayah Staf Pengajar pada Jurusan Administrasi Niaga Politeknik Negeri Semarang Jurnal Pengembangan Humaniora Vol. 12 No. 1, April 2012 Modal Sosial dan Pembangunan Manusia Putnam dalam Hasbullah (2006) menyatakan bahwa bangsa yang memiliki modal sosial tinggi cenderung lebih efisien dan efektif dalam menjalankan berbagai kebijakan untuk mensejahterakan dan memajukan kehidupan rakyatnya. Modal sosial dapat meningkatkan kesadaran individu tentang banyaknya peluang yang dapat dikembangkan untuk kepentingan masyarakat. Dalam konteks pembangunan manusia, modal sosial mempunyai pengaruh yang besar sebab beberapa dimensi pembangunan manusia sangat dipengaruhi oleh modal sosial antara lain kemampuan untuk menyelesaikan kompleksitas berbagai permasalahan bersama, mendorong perubahan yang cepat di dalam masyarakat, menumbuhkan kesadaran kolektif untuk memperbaiki kualitas hidup dan mencari peluang yang dapat dimanfaatkan untuk kesejahteraan. Hal ini terbangun oleh adanya rasa saling memper-cayai, kohesifitas, tindakan proaktif, dan hubungan internal-eksternal dalam membangun jaringan sosial didukung oleh semangat kebajikan untuk saling menguntungkan sebagai refleksi kekuatan masyarakat. Situasi ini akan memperbesar kemungkinan percepatan perkembangan individu dan kelompok dalam masyarakat tersebut. Bagaimanapun juga kualitas individu akan mendorong peningkatan kualitas hidup masyarakat itu berarti pembangunan manusia paralel dengan pembangunan sosial. Diunduh dari:.. ……….15/1 2/2012

91 Peranan Modal Sosial dalam Pembangunan Inayah Staf Pengajar pada Jurusan Administrasi Niaga Politeknik Negeri Semarang Jurnal Pengembangan Humaniora Vol. 12 No. 1, April 2012 Modal Sosial dan Pembangunan Manusia Menurut Putnam (dalam Hasbullah, 2006), bangsa yang memiliki modal sosial tinggi cenderung lebih efisien dan efektif dalam menjalankan berbagai kebijakan untuk mensejahterakan dan memajukan kehidupan rakyatnya. Modal sosial dapat meningkatkan kesadaran individu tentang banyaknya peluang yang dapat dikembangkan untuk kepentingan masyarakat. Dalam konteks pembangunan manusia, modal sosial mempunyai pengaruh yang besar sebab beberapa dimensi pembangunan manusia sangat dipengaruhi oleh modal sosial antara lain kemampuan untuk menyelesaikan kompleksitas berbagai permasalahan bersama, mendorong perubahan yang cepat di dalam masyarakat, menumbuhkan kesadaran kolektif untuk memperbaiki kualitas hidup dan mencari peluang yang dapat dimanfaatkan untuk kesejahteraan. Hal ini terbangun oleh adanya rasa saling mempercayai, kohesifitas, tindakan proaktif, dan hubungan internal-eksternal dalam membangun jaringan sosial didukung oleh semangat kebajikan untuk saling menguntungkan sebagai refleksi kekuatan masyarakat. Situasi ini akan memperbesar kemungkinan percepatan perkembangan individu dan kelompok dalam masyarakat tersebut. Kualitas individu dapat mendorong peningkatan kualitas hidup masyarakat, hal ini berarti pembangunan manusia sejajar dengan pembangunan sosial. Diunduh dari:.. ……….15/1 2/2012

92 Peranan Modal Sosial dalam Pembangunan Inayah Staf Pengajar pada Jurusan Administrasi Niaga Politeknik Negeri Semarang Jurnal Pengembangan Humaniora Vol. 12 No. 1, April 2012 Modal Sosial dan Pembangunan Sosial Masyarakat yang memiliki modal sosial tinggi akan membuka kemungkinan menyelesaikan kompleksitas persoalan dengan lebih mudah. Dengan saling percaya, toleransi, dan kerjasama mereka dapat membangun jaringan baik di dalam kelompok masyarakatnya maupun dengan kelompok masyarakat lainnya. Pada masyarakat tradisional, diketahui memiliki asosiasi-asosiasi informal yang umumnya kuat dan memiliki nilai-nilai, norma, dan etika kolektif sebagai sebuah komu-nitas yang saling berhubungan. Hal ini merupakan modal sosial yang dapat mendorong munculnya organisasi-organisasi modern dengan prinsip keterbukaan, dan jaringan-jaringan informal dalam masyarakat yang secara mandiri dapat mengembangkan pengetahuan dan wawasan dengan tujuan peningkatan kesejahteraan dan kualitas hidup bersama dalam kerangka pembangunan masyarakat. Berkembangnya modal sosial di tengah masyarakat akan menciptakan suatu situasi masyarakat yang toleran, dan merangsang tumbuhnya empati dan simpati terhadap kelompok masyarakat di luar kelompoknya. Menurut Hasbullah (2006), jaringan-jaringan yang memperkuat modal sosial akan memudahkan saluran informasi dan ide dari luar yang merangsang perkembangan kelompok masyarakat. Hal ini dapat melahirkan masyarakat peduli pada berbagai aspek dan dimensi aktifitas kehidupan, masyarakat yang saling memberi perhatian dan saling percaya. Situasi seperti ini dapat mendorong kehidupan bermasyarakat yang damai, bersahabat, dan tenteram. Diunduh dari:.. ……….15/1 2/2012

93 MODAL SOSIAL Modal Sosial dan Pembangunan Ekonomi Modal sosial sangat tinggi pegaruhnya terhadap perkembangan dan kemajuan berbagai sektor ekonomi. Fukuyama (2002) menunjukkan hasil-hasil studi di berbagai negara yang menunjukkan bahwa modal sosial yang kuat akan merangsang pertumbuhan berbagai sektor ekonomi karena adanya tingkat rasa percaya yang tinggi dan kerekatan hubungan dalam jaringan yang luas tumbuh antar sesama pelaku ekonomi. Hasbullah (2006) memberikan contoh perkembangan ekonomi yang sangat tinggi di Asia Timur sebagai pengaruh pola perdagangan dan perekonomian yang dijalankan pelaku ekonomi Cina dalam menjalankan usahanya memiliki tingkat kohesifitas yang tinggi karena dipengaruhi oleh koneksi-koneksi kekeluargaan dan kesukuan, meskipun demikian pola ini mendorong pembentukan jaringan rasa percaya (networks of trust) yang dibangun melewati batas-batas keluarga, suku, agama, dan negara. Budaya gotong-royong, tolong menolong, saling mengingatkan antar individu dalam entitas masyarakat desa merefleksikan semangat saling memberi (reciprocity), saling per-caya (trust), dan adanya jaringan-jaringan sosial (sosial networking). Hal ini membangun kekompakan pada masyarakat desa untuk bersama-sama dalam memulai bercocok tanam bersama-sama untuk menghindari hama, membentuk kelompok tani untuk bersama-sama menyelesaikan permasalahan dan mencari solusi bersama dalam rangka meningkatkan perekonomian pertanian. Pembangunan industri pada masyarakat dengan modal sosial tinggi akan cepat berkembang karena modal sosial akan menghasilkan energi kolektif yang memungkinkan berkembangnya jiwa dan semangat kewirausahaan di tengah masyarakat yang pada gilirannya akan menumbuhkembangkan dunia usaha. Investor asing akan tertarik untuk menanamkan modal usaha pada masyarakat yang menjunjung nilai kejujuran, kepercaya-an, terbuka dan memiliki tingkat empati yang tinggi. Modal sosial, berpengaruh kuat pada perkembangan sektor ekonomi lainnya seperti perdagangan, jasa, konstruksi, pariwisata dan lainnya. Diunduh dari: ……….15/12/2012

94 Diunduh dari: MODAL SOSIAL Modal sosial adalah suatu konsep dengan berbagai definisi yang saling terkait, yang didasarkan pada nilai jaringan sosial.jaringan sosial Sejak konsepnya dicetuskan, istilah "modal sosial" telah digambarkan sebagai "sesuatu yang sangat manjur" [Portes, 1998] bagi semua masalah yang menimpa komunitas dan masyarakat masa kini.komunitas Sementara berbagai aspek dari konsep ini telah dibahas oleh semua bidang ilmu sosial, sebagian menelusuri penggunaannya pada masa modern kepada Jane Jacobs pada tahun 1960-an.Jane Jacobs Namun ia tidak secara eksplisit menjelaskan istilah modal sosial melainkan menggunakannya dalam sebuah artikel dengan rujukan kepada nilai jaringan. Uraian mendalam yang pertama kali dikemukakan tentang istilah ini dilakukan oleh Pierre Bourdieu pada 1972

95 Diunduh dari: MODAL SOSIAL Definisi Modal sosial adalah bagian-bagian dari organisasi sosial seperti kepercayaan, norma dan jaringan yang dapat meningkatkan efisiensi masyarakat dengan memfasilitasi tindakan-tindakan yang terkoordinasi. [1]normajaringan [1] Modal sosial juga didefinisikan sebagai kapabilitas yang muncul dari kepercayaan umum di dalam sebuah masyarakat atau bagian-bagian tertentu dari masyarakat tersebut. Selain itu, konsep ini juga diartikan sebagai serangkaian nilai atau norma informal yang dimiliki bersama di antara para anggota suatu kelompok yang memungkinkan terjalinnya kerjasama. [2] [2] 1.Putnam, Robert D. (2000), Bowling Alone: The Collapse and revival of American Community, New York: Simon and Schuster, ISBN ISBN Fukuyama, F. (1995), Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity, New York: Free Press, ISBN ISBN

96 Diunduh dari: MODAL SOSIAL Akar Konsep yang mendasari modal sosial sudah lama. Para filsuf yang menekankan hubungan antara kehidupan masyarakat yang pluralistik dan demokrasi termasuk James Madison (The Federalist), Alexis de Tocqueville (Democracy in America), dan banyak penulis lainnya dalam tradisi pluralis yang dominan dalam ilmu politik Amerika. Beberapa contoh dari modal sosial antara lain adalah POMG (Persatuan Orang tua Murid dan Guru), kepramukaan, dewan sekolah, liga boling, jaringan internet, dan bahkan kelompok-kelompok ekstrem seperti Ku Klux Klan atau kelompok supremasis kulit putih, meskipun kelompok- kelompok ini menciptakan modal sosial yang eksklusif yang dapat menimbulkan akibat yang negatif.Ku Klux Klan Semua kelompok ini dapat menolong membangun dan menghancurkan masyarakat karena mereka menjembatani atau mengikat perilaku. Bila jumlah interaksi manusia meningkat, orang akan lebih mungkin untuk saling menolong dan kemudian menjadi lebih terlibat secara politik. Baru-baru ini muncul banyak diskusi tentang komunitas surat listrik dan online dan apakah mereka menolong membangun modal sosial. Sebagian orang berpendapat bahwa mereka memang menjembatani orang tetapi tidak mengikatnya. Perdebatan menarik lainnya di antara para ilmuwan politik berkaitan dengan apakah surat listrik menolong menghasilkan atau mengurangi modal sosial di lingkungan tempat kerja.surat listrik

97 Diunduh dari: MODAL SOSIAL Sejarah Istilah modal sosial pertama kali muncul pada tulisan L.J Hanifan (1916) dalam konteks peningkatan kondisi hidup masyarakat melalui keterlibatan masyarakat, niat baik serta atribut-atribut sosial lain dalam bertetangga.L.J Hanifan Dalam karya tersebut, muncul ciri utama dari modal sosial yakni membawa manfaat internal dan eksternal. Setelah karya Hanifan, The Rural School of Community Center, istilah modal sosial tidak muncul dalam literatur ilmiah selama beberapa dekade. Pada tahun 1956, sekelompok ahli sosiologi perkotaan Kanada menggunakannya dan diperkuat dengan kemunculan teori pertukaran George C.Homans pada tahun Pada era ini, istilah modal sosialmuncul pada pembahasan mengenai ikatan-ikatan komunitas.sosiologiteori pertukaran Penelitian yang dilakukan James S. Coleman (1988) di bidang pendidikan dan Robert Putnam (1993) mengenai partisipasi dan performa institusi telah menginspirasi banyak kajian mengenai modal sosial saat ini. (Wallis, Joe; Killerby, Paul, 2004) 1.Coleman, James Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital. American Journal of Sociology. 94 Supplement:(S95-S-120). 2.Loury, Glenn A Dynamic Theory of Racial Income Differences. Chapter 8 of Women, Minorities, and Employment Discrimination, Ed. P.A. Wallace dan A. Le Mund. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books. 3.Wallis, Joe; Killerby, Paul (2004), [www.emeraldinsight.com/ "Socio economics and social capital"], International Journal of Social Economics 31: 240.

