Hr planning is to make predictions of future needs of the organization according to the organization goals and develop action plans for meeting the needs in the future. HR Planning is part of the organization’s strategic planning. The process by which managers ensure that they have the right number and kinds of people in the right places, and at the right times, who are capable of effectively and efficiently performing assigned tasks.
Tujuan HR Planning To ensure the attainment of organization goals. Meeting future HR needs—critical to success. To improve the efficiency of human resources. Rational use of people—recruitment and development. To motivate employees. Meeting the needs of self-actualization- training and development.
Types and Features of HRP Types of HR Planning: –Long-term plan: 5years and above. –Mid-term plan: 2 to 4 years. –Short-term plan: 1 year. Features of HR planning: –Consistency: consistent to organization goals. –Continuity: between long-term, mid-term and short-term. –Flexibility: adapting according to change. –Accuracy: be as close as possible to reality.
Internal Needs Prediction A. What to predict –Quantity of employees needed in the future. How many people do we need? –Quality of employees needed in the future. What will be the requirement of people? –Skill variety and managerial development. What kind of skills and managerial expertise do we need?
Internal Needs Prediction cont’d B.Method of internal Prediction Bottom-up To make predictions of future needs through the hierarchical structure of the organization. Trend Analysis/Ratio Analysis: To study a factor that affects employment over time and make prediction on that basis. Multiple Factor Analysis: To study a number of factors that affect HR changes in the organization in the past 5 to 10years.
Internal Needs Prediction cont’d C.Internal supply analysis Personnel files: Personnel files are records of the employees’ education, training, performance, promotion, etc. Job posting: publicize the open job to employees and list its attributes like qualifications, working schedule and pay rate. Succession planning: To identify candidates for managerial positions.
External Sources of Supply A.Labor market. B.Employment service agencies. C.Schools and colleges. D.Referrals and walk-ins. E.Internet. F.Head-hunting companies.
Action Plans-for shortage (A) Overtime: for cyclical or short-term needs. Job rotation: balance needs of different sectors and develop managerial talents. Training and development: for long-term needs. Reemployment: employ retired employees or extend their time of services. Recruiting temporary workers: for seasonal jobs. External recruitment: for needs that cannot be satisfied internally.
Action Plans—for surplus (B) Job rotation: to move surplus labor internally. Off-job training: to prepare for future needs. Expand production: to make use of surplus workforce. Reduce working time/job sharing; to improve quality of work life. Layoff: to ask employees to leave temporarily. Early retirement: to allow employees retire earlier. Vocational training: to prepare employees for new jobs.
Action Plans—factors to be considered (C) In developing action plans, we need to consider the following factors: Organization goals and social commitment. Employee motivation and loyalty. Cost and benefits.
Human resource planning Satisfactory industrial relations RecruitmentSelection Identification and selection of competent employees OrientationTraining Adapted and competent employees with up-to-date skills and knowledge Performance Appraisal Career Development Compensation and benefits Competent and high- performing employees who are capable of sustaining this high performance over the long term Decruitment Environmental constraints
What is Recruitment REKRUTMEN adalah proses pengadaan SDM yang dilakukan secara terencana dan mempunyai pengaruh langsung kepada operasilonalisasi kegiatan-kegiatan dalam organisasi REKRUTMEN dapat juga dikatakan sebagai proses untuk menemukan SDM yang memenuhi prinsip “THE RIGHT MAN IN THE RIGHT PLACE AT THE RIGHT TIME” recruiting is to build an applicants’ pool for future needs. REKRUTMEN dianggap pula sebagai pintu gerbang masuknya SDM dalam organisasi
Steps in Recruitment and Selection Process The recruitment and selection process is a series of hurdles aimed at selecting the best candidate for the job.
