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KOMUNITAS Definisi: A. As an assemblage of taxonomic composition unity and a relatively uniform appearance... With a definite trophic organization and.

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Presentasi berjudul: "KOMUNITAS Definisi: A. As an assemblage of taxonomic composition unity and a relatively uniform appearance... With a definite trophic organization and."— Transcript presentasi:

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2 KOMUNITAS Definisi: A. As an assemblage of taxonomic composition unity and a relatively uniform appearance... With a definite trophic organization and metabolic pattern B. Is a group of several species (plants and / or animals) living together with mutual tolerance (adjustment) and beneficial interactions & in a natural area KARAKTERISTIK: 1. DIVERSITAS 2. BENTUK PERTUMBUHAN & STRUKTUR  Pohon, Semak, Herba, Lumut, Dll. 3. DOMINANSI 4. SUKSESI 5. STRUKTUR TROFIK (SELF SUFFICIENCY )  BALANCE

3 DIVERSITAS SPECIES DIVERSITY INDICES: (SD) RATIO ANTARA JUMLAH SPESIES DAN “IMPORTANCE VALUE” SD  <<  pada controlled eco. (Number, Biomass, Productivity, etc.) unpolluted N/S S S

4 FREQUENCY Change of finding it with any one threw of quadrat in a given area Mis: Spesies “A” ada pada 86 kuadrat dari 200 kuadrat yang di lempar F A = X = 4 3 %

5 EFEK TERHADAP FREKUENSI SHOOT FREQUENCY ROOTED FREQUENCY F A. PENGARUH BESARNYA KUADRAT A B B. PENGARUH BESARNYA TANAMAN SP A SP B C. PENGARUH DISTRIBUSI SPESIAL INDIVIDU

6 C O V E R Domin ScaleBraum Blanquet  100% > 75% % % %  20%  5% Scattered Very scattered Scarce Isolated COVERCOVER Abun dant Cover Small

7 SIMILARITY INDEX ANTAR SPESIES S = 2 C A + B C = banyaknya spesies yang ada pada kedua sampel A = jumlah spesies pada sampel “A” B = jumlah spesies = 1 - S DISSIMILARITY INDEX

8 ANALISIS KOMUNITAS DUA CARA: 1. Zonal approach: discrete community yang dicatat dan diklasifikasikan 2. Gradient analysis approach: melibatkan berbagai faktor gradiens lingkungan didasarkan pada distribusi frekuensi Steep gradient Altitude in meters Dissimi- Larity index INDEX OF DOMINANCE: n i = importance value setiap sp. (no. of individual, biomass, dsb.) N = total of importance value C =  nini N 2

9 ASAL DAN PERKEMBANGAN SEEDS  MIGRATION  COLONIZATION (ECESIS ) INTERACTION AMONG SP. - COMPETITION - STRATIFICATION - COHABITATION SUKSESI INTERACTION ENVIRONMENT KONDISI TANAH SUKSESI IMMIGRATION EXTINCTION RATE No. Sp. of Island ARTHUR & WILSON (1967) S = KOLONISASI & EKSTINSI YANG KONTINYU !

10 NO. OF SPECIES BREEDING BIRDS Degree latitudeBreeding birds N0. Of Species ANTARKTIK GREENLAND LABRADOR NEW FOUNDLAND NEW YORK FLORIDA GUATEMALA PANAMA VENEZUELA COLOMBIA Region 90 – 65 (S) 80 – 60 (S) 60 – – – – – 18 6 – – 12 (S-N)

11 EKOTONE Edge effect ecotone

12 KOMPOSISI - Hutan, gurun - padang rumput, sungai, danau - permukaan daun, tanah, litter STRUKTUR 1. Subterra near, rich in humus 2. Forest floor, fungi bact. 3. Herba veg. 4. Shrubs 5. Trees Gambar: Five Vertical Stratification of Deciduous Forest Community

13 DANAU SUN ENERGY Litoral zone Limnetic zone Profundal zone Light compensation level


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