98 SOCIAL CAPITAL, SOCIAL AGENCY AND SUSTAINABILITY Chris Ling Ann Dale: Canada Research Chair in Sustainable Community Development Royal Roads University Diunduh dari:

99 Social capital? “The set of norms, networks, and organizations through which people gain access to power and resources, and through which decision-making and policy formation occur” (Grootaert, 1998) Grootaert, C Social Capital: The Missing Link? Social Capital Initiative Working Paper No. 3. Washington, DC: World Bank. Diunduh dari: Reciprocity Trust Networks Bonding Strong Weak Bridging

100 Measuring Social Capital What doesn’t seem to be important: Political position and faith in federal Government Contractual arrangements (general trust is much more significant) The position of the individual without consideration of the social context. Onyx, J. and Bullen, P, 2000 Diunduh dari: What are the social parameters that impact social capital?

101 Measuring Social Capital What is important: Participation – involvement in community activities Trust and Safety – do people trust their neighbours, do they feel safe on their streets? Connections – Neighbourhoods (casual contacts), Families and Friends (more intimate contacts), Work (feeling part of a team) Tolerance of Diversity – a feeling that variety enhances rather than detract from life Value of Life – Am I valued by my community? Onyx, J. and Bullen, P, 2000 Diunduh dari:

102 AND MOST IMPORTANT Social Agency – a sense of personal and collective efficacy I and my community CAN make a difference Diunduh dari: Measuring Social Capital

103 Social Agency – key questions Are agency, social capital and sustainable community development related to each other? Can agency be measured? Are there key actors or connectors who facilitate bridging and networking? How do they perceive their role in the network? What are the patterns of leadership and are they critical to bridging and vertical capital? Does membership in overlapping networks give greater agency to a community? Diunduh dari:

104 HASIL-HASIL PENELITIAN MODAL SOSIAL

105 Diunduh dari: p2dtk.bappenas.go.id/downlot.php?...Modal%20S... ……….15/12/2012 MODAL SOSIAL: DEFINISI, DEMENSI, DAN TIPOLOGI Agus Supriono2, Dance J. Flassy3, Sasli Rais4 2Staf Pengajar Sosial Ekonomi Pertanian – Fakultas Pertanian – Universitas Jember; Mahasiswa S3, Fakultas Ekonomi, Universitas Gajah Mada, Yogyakarta. 3Sekretaris Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Daerah Provinsi Papua Barat, Mahasiswa S3 Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Politik (FISIP) – Universitas Indonesia. 4Staf Pengajar STIE Pengembangan Bisnis dan Manajemen - Jakarta, Tim Teknis Project Management Unit – Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Mandiri Daerah Tertinggal dan Khusus – Bappenas. ABSTRAK Semakin mengemukanya pencermatan terhadap keberadaan potensi dan peran penting modal sosial di dalam sistem perekonomian dewasa ini, mulai terjadi ketika para pakar dan pelaku ekonomi mulai merasakan adanya sejumlah kejanggalan dan kegagalan implementasi mazab ekonomi neo-klasik yang pro-globalisasi dan pro-liberalisasi perdagangan dalam menata perekonomian dunia baru dewasa ini. Secara umum modal sosial adalah merupakan hubungan-hubungan yang tercipta dan norma-norma yang membentuk kualitas dan kuantitas hubungan sosial dalam masyarakat dalam spektrum yang luas, yaitu sebagai perekat sosial (social glue) yang menjaga kesatuan anggota masyarakat (bangsa) secara bersama-sama. Wujud dari tipologi modal sosial ini dapat berupa modal sosial terikat (bonding social capital) dan modal sosial yang menjembatasi (bridging social capital).

106 Diunduh dari: p2dtk.bappenas.go.id/downlot.php?...Modal%20S... ……….15/12/2012 MODAL SOSIAL: DEFINISI, DEMENSI, DAN TIPOLOGI Agus Supriono2, Dance J. Flassy3, Sasli Rais4 2Staf Pengajar Sosial Ekonomi Pertanian – Fakultas Pertanian – Universitas Jember; Mahasiswa S3, Fakultas Ekonomi, Universitas Gajah Mada, Yogyakarta. 3Sekretaris Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Daerah Provinsi Papua Barat, Mahasiswa S3 Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Politik (FISIP) – Universitas Indonesia. 4Staf Pengajar STIE Pengembangan Bisnis dan Manajemen - Jakarta, Tim Teknis Project Management Unit – Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Mandiri Daerah Tertinggal dan Khusus – Bappenas. Sistem perekonomian dewasa ini mulai didominasi oleh peranan human capital, yaitu ‘pengetahuan’ dan ‘ketrampilan’ manusia. Kandungan lain dari human capital selain pengetahun dan ketrampilan adalah ‘kemampuan masyarakat untuk melakukan asosiasi (berhubungan) satu sama lain’. Kemampuan ini akan menjadi modal penting bukan hanya bagi kehidupan ekonomi akan tetapi juga bagi setiap aspek eksistensi sosial yang lain. Modal yang demikian ini disebut dengan ‘modal sosial’ (social capital), yaitu kemampuan masyarakat untuk bekerja bersama demi mencapai tujuan bersama dalam suatu kelompok dan organisasi (Coleman, 1990). 1.Coleman, J., Foundations of Social Theory. Cambridge Mass: Harvard University Press.

107 Diunduh dari: p2dtk.bappenas.go.id/downlot.php?...Modal%20S... ……….15/12/2012 MODAL SOSIAL: DEFINISI, DEMENSI, DAN TIPOLOGI Agus Supriono2, Dance J. Flassy3, Sasli Rais4 2Staf Pengajar Sosial Ekonomi Pertanian – Fakultas Pertanian – Universitas Jember; Mahasiswa S3, Fakultas Ekonomi, Universitas Gajah Mada, Yogyakarta. 3Sekretaris Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Daerah Provinsi Papua Barat, Mahasiswa S3 Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Politik (FISIP) – Universitas Indonesia. 4Staf Pengajar STIE Pengembangan Bisnis dan Manajemen - Jakarta, Tim Teknis Project Management Unit – Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Mandiri Daerah Tertinggal dan Khusus – Bappenas. Bourdieu (1986) mengemukakan kritiknya terhadap terminologi modal (capital) di dalam ilmu ekonomi konvensional. Dinyatakannya modal bukan hanya sekedar alat-alat produksi, akan tetapi memiliki pengertian yang lebih luas dan dapat diklasifikasikan kedalam 3 (tiga) golongan, yaitu: 1.Modal ekonomi (economic capital), 2.Modal kultural (cultural capital), dan 3.Modal sosial (social capital). Modal ekonomi, dikaitkan dengan kepemilikan alat-alat produksi. Modal kultural, terinstitusionalisasi dalam bentuk kualifikasi pendidikan. Modal sosial, terdiri dari kewajiban - kewajiban sosial. 1.Bourdieu, P The Form of Capital. In J. Richardson (Ed). Handbook of Theory and Research for Sociology of Education. New York: Greenwood Press.

108 Diunduh dari: p2dtk.bappenas.go.id/downlot.php?...Modal%20S... ……….15/12/2012 MODAL SOSIAL: DEFINISI, DEMENSI, DAN TIPOLOGI Agus Supriono2, Dance J. Flassy3, Sasli Rais4 2Staf Pengajar Sosial Ekonomi Pertanian – Fakultas Pertanian – Universitas Jember; Mahasiswa S3, Fakultas Ekonomi, Universitas Gajah Mada, Yogyakarta. 3Sekretaris Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Daerah Provinsi Papua Barat, Mahasiswa S3 Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Politik (FISIP) – Universitas Indonesia. 4Staf Pengajar STIE Pengembangan Bisnis dan Manajemen - Jakarta, Tim Teknis Project Management Unit – Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Mandiri Daerah Tertinggal dan Khusus – Bappenas. Definisi Modal Sosial Modal sosial (social capital) dapat didefinisikan sebagai kemampuan masyarakat untuk bekerja bersama, demi mencapai tujuan-tujuan bersama, di dalam berbagai kelompok dan organisasi (Coleman, 1999). Secara lebih komperehensif Burt (1992) mendefinsikan, modal sosial adalah kemampuan masyarakat untuk melakukan asosiasi (berhubungan) satu sama lain dan selanjutnya menjadi kekuatan yang sangat penting bukan hanya bagi kehidupan ekonomi akan tetapi juga setiap aspek eksistensi sosial yang lain. Menurut Burt (1992), kemampuan berasosiasi ini sangat tergantung pada suatu kondisi dimana komunitas itu mau saling berbagi untuk mencari titik temu norma-norma dan nilai-nilai bersama. Apabila titik temu etis-normatif ini diketemukan, maka pada gilirannya kepentingankepentingan individual akan tunduk pada kepentingan- kepentingan komunitas kelompok. 1.Burt. R.S Excerpt from The Sosial Structure of Competition, in Structure Holes: The Social Structure of Competition. Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University. In Elinor Ostrom and T.K. Ahn Foundation of Social Capital. Massachusetts: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited. 2.Coleman, J., Foundations of Social Theory. Cambridge Mass: Harvard University Press Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital. Cambridge Mass: Harvard University Press.

109 Diunduh dari: p2dtk.bappenas.go.id/downlot.php?...Modal%20S... ……….15/12/2012 MODAL SOSIAL: DEFINISI, DEMENSI, DAN TIPOLOGI Agus Supriono2, Dance J. Flassy3, Sasli Rais4 2Staf Pengajar Sosial Ekonomi Pertanian – Fakultas Pertanian – Universitas Jember; Mahasiswa S3, Fakultas Ekonomi, Universitas Gajah Mada, Yogyakarta. 3Sekretaris Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Daerah Provinsi Papua Barat, Mahasiswa S3 Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Politik (FISIP) – Universitas Indonesia. 4Staf Pengajar STIE Pengembangan Bisnis dan Manajemen - Jakarta, Tim Teknis Project Management Unit – Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Mandiri Daerah Tertinggal dan Khusus – Bappenas. Fukuyama (1995) mendifinisikan, modal sosial sebagai serangkaian nilai- nilai atau norma-norma informal yang dimiliki bersama diantara para anggota suatu kelompok yang memungkinkan terjalinnya kerjasama diantara mereka. Cox (1995) mendefinisikan, modal sosial sebagai suatu rangkian proses hubungan antar manusia yang ditopang oleh jaringan, norma-norma, dan kepercayaan sosial yang memungkinkan efisien dan efektifnya koordinasi dan kerjasama untuk keuntungan dan kebajikan bersama. Partha dan Ismail S. (1999) mendefinisikan, modal sosial sebagai hubungan-hubungan yang tercipta dan norma-norma yang membentuk kualitas dan kuantitas hubungan sosial dalam masyarakat dalam spektrum yang luas, yaitu sebagai perekat sosial (social glue) yang menjaga kesatuan anggota kelompok secara bersama-sama. Solow (1999) mendefinisikan, modal sosial sebagai serangkaian nilai-nilai atau norma-norma yang diwujudkan dalam perilaku yang dapat mendorong kemampuan dan kapabilitas untuk bekerjasama dan berkoordinasi untuk menghasilkan kontribusi besar terhadap keberlanjutan produktivitas. 1.Cox, Eva A Truly Civil Society. Sydney:ABC Boook 2.Fukuyama, F Trust: The Social Virtues and The Creation of Prosperity. New York: Free Press. 3.Partha D., Ismail S Social Capital A Multifaceted Perspective. Washington DC: The World Bank. 4.Solow, R. M Notes Social Capital and Economic Performance. In Partha D., Ismail S., Social Capital A Multifaceted Perspective. Washington DC: The World Bank.

110 Diunduh dari: p2dtk.bappenas.go.id/downlot.php?...Modal%20S... ……….15/12/2012 MODAL SOSIAL: DEFINISI, DEMENSI, DAN TIPOLOGI Agus Supriono2, Dance J. Flassy3, Sasli Rais4 2Staf Pengajar Sosial Ekonomi Pertanian – Fakultas Pertanian – Universitas Jember; Mahasiswa S3, Fakultas Ekonomi, Universitas Gajah Mada, Yogyakarta. 3Sekretaris Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Daerah Provinsi Papua Barat, Mahasiswa S3 Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Politik (FISIP) – Universitas Indonesia. 4Staf Pengajar STIE Pengembangan Bisnis dan Manajemen - Jakarta, Tim Teknis Project Management Unit – Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Mandiri Daerah Tertinggal dan Khusus – Bappenas. Menurut Cohen dan Prusak L. (2001), modal sosial adalah sebagai setiap hubungan yang terjadi dan diikat oleh suatu kepercayaan (trust), kesaling pengertian (mutual understanding), dan nilai-nilai bersama (shared value) yang mengikat anggota kelompok untuk membuat kemungkinan aksi bersama dapat dilakukan secara efisien dan efektif. Hasbullah (2006) menjelaskan, modal sosial sebagai segala sesuatu hal yang berkaitan dengan kerja sama dalam masyarakat atau bangsa untuk mencapai kapasitas hidup yang lebih baik, ditopang oleh nilai-nilai dan norma yang menjadi unsurunsur utamanya sepetri trust (rasa saling mempercayai), keimbal-balikan, aturan-aturan kolektif dalam suatu masyarakat atau bangsa dan sejenisnya. 1.Cohen, S., Prusak L In Good Company: How Social Capital Makes Organization Work. London: Harvard Business Pres. 2.Hasbullah, J., Sosial Kapital: Menuju Keunggulan Budaya Manusia Indonesia. Jakarta: MR-United Press.

111 Diunduh dari: p2dtk.bappenas.go.id/downlot.php?...Modal%20S... ……….15/12/2012 MODAL SOSIAL: DEFINISI, DEMENSI, DAN TIPOLOGI Agus Supriono2, Dance J. Flassy3, Sasli Rais4 2Staf Pengajar Sosial Ekonomi Pertanian – Fakultas Pertanian – Universitas Jember; Mahasiswa S3, Fakultas Ekonomi, Universitas Gajah Mada, Yogyakarta. 3Sekretaris Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Daerah Provinsi Papua Barat, Mahasiswa S3 Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Politik (FISIP) – Universitas Indonesia. 4Staf Pengajar STIE Pengembangan Bisnis dan Manajemen - Jakarta, Tim Teknis Project Management Unit – Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Mandiri Daerah Tertinggal dan Khusus – Bappenas. Dimensi Modal Sosial Modal sosial (social capital) berbeda definisi dan terminologinya dengan human capital (Fukuyama, 1995). Bentuk human capital adalah ‘pengetahuan’ dan ‘ketrampilan’ manusia. Ivestasi human capital kovensional adalah dalam bentuk seperti halnya pendidikan universitas, pelatihan menjadi seorang mekanik atau programmer computer, atau menyelenggarakan pendidikan yang tepat lainnya. Sedangkan modal sosial adalah kapabilitas yang muncul dari kepercayaan umum di dalam sebuah masyarakat atau bagian-bagian tertentu darinya. Modal sosial dapat dilembagakan dalam bentuk kelompok sosial paling kecil atau paling mendasar dan juga kelompok-kelompok masyarakat paling besar seperti halnya negara (bangsa). Modal sosial ditransmisikan melalui mekanisme - mekanisme kultural seperti agama, tradisi, atau kebiasaan sejarah (Fukuyama, 2000). Modal sosial dibutuhkan untuk menciptakan jenis komunitas moral yang tidak bisa diperoleh seperti dalam kasus bentukbentuk human capital. Akuisisi modal sosial memerlukan pembiasaan terhadap norma-norma moral sebuah komunitas dan dalam konteksnya sekaligus mengadopsi kebajikan-kebajikan seperti kesetiaan, kejujuran, dan dependability. Modal sosial lebih didasarkan pada kebajikankebajikan sosial umum. 1.Fukuyama, F Social Capital and The Global Economy. Foreign Affairs, 74(5), In Elinor Ostrom and T.K. Ahn Foundation of Social Capital. Massachusetts: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited Social Capital and Civil Society. International Monetary Fund Working Paper, WP/00/74, 1-8. In Elinor Ostrom and T.K. Ahn Foundation of Social Capital. Massachusetts: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.

112 Diunduh dari: p2dtk.bappenas.go.id/downlot.php?...Modal%20S... ……….15/12/2012 MODAL SOSIAL: DEFINISI, DEMENSI, DAN TIPOLOGI Agus Supriono2, Dance J. Flassy3, Sasli Rais4 2Staf Pengajar Sosial Ekonomi Pertanian – Fakultas Pertanian – Universitas Jember; Mahasiswa S3, Fakultas Ekonomi, Universitas Gajah Mada, Yogyakarta. 3Sekretaris Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Daerah Provinsi Papua Barat, Mahasiswa S3 Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Politik (FISIP) – Universitas Indonesia. 4Staf Pengajar STIE Pengembangan Bisnis dan Manajemen - Jakarta, Tim Teknis Project Management Unit – Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Mandiri Daerah Tertinggal dan Khusus – Bappenas. Bank Dunia (1999) meyakini modal sosial adalah sebagai sesuatu yang merujuk ke demensi institusional, hubungan-hubungan yang tercipta, dan norma-norma yang membentuk kualitas serta kuantitas hubungan sosial dalam masyarakat. Modal sosial bukanlah sekedar deretan jumlah institusi atau kelompok yang menopang (underpinning) kehidupan sosial, melainkan dengan spektrum yang lebih luas. Yaitu sebagai perekat (social glue) yang menjaga kesatuan anggota kelompok secara bersama-sama. Dimensi modal sosial tumbuh di dalam suatu masyarakat yang didalamnya berisi nilai dan norma serta pola-pola interaksi sosial dalam mengatur kehidupan keseharian anggotanya (Woolcock dan Narayan, 2000). Oleh karena itu Adler dan Kwon (2000) menyatakan, dimensi modal sosial adalah merupakan gambaran dari keterikatan internal yang mewarnai struktur kolektif dan memberikan kohesifitas dan keuntungan-keuntungan bersama dari proses dinamika sosial yang terjadi di dalam masyarakat. Demensi modal sosial menggambarkan segala sesuatu yang membuat masyarakat bersekutu untuk mencapai tujuan bersama atas dasar kebersamaan, serta didalamnya diikat oleh nilai-nilai dan norma-norma yang tumbuh dan dipatuhi (Dasgupta dan Ismail, 1999). Demensi modal sosial inheren dalam struktur relasi sosial dan jaringan sosial di dalam suatu masyarakat yang menciptakan berbagai ragam kewajiban sosial, menciptakan iklim saling percaya, membawa saluran informasi, dan menetapkan norma-norma, serta sangsi- sangsi sosial bagi para anggota masyarakat tersebut (Coleman, 1999). 1.Adler, P., Kwon S Social Capital: the good, the bad and the ugly. In E. Lesser (Ed). Knowledge and Social Capital: Foundations and Applications. Butterworth-Heinemmann. 2.Coleman, J Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital. Cambridge Mass: Harvard University Press. 3.Dasgupta, P., Ismail S Social Capital A Multifaceted Perspective. Washington DC: World Bank. 4.Woolcock, M. & D. Narayan Social Capital: Implication for Development Theory, Research, and Policy. World Bank Research Observer, 15(2), August, In Elinor Ostrom and T.K. Ahn Foundation of Social Capital. Massachusetts: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.

113 Diunduh dari: p2dtk.bappenas.go.id/downlot.php?...Modal%20S... ……….15/12/2012 MODAL SOSIAL: DEFINISI, DEMENSI, DAN TIPOLOGI Agus Supriono2, Dance J. Flassy3, Sasli Rais4 2Staf Pengajar Sosial Ekonomi Pertanian – Fakultas Pertanian – Universitas Jember; Mahasiswa S3, Fakultas Ekonomi, Universitas Gajah Mada, Yogyakarta. 3Sekretaris Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Daerah Provinsi Papua Barat, Mahasiswa S3 Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Politik (FISIP) – Universitas Indonesia. 4Staf Pengajar STIE Pengembangan Bisnis dan Manajemen - Jakarta, Tim Teknis Project Management Unit – Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Mandiri Daerah Tertinggal dan Khusus – Bappenas. Beberapa acuan nilai dan unsur yang merupakan ruh modal sosial antara lain: sikap yang partisipatif, sikap yang saling memperhatikan, saling memberi dan menerima, saling percaya mempercayai dan diperkuat oleh nilai-nilai dan norma-norma yang mendukungnya. Unsur lain yang memegang peranan penting adalah kemauan masyarakat untuk secara terus menerus proaktif baik dalam mempertahakan nilai, membentuk jaringan kerjasama maupun dengan penciptaan kreasi dan ide-ide baru. Inilah jati diri modal sosial yang sebenarnya. Menurut Hasbullah (2006), demensi inti telaah dari modal sosial terletak pada bagaimana kemampuan masyarakat untuk bekerjasama membangun suatu jaringan guna mencapai tujuan bersama. Kerjasama tersebut diwarnai oleh suatu pola interrelasi yang imbal balik dan saling menguntungkan serta dibangun diatas kepercayaan yang ditopang oleh norma-norma dan nilai-nilai sosial yang positif dan kuat. Kekuatan tersebut akan maksimal jika didukung oleh semangat proaktif membuat jalinan hubungan diatas prinsip-prinsip sikap yang partisipatif, sikap yang saling memperhatikan, saling memberi dan menerima, saling percaya mempercayai dan diperkuat oleh nilai-nilai dan norma-norma yang mendukungnya. 1.Hasbullah, J., Sosial Kapital: Menuju Keunggulan Budaya Manusia Indonesia. Jakarta: MR-United Press.

114 Diunduh dari: p2dtk.bappenas.go.id/downlot.php?...Modal%20S... ……….15/12/2012 MODAL SOSIAL: DEFINISI, DEMENSI, DAN TIPOLOGI Agus Supriono2, Dance J. Flassy3, Sasli Rais4 2Staf Pengajar Sosial Ekonomi Pertanian – Fakultas Pertanian – Universitas Jember; Mahasiswa S3, Fakultas Ekonomi, Universitas Gajah Mada, Yogyakarta. 3Sekretaris Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Daerah Provinsi Papua Barat, Mahasiswa S3 Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Politik (FISIP) – Universitas Indonesia. 4Staf Pengajar STIE Pengembangan Bisnis dan Manajemen - Jakarta, Tim Teknis Project Management Unit – Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Mandiri Daerah Tertinggal dan Khusus – Bappenas. Tipologi Modal Sosial Pakar-pakar yang memiliki perhatian terhadap modal sosial pada umumnya tertarik untuk mengkaji kerekatan hubungan sosial dimana masyarakat terlibat didalamnya, terutama kaitannya dengan pola-pola interaksi sosial atau hubungan sosial antar anggota masyarakat atau kelompok dalam suatu kegiatan sosial. Bagaimana keanggotaan dan aktivitas mereka dalam suatu asosiasi sosial merupakan hal yang selalu menarik untuk dikaji. Demensi lain yang juga sangat menarik perhatian adalah yang berkaitan dengan tipologi modal sosial, yaitu bagaimana perbedaan pola-pola interaksi berikut konsekuensinya antara modal sosial yang berbentuk bonding/exclusive atau bridging atau inclusive. Keduanya memiliki implikasi yang berbeda pada hasil-hasil yang dapat dicapai dan pengaruhpengaruh yang dapat muncul dalam proses kehidupan dan pembangunan masyarakat. Menurut Woolcock (1998), pada pola yang berbentuk bonding atau exclusive pada umumnya nuansa hubungan yang terbentuk mengarah ke pola inward looking. Sedangkan pada pola yang berbentuk bridging atau inclusive lebih mengarah ke ke pola outward looking. 1.Woolcock, M Social Capital and Economic Development: Toward a Theoretical Synthesis and Policy Framework. Theory and Society, 27 (1), In Elinor Ostrom and T.K. Ahn Foundation of Social Capital. Massachusetts: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.

115 Diunduh dari: p2dtk.bappenas.go.id/downlot.php?...Modal%20S... ……….15/12/2012 MODAL SOSIAL: DEFINISI, DEMENSI, DAN TIPOLOGI Agus Supriono2, Dance J. Flassy3, Sasli Rais4 2Staf Pengajar Sosial Ekonomi Pertanian – Fakultas Pertanian – Universitas Jember; Mahasiswa S3, Fakultas Ekonomi, Universitas Gajah Mada, Yogyakarta. 3Sekretaris Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Daerah Provinsi Papua Barat, Mahasiswa S3 Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Politik (FISIP) – Universitas Indonesia. 4Staf Pengajar STIE Pengembangan Bisnis dan Manajemen - Jakarta, Tim Teknis Project Management Unit – Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Mandiri Daerah Tertinggal dan Khusus – Bappenas. Modal Sosial Terikat (Bonding Social Capital) Modal sosial terikat adalah cenderung bersifat eksklusif. Apa yang menjadi karakteristik dasar yang melekat pada tipologi ini, sekaligus sebagai ciri khasnya, dalam konteks ide, relasi dan perhatian, adalah lebih berorientasi ke dalam (inward looking) dibandingkan dengan berorientasi keluar (outward looking). Ragam masyarakat yang menjadi anggota kelompok ini pada umumnya homogenius (cenderung homogen). The bonding social capital ini dikenal pula sebagai ciri sacred society. Menurut Putman (1993), pada masyarakat sacred society dogma tertentu mendominasi dan mempertahankan struktur masyarakat yang totalitarian, hierarchical, dan tertutup. Di dalam pola interaksi sosial sehari-hari selalu dituntun oleh nilai-nilai dan normanorma yang menguntungkan level hierarki tertentu dan feodal. Menurut Hasbullah (2006), pada mayarakat yang bonded atau inward looking atau sacred, meskipun hubungan sosial yang tercipta memiliki tingkat kohesifitas yang kuat, akan tetapi kurang merefleksikan kemampuan masyarakat tersebut untuk menciptakan dan memiliki modal sosial yang kuat. Kekuatan yang tumbuh sekedar dalam batas kelompok dalam keadaan tertentu, setruktur hierarki feodal, kohesifitas yang bersifat bonding.

116 Diunduh dari: p2dtk.bappenas.go.id/downlot.php?...Modal%20S... ……….15/12/2012 MODAL SOSIAL: DEFINISI, DEMENSI, DAN TIPOLOGI Agus Supriono2, Dance J. Flassy3, Sasli Rais4 2Staf Pengajar Sosial Ekonomi Pertanian – Fakultas Pertanian – Universitas Jember; Mahasiswa S3, Fakultas Ekonomi, Universitas Gajah Mada, Yogyakarta. 3Sekretaris Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Daerah Provinsi Papua Barat, Mahasiswa S3 Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Politik (FISIP) – Universitas Indonesia. 4Staf Pengajar STIE Pengembangan Bisnis dan Manajemen - Jakarta, Tim Teknis Project Management Unit – Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Mandiri Daerah Tertinggal dan Khusus – Bappenas. Modal Sosial yang Menjembatani (Bridging Social Capital) Menurut Hasbullah (2006), bentuk modal sosial yang menjembatani ini ini biasa juga disebut bentuk modern dari suatu pengelompokan, group, asosiasi, atau masyarakat. Prinsip-prinsip pengorganisasian yang dianut didasarkan pada prinsip- prinsip universal tentang: (a) persamaan, (b) kebebasan, serta (c) nilai- nilai kemajemukan dan humanitarian (kemanusiaan, terbuka, dan mandiri). Prinsip persamaan, bahwasanya setiap anggota dalam suatu kelompok masyarakat memiliki hak-hak dan kewajiban yang sama. Setiap keputusan kelompok berdasarkan kesepakatan yang egaliter dari setiap anggota kelompok. Pimpinan kelompok masyarakat hanya menjalankan kesepakatan-kesepakatan yang telah ditentukan oleh para anggota kelompok. Prinsip kebebasan, bahwasanya setiap anggota kelompok bebas berbicara, mengemukakan pendapat dan ide yang dapat mengembangkan kelompok tersebut. Iklim kebebasan yang tercipta memungkinkan ide-ide kreatif muncul dari dalam (kelompok), yaitu dari beragam pikiran anggotanya yang kelak akan memperkaya ide-ide kolektif yang tumbuh dalam kelompok tersebut. Prinsip kemajemukan dan humanitarian, bahwasanya nilai-nilai kemanusiaan, penghormatan terhadap hak asasi setiap anggota dan orang lain yang merupakan prinsip dasar dalam pengembangan asosiasi, group, kelompok, atau suatu masyarakat. Kehendak kuat untuk membantu orang lain, merasakan penderitaan orang lain, berimpati terhadap situasi yang dihadapi orang lain, adalah merupakan dasar-dasar ide humanitarian.

117 Diunduh dari: p2dtk.bappenas.go.id/downlot.php?...Modal%20S... ……….15/12/2012 MODAL SOSIAL: DEFINISI, DEMENSI, DAN TIPOLOGI Agus Supriono2, Dance J. Flassy3, Sasli Rais4 2Staf Pengajar Sosial Ekonomi Pertanian – Fakultas Pertanian – Universitas Jember; Mahasiswa S3, Fakultas Ekonomi, Universitas Gajah Mada, Yogyakarta. 3Sekretaris Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Daerah Provinsi Papua Barat, Mahasiswa S3 Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Politik (FISIP) – Universitas Indonesia. 4Staf Pengajar STIE Pengembangan Bisnis dan Manajemen - Jakarta, Tim Teknis Project Management Unit – Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Mandiri Daerah Tertinggal dan Khusus – Bappenas. Masyarakat yang menyandarkan pada bridging social capital biasanya hiterogen dari berbagai ragam unsur latar belakang budaya dan suku. Setiap anggota kelompok memiliki akses yang sama untuk membuat jaringan atau koneksi keluar kelompoknya dengan prinsip persamaan, kemanusiaan, dan kebebasan yang dimiliki. Bridging social capital akan membuka jalan untuk lebih cepat berkembang dengan kemampuan menciptakan networking yang kuat, menggerakkan identitas yang lebih luas dan reciprocity yang lebih variatif, serta akumulasi ide yang lebih memungkinkan untuk berkembang sesuai dengan prinsip-prinsip pembangunan yang lebih diterima secara universal. Menurut Colemen (1999), tipologi masyarakat bridging social capital dalam gerakannya lebih memberikan tekanan pada demensi fight for (berjuang untuk). Perjuangan ini mengarah kepada pencarian jawaban bersama untuk menyelesaikan masalah yang dihadapi oleh kelompok (pada situasi tertentu, termasuk problem di dalam kelompok atau problem yang terjadi di luar kelompok tersebut). Pada keadaan tertentu jiwa gerakan lebih diwarnai oleh semangat fight againts yang bersifat memberi perlawanan terhadap ancaman berupa kemungkinan runtuhnya simbul-simbul dan kepercayaan-kepercayaan tradisional yang dianut oleh kelompok masyarakat. Pada kelompok masyarakat yang demikian ini, perilaku kelompok yang dominan adalah sekedar sense of solidarity (solidarity making).

118 Diunduh dari: p2dtk.bappenas.go.id/downlot.php?...Modal%20S... ……….15/12/2012 MODAL SOSIAL: DEFINISI, DEMENSI, DAN TIPOLOGI Agus Supriono2, Dance J. Flassy3, Sasli Rais4 2Staf Pengajar Sosial Ekonomi Pertanian – Fakultas Pertanian – Universitas Jember; Mahasiswa S3, Fakultas Ekonomi, Universitas Gajah Mada, Yogyakarta. 3Sekretaris Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Daerah Provinsi Papua Barat, Mahasiswa S3 Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Politik (FISIP) – Universitas Indonesia. 4Staf Pengajar STIE Pengembangan Bisnis dan Manajemen - Jakarta, Tim Teknis Project Management Unit – Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Mandiri Daerah Tertinggal dan Khusus – Bappenas. Bentuk modal sosial yang menjembatani (bridging capital social) umumnya mampu memberikan kontribusi besar bagi perkembangan kemajuan dan kekuatan masyarakat. Hasil-hasil kajian di banyak negara menunjukkan bahwa dengan tumbuhnya bentuk modal sosial yang menjembatani ini memungkinan perkembangan di banyak demensi kehidupan, terkontrolnya korupsi, semakin efisiennya pekerjaan- pekerjaan pemerintah, mempercepat keberhasilan upaya penanggulangan kemiskinan, kualitas hidup manusia akan meningkatkan dan bangsa menjadi jauh lebih kuat. Modal Sosial Terikat dan Modal Sosial Menjembatani

119 Diunduh dari: p2dtk.bappenas.go.id/downlot.php?...Modal%20S... ……….15/12/2012 MODAL SOSIAL: DEFINISI, DEMENSI, DAN TIPOLOGI Agus Supriono2, Dance J. Flassy3, Sasli Rais4 2Staf Pengajar Sosial Ekonomi Pertanian – Fakultas Pertanian – Universitas Jember; Mahasiswa S3, Fakultas Ekonomi, Universitas Gajah Mada, Yogyakarta. 3Sekretaris Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Daerah Provinsi Papua Barat, Mahasiswa S3 Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Politik (FISIP) – Universitas Indonesia. 4Staf Pengajar STIE Pengembangan Bisnis dan Manajemen - Jakarta, Tim Teknis Project Management Unit – Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Mandiri Daerah Tertinggal dan Khusus – Bappenas. Secara umum modal sosial adalah merupakan hubungan-hubungan yang tercipta dan norma-norma yang membentuk kualitas dan kuantitas hubungan sosial dalam masyarakat dalam spektrum yang luas, yaitu sebagai perekat sosial (social glue) yang menjaga kesatuan anggota masyarakat (bangsa) secara bersama-sama. Demensi inti telaah dari modal sosial terletak pada bagaimana kemampuan masyarakat (bangsa) untuk bekerjasama membangun suatu jaringan guna mencapai tujuan bersama, dimana kerjasama ini diwarnai oleh suatu pola inter-relasi yang imbal balik dan saling menguntungkan serta dibangun diatas kepercayaan yang ditopang oleh norma-norma dan nilai-nilai sosial yang positif dan kuat. Adapun kekuatan kerjasama ini akan maksimal jika didukung oleh semangat proaktif membuat jalinan hubungan diatas prinsip-prinsip sikap yang partisipatif, sikap yang saling memperhatikan, saling memberi dan menerima, saling percaya mempercayai, dan diperkuat oleh nilai-nilai dan norma-norma yang mendukungnya. Wujud dari tipologi modal sosial ini dapat berupa modal sosial terikat (bonding social capital) dan modal sosial yang menjembatasi (bridging social capital). Tipologi modal sosial terikat memiliki ciri khas di dalam konteks ide, relasi dan perhatian, adalah lebih berorientasi ke dalam (inward looking), sedangkan pada tipologi modal sosial yang menjembatani lebih berorientasi ke luar (outward looking).

120 Diunduh dari: ……….15/12/2012 SOCIAL CAPITAL AND HOUSEHOLD SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT POLICIES: A CASE STUDY IN MYTILENE, GREECE Nikoleta Jones*, Constantinos P. Halvadakis and Costas M. Sophoulis Department of Environment, University of the Aegean, Mytilene, Lesvos, Greece Environmental Politics. Vol. 20, No. 2, March 2011, 264–283 Four main components of social capital are identified: social trust, institutional trust, social networks and compliance with social norms. A theoretical analysis explores the links between these components and environmental behaviour and policy in order to lay the ground for an investigation of the influence of social capital on the implementation of environmental policy. The influence of social capital on citizens’ behaviour connected with two solid waste management policies is investigated empirically by means of a survey. The findings indicate some differentiation regarding the influence of the components of social capital upon environmental behaviour in the context of different environmental policies.

121 Diunduh dari: ……….15/12/2012 SOCIAL CAPITAL AND HOUSEHOLD SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT POLICIES: A CASE STUDY IN MYTILENE, GREECE Nikoleta Jones*, Constantinos P. Halvadakis and Costas M. Sophoulis Department of Environment, University of the Aegean, Mytilene, Lesvos, Greece Environmental Politics. Vol. 20, No. 2, March 2011, 264–283 We aim here to investigate further the influence of social capital, as an individual characteristic, on environmental behaviour connected with environmental policy implementation. In particular, environmental behaviour is explored as a response to the implementation of two environmental policies aimed at the general public’s management of household solid waste in Mytilene, Greece. The level of compliance and cooperation of citizens in relation to two different types of policies – a compulsory waste regulation scheme and a voluntary recycling programme – will be explored by taking into consideration four components of social capital: social trust, institutional trust, social networks and compliance with social norms. Diunduh dari: ad……….6/1/2013 Valeria Sodano, Martin Hingley, Adam Lindgreen, (2008) "The usefulness of social capital in assessing the welfare effects of private and third- party certification food safety policy standards: Trust and networks", British Food Journal, Vol. 110 Iss: 4/5, pp

122 Diunduh dari: ……….15/12/2012 SOCIAL CAPITAL AND HOUSEHOLD SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT POLICIES: A CASE STUDY IN MYTILENE, GREECE Nikoleta Jones*, Constantinos P. Halvadakis and Costas M. Sophoulis Department of Environment, University of the Aegean, Mytilene, Lesvos, Greece Environmental Politics. Vol. 20, No. 2, March 2011, 264–283 Social capital and environmental behaviour Social capital may be regarded as one of the most successful exports from the field of sociology to other scientific fields (Portes 2000). The wide use of the social capital concept has also been accompanied by significant criticism and discussion regarding issues of its definition, consequences and measurement (e.g. Levi 1996, Newton 2001). Despite the fact that there is no widely accepted definition of social capital, it has been successfully utilised in several scientific fields as an explanatory parameter for individual and collective issues (e.g. Woodhouse 2006, Nyqvist et al. 2008). The analysis is conducted by dividing social capital into four commonly used indicators: social trust, institutional trust, compliance with social norms and social networks. 1.Levi, M., Social and unsocial capital: a review essay of Robert Putnam’s Making Democracy Work. Politics and Society, 24, 45–55.Newton, K., Trust, social capital, civil society, and democracy. International Political Science Review, 22, 201– Nyqvist, F., et al., The effect of social capital in health: the case of two language groups in Finland. Health and Place, 14, 347– Portes, A., The two meanings of social capital. Sociological Forum, 15, 1– Woodhouse, A., Social capital and economic development in regional Australia: a case study. Journal of Rural Studies, 22, 83–94.

123 Diunduh dari: ……….15/12/2012 SOCIAL CAPITAL AND HOUSEHOLD SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT POLICIES: A CASE STUDY IN MYTILENE, GREECE Nikoleta Jones*, Constantinos P. Halvadakis and Costas M. Sophoulis Department of Environment, University of the Aegean, Mytilene, Lesvos, Greece Environmental Politics. Vol. 20, No. 2, March 2011, 264–283 Social trust Trust is regarded as a core element of social capital (Putnam 2000) and is included in most empirical studies (van Oorschot et al. 2006). Coleman (1990) emphasised symmetric relationships of interpersonal trust thus examining trust also on an individual level. A significant distinction within social trust is between generalised and particularised trust (Uslaner and Conley 2003). The former refers to trust in other people in general whereas the latter refers to trust towards certain social groups such as friends and neighbours. The influence of trust has been used for the explanation of environmental behaviour. Higher levels of social trust may imply a more positive perception of the environmental behaviour of fellow citizens (Wagner and Fernandez-Gimenez 2008). The individual behaviour is expected to be influenced by the perception that other members of the community act in an environmentally responsible manner (Wondolleck and Yaffee 2000). Furthermore, particularised trust towards individuals connected with environmental management initiatives (e.g. ministry employees) may also influence environmental behaviour and individual attitudes towards a proposed policy (Stern 2008). Finally, trust is connected with the willingness of stakeholders to participate in decision-making processes, the level of their cooperation with other stakeholders and the outcome of partnerships for the management of natural resources (Focht and Trachtenberg 2005). 1.Putnam, R., Bowling alone: the collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon & Schuster Paperbacks. 2.Stern, M.J., The power of trust: toward a theory of local opposition to neighboring protected areas. Society and Natural Resources, 21, 859– Wagner, C.L. and Fernandez-Gimenez, M.E., Does community-based collaborative resource management increase social capital? Society and Natural Resources, 21, 324–244.

124 Diunduh dari: ……….15/12/2012 SOCIAL CAPITAL AND HOUSEHOLD SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT POLICIES: A CASE STUDY IN MYTILENE, GREECE Nikoleta Jones*, Constantinos P. Halvadakis and Costas M. Sophoulis Department of Environment, University of the Aegean, Mytilene, Lesvos, Greece Environmental Politics. Vol. 20, No. 2, March 2011, 264–283 Institutional trust A second element of social capital is trust of institutions. Trust in institutions was identified as a social capital component through the work of Coleman (1990). Since then institutional trust has been included in several empirical studies of social capital (e.g. Paxton 1999). This element may be regarded as a reflection of the perceived level of institutional effectiveness and an indicator of the satisfaction of citizens with the performance of institutions (Kim 2005). Perception of trust towards institutions involved in environmental policy procedures may also influence the environmental behaviour of individuals (Beierle and Cayford 2002, Jones et al. 2009). Higher levels of institutional trust, especially towards political institutions, lead citizens to be more willing to accept changes following the application of an environmental policy (Cvetkovich and Winter 2003). The trust in actors responsible for providing information on environmental issues is expected to influence the level of acceptance of this information by citizens (Groothuis and Miller 1997, Petts 1998). Finally, institutional trust is also expected to influence the level of participation of stakeholders in decision-making processes (Focht and Trachtenberg 2005). 1.Cvetkovich, G. and Winter, P.L., Trust and social representations of the management of threatened and endangered species. Environment and Behaviour, 35, 286– Focht, W. and Trachtenberg, Z., A trust-based guide to stakeholder participation. In: P. Sabatier et al., eds. Swimming upstream. Collaborative approaches to watershed management. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 3.Groothuis, P.A. and Miller, G.A., The role of social distrust in risk–benefit analysis: a study of the siting of a hazardous waste disposal facility. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 15, 241– Jones, N., et al., Social capital and environmental policy instruments. Environmental Politics, 18 (4), 595– Kim, J.Y., ‘Bowling together’ isn’t a cure-all: the relationship between social capital and political trust in South Korea. International Political Science Review, 26, 6.193–213.

125 Diunduh dari: ……….15/12/2012 SOCIAL CAPITAL AND HOUSEHOLD SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT POLICIES: A CASE STUDY IN MYTILENE, GREECE Nikoleta Jones*, Constantinos P. Halvadakis and Costas M. Sophoulis Department of Environment, University of the Aegean, Mytilene, Lesvos, Greece Environmental Politics. Vol. 20, No. 2, March 2011, 264–283 Compliance with social norms Coleman (1990) identified social norms on a micro level as elements that ‘specify which actions are regarded by a set of persons as proper or correct’ norms may be ‘internalised’ and influence an individual’s behaviour (Bratt 1999) through the creation of personal norms (Schwartz 1977). Individuals who tend to disregard social norms may present antisocial behaviour (Corral-Verdugo and Frias-Armenta 2006). The influence of social and personal norms has been extensively analysed (de Kort et al. 2008). It is claimed that norms may be used in order to explain environmental behaviour (Nordlund and Garvill 2002). Individuals who tend to present antisocial behaviour (noncompliance to social norms) may also present anti-environmental behaviour. Furthermore, in communities where individuals tend to comply with social norms there is a higher probability that both internal and external control will be imposed either in the means of penalties, social exclusion or personal disgrace (Pretty 1998). 1.Bratt, C., The impact of norms and assumed consequences on recycling 2.behaviour. Environment and Behaviour, 31, 630– Coleman, J.S., Foundations of social theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 4.Corral-Verdugo, V. and Frias-Armenta, M., Personal normative beliefs, antisocial behaviour, and residential water conservation. Environment and Behaviour, 38 (3), 406– De Kort, Y.A.W., McCalley, L.T., and Midden, C.J.H., Persuasive trash cans: 6.activation of littering norms by design. Environment and Behaviour, 40, 870– Nordlund, A.M. and Garvill, J., Value structures behind proenvironmental behaviour. Environment and Behaviour, 34, 740– Pretty, J., Participatory learning in rural Africa: towards better decisions for agricultural development. In: F.H.J.M. Coenen, D. Huitemaand, and L.J. O’Toole, eds. Participation and the quality of environmental decision-making. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 251–266

126 Diunduh dari: ……….15/12/2012 SOCIAL CAPITAL AND HOUSEHOLD SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT POLICIES: A CASE STUDY IN MYTILENE, GREECE Nikoleta Jones*, Constantinos P. Halvadakis and Costas M. Sophoulis Department of Environment, University of the Aegean, Mytilene, Lesvos, Greece Environmental Politics. Vol. 20, No. 2, March 2011, 264–283 Social networks The most common structural indicator utilised in the social capital literature is social networks (Coleman 1990). Social networks have been widely analysed in the social sciences through different theories (Granovetter 1973). In the context of social capital literature, social networks were first analysed by Bourdieu (1986) mainly to emphasise the benefits arising from individuals’ participation in such networks. Through this theory, social networks are regarded as indicators of the tendency of an individual to participate in collective issues and his/her level of interest in the common good. Especially regarding formal social networks, these often refer to membership (passive participation) or volunteerism (active participation) in organised groups such as non-governmental organisations (van Oorschot et al. 2006). However, social networks may also refer to the interconnections between different organisations (Schneider et al ). 1.Bourdieu, P., The forms of capital. In: J.G. Richardson, ed. Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education. New York: Greenwood Press, 241– Coleman, J.S., Foundations of social theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 3.Granovetter, M., The strength of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78, – Schneider, M., et al., Building consensual institutions: networks and the national estuary program. American Journal of Political Science, 47, 143– van Oorschot, W., Arts, W., and Gelissen, J., Social capital in Europe. Measurement and social and regional distribution of a multifaceted phenomenon. Acta Sociologica, 49, 149–176.

127 Diunduh dari: ……….15/12/2012 SOCIAL CAPITAL AND HOUSEHOLD SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT POLICIES: A CASE STUDY IN MYTILENE, GREECE Nikoleta Jones*, Constantinos P. Halvadakis and Costas M. Sophoulis Department of Environment, University of the Aegean, Mytilene, Lesvos, Greece Environmental Politics. Vol. 20, No. 2, March 2011, 264–283 Regarding the influence of these structural elements on environmental behaviour, the present analysis emphasises the involvement of individuals in formal networks. It is assumed that individuals who participate in such networks are also recipients of a higher flow of information on environmental issues. This information may pass from management actors to citizens in the context of an environmental policy and vice versa. Furthermore, it may refer to information distributed among citizens through informal networks (Miller and Buys 2008). Although provision of information alone is not enough to change environmental habits (Kollmuss and Agyeman 2002), it may contribute to the diffusion of knowledge on environmental issues, such as improved environmental management practices and increasing awareness of relevant issues (Cramb 2005). Apart from the provision of information, social networks are also connected with increased environmental awareness and activation for environmental issues (Wakefield et al. 2006). 1.Cramb, R.A., Social capital and soil conservation: evidence from the Philippines. The Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 49, 211– Kollmuss, A. and Agyeman, J., Mind the gap: why do people act environmentally and what are the barriers to pro-environmental behaviour? Environmental Education Research, 8, 239– Miller, E. and Buys, L., The impact of social capital on residential water- affecting behaviours in a drought-prone Australian community. Society and Natural Resources, 21, 244– Wakefield, S., et al., Taking environmental action: the role of local composition, context, and collective. Environmental Management, 37, 40–53.

128 Diunduh dari: ……….15/12/2012 SOCIAL CAPITAL AND HOUSEHOLD SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT POLICIES: A CASE STUDY IN MYTILENE, GREECE Nikoleta Jones*, Constantinos P. Halvadakis and Costas M. Sophoulis Department of Environment, University of the Aegean, Mytilene, Lesvos, Greece Environmental Politics. Vol. 20, No. 2, March 2011, 264–283 Interconnection of social capital components Social trust is connected with social networks through the enforcement of participation (Newton and Norris 2000). Individuals who tend to trust their fellow citizens present a higher tendency of participating in activities for the resolution of environmental problems and an increased environmental awareness (Lubell 2002). This is also connected to an individual’s perception that certain members of the community behave in an environmentally responsible manner (Wondolleck and Yaffee 2000). Furthermore, trust and compliance with norms are both linked with an individual’s perception of the behaviour of fellow citizens, as analysed both by Putnam (2000). Putnam et al. (1993) underlined the importance of norms of reciprocity, which are also connected with the symmetric relationships of trust identified by Coleman (1990). 1.Lubell, M., Environmental activism as collective action. Environment and Behaviour 34, 431– Newton, K. and Norris, P., Confidence in public institutions: faith, culture, or performance? In: S.J. Pharr and R. Putnam, eds. Disaffected democracies: what’s troubling the trilateral countries. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 52–73. 3.Putnam, R., Bowling alone: the collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon & Schuster Paperbacks. 4.Putnam, R., Leonardi, R., and Nanetti, R.Y., Making democracy work: civic traditions in modern Italy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 5.Wondolleck, J.M., and Yaffee, S.L., Making collaboration work. Lessons from innovation in natural resource management. Washington, DC: Island Press.

129 Diunduh dari: ……….15/12/2012 SOCIAL CAPITAL AND HOUSEHOLD SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT POLICIES: A CASE STUDY IN MYTILENE, GREECE Nikoleta Jones*, Constantinos P. Halvadakis and Costas M. Sophoulis Department of Environment, University of the Aegean, Mytilene, Lesvos, Greece Environmental Politics. Vol. 20, No. 2, March 2011, 264–283 Social capital and citizens’ behaviour during environmental policy implementation The literature review has highlighted significant links between the four components of social capital and environmental behaviour. The level of compliance and cooperation of citizens during environmental policy applications may depend on several factors (Etzioni 1961, Bullock and Rogers 1976, Parsons 2001) including social capital parameters (Jones et al. 2009). However, the influence of social capital components may vary depending on the type of policy instrument implemented. A significant distinction is between obligatory and voluntary policies. The former promote certain regulations and force citizens to comply with them whereas the latter depend on voluntary participation and promote collaboration of individuals during policy implementation (Bruckmeier and Teherani-Kronner 1992, Rittberger and Richardson 2003, Olsson et al. 2004, Koontz and Thomas 2006, Morton 2008). The other instruments exist, such as marketbased instruments, providing economic incentives in order to promote citizens’ cooperation (Driesen 2006) and communicative instruments (Eckerberg 1997) aiming to diffuse information and increase environmental awareness. In reality, environmental policies refer to a combination of these instruments in order to increase their efficiency. 1.Bullock, C.S. III. and Rodgers, H.R. Jr., Civil rights policies and the matter of compliance. In: J.E. Anderson et al., eds. Cases in public policy making. New York: Praeger, 237– Driesen, D., Economic instruments for sustainable development. In: B.J. Richardsonand and S. Wood, eds. Environmental law for sustainability. Portland, OR: Hart, 277– Eckerberg, K., Comparing the local use of environmental policy instruments in Nordic and Baltic countries – the issue of diffuse water pollution. Environmental Politics, 6, 24–47. 4.Etzioni, A., A comparative analysis of complex organizations. New York: Free Press. 5.Jones, N., et al., Social capital and environmental policy instruments. Environmental Politics, 18 (4), 595– Koontz, T.M. and Thomas, C.W., What do we know and need to know about the environmental outcomes of collaborative management. Public Administration Review, 66, 111– Morton, L.W., The role of civic structure in achieving performance-based watershed management. Society and Natural Resources, 21, 751– Parsons, W., Public policy: an introduction to the theory and practice of policy analysis. 4th edn. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

130 Diunduh dari: ……….15/12/2012 SOCIAL CAPITAL AND HOUSEHOLD SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT POLICIES: A CASE STUDY IN MYTILENE, GREECE Nikoleta Jones*, Constantinos P. Halvadakis and Costas M. Sophoulis Department of Environment, University of the Aegean, Mytilene, Lesvos, Greece Environmental Politics. Vol. 20, No. 2, March 2011, 264–283 The four components of social capital are expected to influence significantly citizens’ cooperation and compliance with an environmental policy. The most indicative connection derives from the influence of structural elements. Social networks are important during the implementation of public policies in order to diffuse information and minimise non-compliance due to lack of knowledge (Anderson 2006). However, social networks are expected to be of high significance in the case of ‘softer’ policy instruments (voluntary and informative) which do not oblige citizens to change their behaviour. In order for citizens to cooperate voluntarily and present a shift in their behaviour, there is a greater need for benefits resulting from social networks. These mainly refer to an increase in participation, the diffusion of knowledge of the positive outcomes of the policy and information on means of participation. Involvement in participatory management projects may also have a positive influence on other aspects of social capital such as trust (Mandarano 2008). Furthermore, the tendency of individuals to comply with formal social norms may have a significant influence in the case of regulatory instruments (Jones et al. 2009). 1.Anderson, J.E Public policymaking: an introduction. 6th ed. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. 2.Jones, N., et al., Social capital and environmental policy instruments. Environmental Politics, 18 (4), 595– Mandarano, L.A., Evaluating collaborative environmental planning outputs and outcomes: restoring and protecting habitat in the New York–New Jersey Harbor Estuary Program. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 27, 456– 468.

131 Diunduh dari: Model A structural equation model (SEM) was used to validate the proposed conceptual structure. In particular, the observed variables measuring social capital were connected with the four latent factors of social capital (social and institutional trust, compliance with social norms and social networks). The latent variables were then connected with different types of environmental behaviours each constituting a different model. Structural model for waste regulation. SOCIAL CAPITAL AND HOUSEHOLD SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT POLICIES: A CASE STUDY IN MYTILENE, GREECE Nikoleta Jones*, Constantinos P. Halvadakis and Costas M. Sophoulis Department of Environment, University of the Aegean, Mytilene, Lesvos, Greece Environmental Politics. Vol. 20, No. 2, March 2011, 264–283

132 Diunduh dari: SOCIAL CAPITAL VARIABLES The selection of the observed social capital variables was based on relevant studies measuring social capital (e.g. Narayan and Cassidy 2001, Grootaert and Bastelaer 2002, van der Gaag and Snijders 2005, van Oorschot et al. 2006). Regarding social trust, both generalised and particularised trusts were measured. The former was explored through the commonly used question of social trust: ‘Would you say that most people can be trusted or you can’t be too careful?’ along with the respective question on fairness, ‘Most people are fair or try to take advantage of you’ (Narayan and Cassidy 2001, Woodhouse 2006). Both questions were measured on a 10-point Likert scale where 0 represented ‘can’t be too careful’ and 10 referred to ‘most people can be trusted’. Regarding particularised trust, it was explored in relation to neighbours on a same 10-point Likert scale. This parameter was included in the model because in Mytilene neighbours share the same waste bins and thus it is expected to influence individual behaviour. 1.Grootaert, C. and van Bastelaer, T., Understanding and measuring social capital: a multidisciplinary tool for practitioners. Washington, DC: World Bank.Narayan, D. and Cassidy, M.F., A dimensional approach to measuring social capital: development and validation of a social capital inventory. Current Sociology, 49, 59– van der Gaag, M. and Snijders, T.A.B., The resource generator: social capital quantification with concrete items. Social Networks, 27, 1–29. 3.van Oorschot, W., Arts, W., and Gelissen, J., Social capital in Europe. Measurement and social and regional distribution of a multifaceted phenomenon. Acta Sociologica, 49, 149– Woodhouse, A., Social capital and economic development in regional Australia: a case study. Journal of Rural Studies, 22, 83–94. SOCIAL CAPITAL AND HOUSEHOLD SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT POLICIES: A CASE STUDY IN MYTILENE, GREECE Nikoleta Jones*, Constantinos P. Halvadakis and Costas M. Sophoulis Department of Environment, University of the Aegean, Mytilene, Lesvos, Greece Environmental Politics. Vol. 20, No. 2, March 2011, 264–283

133 Diunduh dari: SOCIAL CAPITAL VARIABLES Institutional trust was also explored on a 10-point Likert scale (0 – ‘Don’t trust at all’ 10 – ‘I trust completely’) (Paxton 1999, Newton and Norris 2000, Van Oorschot et al. 2006) for three institutions. Trust towards the Ministry of Environment and the Municipality of Mytilene was explored due to their responsibility for the management of household solid waste management and recycling. Furthermore, trust towards local NGOs was included in the structural model for recycling behaviour due to the responsibility of the institution for the recycling programme in Mytilene. A third component explored participation of individuals in formal social networks either as members or volunteers in organisations. Similar to previous measurements (Newton and Norris 2000, Beugelsdijk and van Schaik 2005, van Oorschot et al. 2006) individuals were asked whether they are a member or a volunteer in an organisation, measured in dichotomous format. The aim of the question was to investigate active and passive participation of individuals and their tendency to participate in community issues. A list of organisations functioning on the island was presented in order to facilitate individuals. These included a variety of environmental, health, sport and other organisations. 1.Beugelsdijk, S. and Schaik, T.V., Differences in social capital between 54 Western European Regions. Regional Studies, 39, 1053– Newton, K. and Norris, P., Confidence in public institutions: faith, culture, or performance? In: S.J. Pharr and R. Putnam, eds. Disaffected democracies: what’s troubling the trilateral countries. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 52–73. 3.Paxton, P., Is social capital declining in the United States? A multiple indicator assessment. American Journal of Sociology, 105, 88– van Oorschot, W., Arts, W., and Gelissen, J., Social capital in Europe. Measurement and social and regional distribution of a multifaceted phenomenon. Acta Sociologica, 49, 149–176. SOCIAL CAPITAL AND HOUSEHOLD SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT POLICIES: A CASE STUDY IN MYTILENE, GREECE Nikoleta Jones*, Constantinos P. Halvadakis and Costas M. Sophoulis Department of Environment, University of the Aegean, Mytilene, Lesvos, Greece Environmental Politics. Vol. 20, No. 2, March 2011, 264–283

134 Diunduh dari: The questionnaire included several questions aiming to investigate the tendency of complying with certain norms of behaviour. In the social capital literature, this parameter is explored through questions investigating how wrong individuals regard certain actions (van Oorschot et al. 2006,Jones et al. 2008). A general question of antisocial behaviour was included regarding the avoidance of paying taxes. Furthermore, illegal disposal of construction waste along with illegal construction were also included. All questions were measured on a 5-point Likert scale (1 – ‘totally justifiable’, 5 – ‘totally unjustifiable’). 1.Jones, N., et al., Social capital in Greece: measurement and comparative perspective. South European Society and Politics, 13, 175– van Oorschot, W., Arts, W., and Gelissen, J., Social capital in Europe. Measurement and social and regional distribution of a multifaceted phenomenon. Acta Sociologica, 49, 149– 176. SOCIAL CAPITAL AND HOUSEHOLD SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT POLICIES: A CASE STUDY IN MYTILENE, GREECE Nikoleta Jones*, Constantinos P. Halvadakis and Costas M. Sophoulis Department of Environment, University of the Aegean, Mytilene, Lesvos, Greece Environmental Politics. Vol. 20, No. 2, March 2011, 264–283

135 Diunduh dari: Environmental behaviour variables Regarding variables investigating environmental behaviour for the management of household solid waste, respondents were asked to declare the frequency of proceeding to four environmental actions. Three behaviours were connected with the waste regulation: disposal of waste in closed plastic bags, waste disposal close to the hours of waste collection and reduction of waste volume. The recycling of aluminium cans was also examined. All behaviours were measured on a 4-point scale (1 – ‘Never’, 2 – ‘Sometimes’, 3 – ‘Most times’ and 4 – ‘Always’). For the investigation of each type of behaviour, different structural models were created. In Figure 1, the structural model for behaviours connected with the waste management is presented (excluding trust in NGOs). Finally, demographic data (gender, age, income, education and employment) were collected in the final part of the questionnaire. SOCIAL CAPITAL AND HOUSEHOLD SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT POLICIES: A CASE STUDY IN MYTILENE, GREECE Nikoleta Jones*, Constantinos P. Halvadakis and Costas M. Sophoulis Department of Environment, University of the Aegean, Mytilene, Lesvos, Greece Environmental Politics. Vol. 20, No. 2, March 2011, 264–283

136 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 Nick Llewellyn, Colin Armistead, (2000) "Business process management: Exploring social capital within processes", International Journal of Service Industry Management, Vol. 11 Iss: 3, pp This paper explores evidence of “social capital” within the service delivery process of a large telecommunications company. It considers the extent to which a specific business process exhibited structural, relational and cognitive features of social capital, which enabled social credits to be traded and status to be conferred across operational boundaries. Through a textual analysis of interview data, the research generates an understanding of how certain groups within business processes – often utilising informal structures – created, maintained and exchanged social credits. This framework of analysis is then applied to address the function of social capital within the process. Evidence is presented to suggests that credits shared across functional boundaries informed upon employees ability to deal with emergencies, recover services and to cope when things went wrong. The paper concludes by making a range of propositions that may enable managers to identify, build and maintain social capital within processes.

137 Nick Llewellyn, Colin Armistead, (2000) "Business process management: Exploring social capital within processes“. International Journal of Service Industry Management, Vol. 11 Iss: 3, pp Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013

138 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 Schaefer-McDaniel, Nicole J. (2004). “Conceptualizing Social Capital among Young People: Toward a New Theory.” Children, Youth and Environments 14(1): The concept of social capital has gained more recognition in the past few decades but has created conceptual confusion due to varying uses of the term by different writers. Definitional and methodological flaws plague the few studies that have explored social capital among young people. This paper offers a critical synthesis of the construct and also introduces a new theoretical framework of social capital among young people to encourage future research. The author understands social capital among young people to consist of three components, two of which have previously been discussed in the adult social capital literature: 1.Social networks/interactions and sociability; 2.Trust and reciprocity; and 3.Sense of belonging/place attachment. Lastly, beneficial outcomes of exploring and investing social capital in this population are discussed.

139 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 Schaefer-McDaniel, Nicole J. (2004). “Conceptualizing Social Capital among Young People: Toward a New Theory.” Children, Youth and Environments 14(1): Pierre Bourdieu: Social Capital and Cultural Capital Social capital, according to Bourdieu (1984), consists of two dimensions: 1) social networks and connections/relationships and 2) sociability. Bourdieu specifically explains that people must not only have relationships with others, they must further understand how these networks operate and how one can maintain and utilize these relationships over time. Particularly, Bourdieu emphasizes that social networks must be constructed and then skillfully maintained in order for the actor to utilize their resources. Bourdieu (1977) further described the concept of “cultural capital.” He used the term to refer to information or knowledge about specific cultural beliefs, traditions, and standards of behavior that promote success and accomplishment in life. Cultural capital is passed through the family from parents to children by spending economic resources on culturally valued and specific items such as books, tickets to the theater or museums, and other culturally-specific artifacts. This concept specifically incorporates an understanding and familiarity of a dominant culture and language in society. 1.Bourdieu, Pierre (1977). “Cultural Reproduction and Social Reproduction.” In Halsey, A.H. and Jerome Karabel, eds. Power and Ideology in Education. New York: Oxford University Press. 2.Bourdieu, Pierre (1984). Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste. London: Routledge.

140 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 Schaefer-McDaniel, Nicole J. (2004). “Conceptualizing Social Capital among Young People: Toward a New Theory.” Children, Youth and Environments 14(1): James Coleman: Social Capital in Families and Schools The family system is the basis for American sociologist James Coleman’s definition of social capital. He observed that family systems are made up of a) financial capital (financial resources for household and child rearing expenses); b) human capital (parental education and economic skills); and c) social capital (Coleman 1988, 1990a). While the first two concepts refer to parental financial and cognitive abilities, the latter term strictly refers to the more social and interpersonal aspects of family life. Coleman (1988) recognized two distinct components of social capital: social capital (1) as a relational construct and (2) as providing resources to others through relationships with individuals. Social capital is specifically defined by its function (Coleman 1990a) and refers to “an asset that a person or persons can use as a resource. Social capital is any kind of social relationship that is a resource to the person” (Coleman 1990b). 1.Coleman, James S. (1985). “Schools and the Communities They Serve.” Phi Delta Kappa 66: Coleman, James S. (1987). “Social Capital and the Development of Youth.” Momentum 18 (4): Coleman, James S. (1988). “Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital.” American Journal of Sociology 94: S95-S Coleman, James S. (1990a). Foundations of Social Theory. Cambridge, MA: Bellknap Press. 5.Coleman, James S. (1990b). “How Worksite Schools and other Schools Reforms can Generate Social Capital: An Interview with James Coleman.” American Federation of Teachers:

141 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 Schaefer-McDaniel, Nicole J. (2004). “Conceptualizing Social Capital among Young People: Toward a New Theory.” Children, Youth and Environments 14(1): Robert Putnam: Social Capital in Communities Robert Putnam extends the definition to apply to societies and communities in general. His interpretation of social capital has therefore often been referred to as a “collective asset” and a “common good” (Warren, Thompson, and Saegert 2001, 1) of neighborhoods and communities. Putnam (2000) differentiates between physical capital (physical objects), human capital (individual properties), and social capital. In his theory and like the two theories previously discussed, social capital refers to social networks and interpersonal relationships. According to Putnam, the notions of trust and reciprocity arise from our social network relationships and thus generate “civic virtue” (Putnam 2000) or a trusting community where residents not only know each other but are actively involved in each other’s lives and maintain trustful and helpful relations (e.g., looking after a neighbor’s children). Putnam notes that close or collective communities have greater social capital. The understanding of social capital primarily as a private good (increased social capital facilitates beneficial outcomes for the individual, such as academic success), Putnam’s theory solely understands social capital as a public good (high social capital facilitates beneficial outcomes for the community, such as reduced crime or increased political participation). 1.Putnam, Robert D. (1993). Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 2.Putnam, Robert D. (2000). Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon and Schuster.

142 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 Schaefer-McDaniel, Nicole J. (2004). “Conceptualizing Social Capital among Young People: Toward a New Theory.” Children, Youth and Environments 14(1): The dimensions of a social capital framework for young people

143 Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013 Schaefer-McDaniel, Nicole J. (2004). “Conceptualizing Social Capital among Young People: Toward a New Theory.” Children, Youth and Environments 14(1): Social Networks and Sociability The first component, social networks and sociability, are original dimensions of Bourdieu’s social capital theory. Bordieu’s definition of sociability- the ability to sustain and utilize one’s social network- is similar to de Souza Briggs’ (1998) notion of “social leverage” (possessing the skill to get ahead) as a feature of social capital. Morrow (2001) similarly urged that “actors need to recognize their networks as a resource in order for these networks to constitute social capital” (56). Sociability is no less a central concept in children’s social capital as well. The emphasis on social relationships and subsequently social network analysis has been gaining increasing attention since the late 1970s. Wellman’s classic 1979 article highlights how intimate relationships to others in our community can help us in everyday matters. Network analysis has been referred to as a “powerful model of [the] social structure” (Scott 1988) and has further contributed to other social science areas including political sociology, social support, social influence, and epidemiology (Galaskiewicz and Wasserman 1993). A review of the history of network analysis suggests that communities are in fact networks and that “social capital is a network phenomenon”. 1.Galaskiewicz, J. and S. Wasserman (1993). “Social Network Analysis: Concepts, Methodology, and Directions for the 1990s.” Sociological Methods and Research 22(1): Morrow, V. (2001). “Young People’s Explanation and Experiences of Social Exclusion: Retrieving Bourdieu’s Concept of Social Capital.” International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 21(4/5/6): Scott, J. (1988). “Social Network Analysis.” Sociology 22(1):

144 Trust and Reciprocity Drawing on Coleman’s and Putnam’s understanding of social capital, mutual levels of trust and reciprocity will also be incorporated into this theory of social capital among young people. In order to benefit from relationships to others and to use them as resources, one needs to be able to trust that network members are providing us with correct and helpful information and genuine support. In particular, children need to establish trustful relations with family members, people in their neighborhoods, peers, and teachers or other role models. This dimension also refers to authentic fairness, overall trustworthiness, and acts of helpfulness such as engaging in helping behavior without gaining direct benefit (e.g., helping a person cross the street). Schaefer-McDaniel, Nicole J. (2004). “Conceptualizing Social Capital among Young People: Toward a New Theory.” Children, Youth and Environments 14(1): Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013

145 Sense of Belonging / Place Attachment Despite the significance of place attachment or sense of belonging in the environmental psychology literature (Chawla 1992), this concept has gained very little recognition in the social capital literature. Putnam mentions sense of belonging to a community in his definition (Putnam 1993) but neglects to explain or integrate this concept into his overall theory. Sense of belonging, as defined here, is closely related to the concept of “psychological sense of community” that is oftentimes mentioned in the community psychology literature (Sarason 1974). While sense of belonging refers to an individual feeling of belonging after attaching symbolic meaning to a certain environment, psychological sense of community refers to the degree to which individuals feel that they are part of a collective community. More specifically, two components overlap with sense of belonging: 1.membership (sense of feeling a part of a group or environment; 2.sense of feeling like one belongs in their environment) and influence (the individual matters to the group; 3.cohesiveness; 4.the group is complete only with the individual) (MacMillan and Chavis 1986). Sense of belonging also incorporates a more symbolic attachment or investment to the place, particularly a feeling of “rootedness or centeredness” (Proshansky, Fabian, and Kaminoff 1983). 1.Chawla, Louise (1992). “Childhood Place Attachment.” In Altman, I. and S.M. Low, eds. Place Attachments. New York: Plenum Press. 2.MacMillan, D.W. and D.M. Chavis (1986). “Sense of Community: A Definition and Theory.” Journal of Community Psychology 14: Proshansky, H.M., A.K. Fabian and R. Kaminoff (1983). “Place Identity: Physical World Socialization of the Self.” Journal of Environmental Psychology 3: Putnam, Robert D. (1993). Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 5.Saranson, S. (1974). The Psychological Sense of Community: Prospects for a Community Psychology. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Schaefer-McDaniel, Nicole J. (2004). “Conceptualizing Social Capital among Young People: Toward a New Theory.” Children, Youth and Environments 14(1): Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013

146 Social Capital and the Environment This theory of social capital should now be grounded in the physical environment. James Gibson (1979) discusses in his theory of environmental affordances that certain parts of the environments allow or afford certain types of behaviors. Along with this understanding, it is also necessary to explore young people’s use of physical space in their everyday environments and identify areas that enhance or foster social interactions as well as recognize areas that restrict or prohibit such activity. Spaces that enhance social interactions and a sense of belonging (such as parks, meetings places, spaces for socializing, etc.) thus can contribute to building social capital. This line of research should determine the places where social capital is being created and explore how the physical form of the places contributes to its growth. Urban planners should then collaborate with young people in designing these types of spaces in their communities. Social and public policies and interventions can also address the creation or modification of these spaces to serve the particular needs of their users. These types of designs, policies, and interventions would then contribute to building social capital among young people. Gibson, J.J. (1979). Ecological Approaches to Visual Perception. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Schaefer-McDaniel, Nicole J. (2004). “Conceptualizing Social Capital among Young People: Toward a New Theory.” Children, Youth and Environments 14(1): Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013

147 Social Capital and Health Social capital is a by-product of our social relationships that makes possible the achievement of certain aims that cannot be accomplished by individuals in its absence. It is premised upon the notion that an “investment” in a relationship will ultimately result in some sort of “return”. In other words, social capital has (1) a relational element residing in the social organizations of which the individual is a member, and (2) a material element that relates to the resources to which that individual has claim by virtue of his or her membership within the group. Accordingly, social capital enables individuals to use the relationships they develop to “get by” (e.g., gain emotional support and caregiving) or to “get ahead” (e.g., information sharing) (Lin, 2001), both of which have implications for health and well being. The contribution of social capital to health has been demonstrated in a variety of fields, particularly within epidemiology. Wilkinson (1996) first introduced social capital to the public health field, arguing in 2000 that “an important part of the social gradient in human health is attributable to the direct effects of social status, rather than to other influences on health like poorer housing, diet and air pollution”. 1.Lin, N. (2001). Social capital: A theory of social structure and action. New York : Cambridge University Press. 2.Wilkinson, R. (1996). Unhealthy societies: The afflictions of inequality. London : Routledge. Gilda's Club and Social Capital Development: Furthering Health and Well-being Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013

148 Macinko and Starfield (2001) determined social capital has been applied in four ways in the epidemiology literature: “(1) as an explanatory ‘pathway' in the relationship between income equality and health status; (2) as a factor in the study of social networks and health; (3) as a mediator of the performance of health policies or reforms; and (4) as synonymous with social deprivation or social cohesion in relationship with violence and crime”). Szreter and Woolcock (2004) noted social capital has links to health in three main ways: social support, inequality, and political economy. Our intent here by noting the various ways social capital has been studied is simply to demonstrate the breadth of the social capital scholarship within the epidemiological literature. More importantly, we emphasize that the volume and diversity of the empirical evidence demonstrating the significance of social capital as a determinant of at least some important health outcomes is quite impressive. Indeed, health researchers have long known that, at an individual level, networks, social participation, and supportive social relationships are good for individual health. People with strong social ties, for instance, have mortality half or a third of that of people with weak social ties (Berkman, 1995), and low social support predicts coronary heart disease (Bosma et al., 1997). 1.Berkman, L. E. (1995). The role of social relations in health promotion. Psychosom Med, 57, Bosma, H., Marmot, M., Hemingway, H., Nicholson, A., Brunner, E., & Stansfield, S. (1997). Low job control and risk of CHD in the Whitehall II study. British Medical Journal, 314, Macinko, J., & Starfield, B. (2001). The utility of social capital in research on health determinants. The Milbank Quarterly, 79 (3), Szreter, S., & Woolcock, M. (2004). Health by association? Social capital, social theory, and the political economy of public health. International Journal of Epidemiology, 33, Gilda's Club and Social Capital Development: Furthering Health and Well-being Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013

149 Third Places Here, we use the term place deliberately, in contrast to space, which is “a realm without meaning” (Cresswell, 2004). Place is defined by more than biophysical elements; it refers to the socio-cultural meanings and emotional attachments held by an individual or group for a spatial setting. Accordingly, this conceptualization recognizes that places are social constructions insofar as their meanings are “created and reproduced through interpersonal interaction, formalized in social behaviour, and ultimately persist in collective memory” (Stokowski, 2002). Put another way, the accumulation of experiences within a place personalizes it and gives it meaning (Stedman, 2003). By attributing meaning to a space, individuals become attached to the meanings themselves (Stedman, 2003). Consequently, “the connections people have with a place extend far beyond use; they are layered with very passionate and deep-seated personal elements” (Cheng, Kruger & Daniels, 2003). Ultimately, Stokowski (2002) argued, “each effort to create a place becomes an elaboration of the beliefs and values of some collection of people, expressed and fostered in their promotion of a preferred reality”. The construction of place, therefore, involves a process of relationship building that ultimately reflects a collective identity that we believe can be used as a resource to aid in the maintenance and enhancement of individual health. This proposal aims to investigate this possibility. 1.Cheng, A. S., Kruger, L. E., & Daniels, S. E. (2003). “Place” as an integrating concept in natural resource politics: propositions for a social science agenda. Society and Natural Resources, 16, Cresswell, T. (2004). Place: A short introduction. Malden, MA : Blackwell Publishing. 3.Stedman, R. C. (2003). Sense of place and forest science: Toward a program of quantitative research. Forest Science, 49 (6), Stokowski, P. A. (2002). Languages of place and discourse of power: Constructing new senses of place. Journal of Leisure Research, 34 (4), Gilda's Club and Social Capital Development: Furthering Health and Well-being Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013

150 Third Places In particular, we are interested in third places, informal gathering places apart from home (the first place) and work (the second place). Oldenburg, the originator of this concept, defined third places as “havens of sociability where conversation is the main activity and conviviality prevails” (2003). In his writings about third place, Oldenburg has argued third places give extended meaning to the concept of the support group. That is, they provide “not only emotional support but practical assistance as well. As acquaintances evolve into friends, the desire to help others grows. Needed items are loaned or given, as is skill, advice, and expertise. Time, effort, and money are saved when needs and problems are mentioned in the company of friends” ( Oldenburg, 2003). This description is consistent with social capital theory, yet Oldenburg and other scholars have failed to identify the explicit connection. It does, however, fit well with a theoretical framework we have developed to explain the process of social capital development for health and well- being (Glover & Parry, 2005). 1.Glover, T. D., & Parry, D. C. (2005). Context, by-product, and action: The linkages among leisure, social capital, and health. In D. L. Kerstetter & W. Hendricks (eds.), Abstracts from the 2005 Leisure Research Symposium [CD ROM]. San Antonio, TX : National Park and Recreation Association. 2.Oldenburg, R. (2003). Third places. In K. Christensen, & D. Levinson (eds.), Encyclopedia of community (pp ). Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage. Gilda's Club and Social Capital Development: Furthering Health and Well-being Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013

151 A Model of Social Capital Development Our model (see figure 1) begins with sociability at its core. Indeed, if social capital is about anything, it is about what Portes (1998) called “the positive consequences of sociability”. Settings, like third places (e.g., Gilda's club), that encourage social contact draw relative strangers together routinely and frequently, thus building a durable social network for those involved. Moreover, these social contexts serve an important function in terms of facilitating the ongoing maintenance and sustainability of social relationships. Nahapiet and Ghoshal (1998) noted, “social relationships generally, though not always, are strengthened through interaction but die out if not maintained”. This observation ultimately speaks to an accepted notion upon which social capital is premised: The maintenance and reproduction of social capital are made possible only through the social interactions of members and the continued investment in social relationships (Portes, 1998). Repeated social contact reaffirms the sociable bonds among individuals. To this end, ongoing sociability is paramount to the sustainability of relationships that provide some return to the individual. 1.Nahapiet, J., & Ghosal, S. (1998). Social capital, intellectual capital, and the organization advantage. Academy of Management Review, 23 (2), Portes, A. (1998). Social capital: Its origins and applications in modern sociology. Annual Review of Sociology, 24, Gilda's Club and Social Capital Development: Furthering Health and Well-being Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013

152 The relationships developed in social contexts can lead to certain spin off effects or byproducts of those relationships. These by-products, conceptualized here as social capital (e.g., norms of reciprocity, obligation, group sanctions), are crucial to an individual's health, for they can facilitate three forms of action: (1) expressive, (2) instrumental, and (3) obstructive. The first, expressive action, fits within the social support school of thought insofar as it facilitates emotional support, thereby helping individuals maintain their emotional well-being. Here, group solidarity is cemented by a common experience of adversity (e.g., dealing with cancer). The second form of action, instrumental, is tied to the material dimension of social capital, which gives members of a social network access to resources. Acquiring valuable information from friends and acquaintances is one of the most common, yet important by-products of relationships. Cancer patients, for instance, may share their treatment experiences, notes about doctors, and various tips or advice they received regarding their conditions. By providing access to this information, these individuals help to advance their own health and that of their friends who are also dealing with cancer. While getting ahead does not necessarily mean “curing” their cancer, the information they gain and put to use places them further along in coping with their experiences and aids in their decision making processes. In short, instrumental action allows individuals to “get ahead” by gaining access to resources to which they would otherwise have no access. Gilda's Club and Social Capital Development: Furthering Health and Well-being Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013

153 Finally, the third form of action, obstructive, recognizes the harm relationships can have on individual health. Correspondingly, its inclusion in the model provides a more balanced perspective related to social capital and health insofar as it acknowledges the ill-effects relationships can create for individuals. In direct contrast to instrumental action, obstructive action can represent a set back or keep an individual from getting ahead. In our findings from our study of women dealing with infertility, we offered many examples related to this outcome. Notably, research participants who remained infertile felt compelled to support friends who conceived or adopted children, even though such support made them feel uncomfortable and upset about their own situations. The activities that generated stress in the participants were, more often than not, child centered activities such as birthday parties, baby showers, toy-shopping, Easter egg hunts, and Halloween parties. All of these events served to remind the research participants of their own childlessness, thereby creating further stress in their lives. Nevertheless, the social norms and sanctions embedded in their friendships (e.g., social capital) compelled them to continue to support their friends under stressful circumstances. We aim to further explore the potential outcomes (e.g., expressive, instrumental, and obstructive action) of social capital developed in the context of Gilda's Club, with particular emphasis on the role of place as a container for the sociability that impacts upon health and well-being. Gilda's Club and Social Capital Development: Furthering Health and Well-being Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013

154 Gilda's Club and Social Capital Development: Furthering Health and Well-being Diunduh dari: ……….4/1/2013

155 Diunduh dari: d=alsoread……….4/1/2013 Valeria Sodano, Martin Hingley, Adam Lindgreen, (2008) "The usefulness of social capital in assessing the welfare effects of private and third-party certification food safety policy standards: Trust and networks", British Food Journal, Vol. 110 Iss: 4/5, pp The aim of this paper is to assess the welfare effects of the newest trends in food safety policies characterised by the shift from public to private intervention. Design/methodology/approach – Food safety policies are analysed through concepts of new economic sociology, with a critical review of the literature on social capital. Findings – The article shows that as food safety and quality attributes responsible for the exchange complexity are simply codified and enforced through standards and third-party certification, the global value chain governance shifts from a relational type to a power-based type, with possible negative welfare effects. Research limitations/implications – Further research would be required to verify the welfare effects suggested on the theoretical ground. Practical implications – The article makes a useful updating of food safety policies and organisational innovation in the food system. Originality/value – The paper introduces some new (with respect to the marketing literature related to the food system) concepts and theories of economic sociology.

156 Diunduh dari: d=alsoread……….4/1/2013 Valeria Sodano, Martin Hingley, Adam Lindgreen, (2008) "The usefulness of social capital in assessing the welfare effects of private and third-party certification food safety policy standards: Trust and networks", British Food Journal, Vol. 110 Iss: 4/5, pp

157 Diunduh dari: Paul J. Ferri, David Deakins, Geoff Whittam, (2009) THE MEASUREMENT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL IN THE ENTREPRENEURIAL CONTEXT. Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Vol. 3 Iss: 2, pp Purpose – Whilst all models of the entrepreneurial process identify the role of networking as important at both the start-up and developmental stage of a business latterly these models have expanded the notion of networking and embraced the concept of social capital. However, much of the literature on measuring social capital has focussed on the quantity of social capital within a given geographical space. This paper seeks to expand this research by examining the depth and richness of social capital for new venture creation and thereby identifying the impact of social capital in new venture creation. 2.Design/methodology/approach – Current research has tended to be quantitative, for example the World Values Survey. However, 2001 there is a need to explore the value of social capital in the entrepreneurial process. This paper presents a critical review of the existing literature on measuring social capital in the entrepreneurial process. It is anticipated that the research will reveal rich, contextual information which will identify the need to investigate social capital from a qualitative perspective. 3.Findings – The paper's examination of the social capital literature thus far, although not exhaustive, has noted the emergence of several common themes that associate the issues of measurement with lack of empirical consensus on an accepted definition of social capital.

158 Diunduh dari: Paul J. Ferri, David Deakins, Geoff Whittam, (2009) THE MEASUREMENT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL IN THE ENTREPRENEURIAL CONTEXT. Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Vol. 3 Iss: 2, pp

159 Diunduh dari: LIVE LONG AND PROSPER: COLLECTIVE ACTION, SOCIAL CAPITAL AND SOCIAL VISION Murray A Rudd Ecological Economics. Volume 34, Issue 1, July 2000, Pages 131–144. To understand the social driving forces that lead to environmental change, we must account for the role of social interactions, the development of norms of behavior and the institutionalization of rules and norms — the development of ‘social capital’. This paper demonstrates the utility of social capital theory by articulating linkages between human decision making at individual and collective levels and social vision, an important research focus within the emerging ecological economics research tradition. Social capital theory clarifies relationships between social interactions and outcomes that contribute to the production of environmental quality, public peace and economic prosperity, necessary factors for long-term social and ecological sustainability. Increasing social capital in society can help people avoid violent conflict, exploit gains from increased specialization, and increase knowledge about the physical and social factors important in the production and provision of public goods. It will be necessary for ecological economists to use insights from social capital theory in order to link theories of individual choice, collective choice, sustainability and the social forces driving environmental change. Only then may we be in a position to truly live long and prosper.

160 Diunduh dari: LIVE LONG AND PROSPER: COLLECTIVE ACTION, SOCIAL CAPITAL AND SOCIAL VISION Murray A Rudd Ecological Economics. Volume 34, Issue 1, July 2000, Pages 131–144. Why is social capital important? Economic problems involve making choices under conditions of uncertainty and scarcity. Factors of production are transformed to produce commodities including diverse quasi-public goods such as education and public health, and universal public goods such as environmental quality or international order. Public goods share two characteristics important to theories of collective choice: (1) they are under-produced; and (2) we would be better if more were produced (Coleman, 1987). A crucial cause of underproduction are incentives rewarding the maximization of short-term self-interest while leaving all participants worse off in aggregate than feasible alternatives (i.e. individuals tend to free ride). 1.Coleman,J.S Norms as social capital. G. Radnitzky, P. Bernholz (Eds.), Economic Imperialism: The Economic Approach Applied Outside the Field of Economics, Paragon, New York (1987), pp. 133–155

161 Diunduh dari: LIVE LONG AND PROSPER: COLLECTIVE ACTION, SOCIAL CAPITAL AND SOCIAL VISION Murray A Rudd Ecological Economics. Volume 34, Issue 1, July 2000, Pages 131–144. Specific definitions of social capital that can be cleaved into three broad categories: 1.The view that social capital is 'generalized trust', formed largely as a byproduct of the activities of individuals interacting with each other within voluntary or informal associations (e.g. Putnam, 1993, Fukuyama, 1995, Inglehart, 1997 and Stolle, 1998);Putnam, 1993 Fukuyama, 1995Inglehart, 1997Stolle, The view that social capital consists of the norms and social networks that facilitate collective action for instrumental and collective benefit (e.g. Granovetter, 1985, Coleman, 1987, Nee and Ingram, 1998, Ostrom, 1999, Portes and Sensenbrenner, 1998 and Burt, 2000);Granovetter, 1985Coleman, 1987Nee and Ingram, 1998 Ostrom, 1999Portes and Sensenbrenner, 1998Burt, The view that social capital consists of the institutional infrastructure that facilitates the development of trust, cooperation and trade between individuals who would otherwise remain socially isolated (e.g. North, 1990, North, 1998 and Williamson, 1994). North, 1990North, 1998Williamson, Burt, R.S The network structure of social capital. R.I. Sutton, B.M. Staw (Eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior, JAI, Greenwich, CT. 2.Fukuyama,F Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of ProsperityFree Press, New York. 3.Putnam, R.D Making Democracy WorkPrinceton University Press, Princeton, NJ. 4.Granovetter,M Economic action and social structure. Am. J. Sociol., 91 (1985), pp. 481– North, D.C Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic PerformanceCambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 6.Stolle, D Making associations work: group characteristics, membership and generalized trust Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of APSA, Boston, September, 3–6, O.E. Williamson, Transaction cost economics and organization theory N.J. Smelser, R. Swedberg (Eds.), The Handbook of Economic Sociology, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ (1994), pp. 77–107

162 Diunduh dari: LIVE LONG AND PROSPER: COLLECTIVE ACTION, SOCIAL CAPITAL AND SOCIAL VISION Murray A Rudd Ecological Economics. Volume 34, Issue 1, July 2000, Pages 131–144. The conceptual basis for social capital Social capital is a productive asset that enables individuals to better fulfill their aspirations through access to goods and services via their social network and through collective action (Castle, 1998). Social capital is deemed to increase production of quasi-public and public goods by increasing levels of knowledge about production, transformation processes and trading partners, and by exploiting the gains from trade through specialization.Castle, 1998 Transaction costs associated with trading are reduced via an increase in levels of trust between trading partners and the development of institutions that provide incentives for lasting cooperation (Coleman, 1988, North, 1990, Ostrom, 1990, Ostrom, 1999 and Woolcock, 1998). Social capital, unlike other forms of capital, is not depleted with use but actually increases in value with use (Ostrom, 1999) In social capital theory, norms and rule-ordered relationships are viewed as resources that individuals can use to reduce risk, access services, obtain information, and coordinate collective action (Grootaert, 1998). The overall capacity for coordination raises output in four potential ways according to Collier (1998): 1.Social sanctions against opportunism by free-riding individuals reduce transaction costs; 2.Common pool resources can be effectively managed on a sustainable basis; 3.Public good provision can increase; and 4.Society can take advantage of economies of scale in non-market activities. Social capital can act as an input to the production function for individuals and organizations by constraining opportunism and thereby increasing the probability of collective action to deal with social externalities. 1.Castle,E.N A conceptual framework for the study of rural places. Am. J. Agric. Econ., 80 (1998), pp. 621–631 2.Collier, P., Social capital and poverty. The World Bank, Social Capital Initiative Working Paper, Rep. No. 4 (unpubl.). 3.Grootaert, C., Social capital: the missing link? The World Bank, Social Capital Initiative Working Paper, Rep. No. 3 (unpubl.).

163 Diunduh dari: LIVE LONG AND PROSPER: COLLECTIVE ACTION, SOCIAL CAPITAL AND SOCIAL VISION Murray A Rudd Ecological Economics. Volume 34, Issue 1, July 2000, Pages 131–144. Linking social capital and collective action Ostrom (1998: Ostrom (1998: A behavioral approach to the rational choice theory of collective action Am. Political Sci. Rev., 92 (1998), pp. 1–22) developed a theory of behavioral rational choice that proposes the idea that a ‘core relationship’ between trust, reputation and norms of reciprocity reinforce each other and can lead to increased levels of cooperation and, hence, net benefits. Theory can, as a result, be used to develop testable models for the laboratory or field. For any particular ‘action situation’ there might be a mix of structural variables, some of which would produce social capital via their enduring structure (e.g. small group size) and some in which the effect itself is enduring (e.g. information about past actions).) Using the typology of structures and effects based on Collier (1998: Social capital and poverty. The World Bank, Social Capital Initiative Working Paper, Rep. No. 4 ) and presented in Fig. 1, one can refine ideas presented by Ostrom. In her theory, trust, reputation and reciprocity form a self-reinforcing triad. Here, each of the six components of social capital can be explicitly accounted for via the type of social interaction.Collier (1998: ) Fig. 1. Structural variables, social capital and net benefits


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