Effective Recruiting External factors affecting recruiting: –Looming undersupply of workers –Lessening of the trend in outsourcing of jobs –Increasingly fewer “qualified” candidates Internal factors affecting recruiting: –The consistency of the firm’s recruitment efforts with its strategic goals –The available resources, types of jobs to be recruited and choice of recruiting methods –Nonrecruitment HR issues and policies –Line and staff coordination and cooperation
Effective Recruiting (cont’d) Advantages of centralizing recruitment –Strengthens employment brand –Ease in applying strategic principles –Reduces duplication of HR activiites –Reduces the cost of new HR technologies –Builds teams of HR experts –Provides for better measurement of HR performance –Allows for the sharing of applicant pools
Measuring Recruiting Effectiveness What to measure and how to measure –How many qualified applicants were attracted from each recruitment source? Assessing both the quantity and the quality of the applicants produced by a source. High performance recruiting –Applying best-practices management techniques to recruiting. Using a benchmarks-oriented approach to analyzing and measuring the effectiveness of recruiting efforts such as employee referrals.
Procedures of recruiting A. Develop recruiting plans and standards. –Recruiting plans: what kind of workers and how many? –Standards: basic requirement for the job posted. B. Conduct advertising and promoting: –Advertising: let the public know your needs. –Promoting: let the public know your image. C. Conduct recruiting. D. Evaluate the results of recruiting: cost/benefits.
REKRUTMEN 1.REKRUTMEN INTERNAL – Langkah-langkah yang digunakan mulai dari Employee Requisition, Job Posting dan Job Bidding 2.REKRUTMEN EKSTERNAL – dilakukan untuk (1) mengisi jabatan yang lowong, (2) memper-oleh SDM dengan kompetensi yang lebih baik dari SDM yang ada saat ini dan (3) memasukkan ide-ide baru yang dapat diperoleh dengan masuknya SDM baru dalam organisasi
Keuntungan Rekrutmen Internal –Biaya relatif murah, karena tidak perlu proses seleksi seperti rekrutmen external. –Organisasi mengetahui pekerja yang memiliki kemampuan untuk jabatan yang kosong. –Pekerja memiliki motivasi yang tinggi krn mengetahui kemungkinan peningkatan –Pengembangan karier jelas –Pekerja telah memahami secara baik kebijakan, prosedur, ketentuan dan kebiasaan organisasi.
Kerugian Rekrutmen internal Tidak selalu memberikan perspektif baru Pekerja yang dipromosikan akrab dengan bawahannya sehingga sulit menjalankan kewenangan dan kekuasaannya.
Rekrutmen Eksternal Media :koran, jurnal perdagangan, radio, TV Badan penyalur tenaga kerja :Pem/swasta Lembaga pendidikan :mahasiswa magang,iklan kampus Organisasi karyawan Organisasi profesi Rekomendasi karyawan Open house/Job Fairs On line
Rekrutmen Eksternal Keunggulan : Memiliki gagasan dan pendekatan baru Bekerja mulai dengan lembaran bersih dan memperhatikan spesifikasi pengalaman Tingkat pengetahuan dan keahlian tidak tersedia dalam perusahaan yang sekarang.
Kelemahan rekrutmen eksternal: Keterbatasan keteraturan antara karyawan dengan perusahaan. Moral dan komitmen karyawan rendah Periode penyesuaian yang relatif lama.
Internal vs External Recruitment ADVANTAGES Cheaper than external recruitment Provides a worker whose strengths and weaknesses are already known Ensures continuity of employment Promotes loyalty to the organisation Builds morals Motivates employees to achieve better performance INTERNAL ADVANTAGES May introduce different perspectives and varied experiences to rejuvenate an organisation May reduce complacency amongst current employees May be cheaper than training a professional May help avoid ‘political’ appointments in the organisation EXTERNAL
Kendala Rekrutmen 1.KEBIJAKAN ORGANISASI – Seperti kebijakan promosi dari dalam, kebijakan sistem kontrak kerja, kebijakan status karyawan, dan kebijakan sistem kompensasi 2.RENCANA SDM – terkendala oleh keputusan rencana SDM yang telah ditetapkan seperti waktu, jumlah dan kualifikasi SDM 3.IMPLEMENTASI REKRUTMEN – Seperti metode rekrutmen, anggaran, skedul waktu, dan recruiters 4.KONDISI EKSTERNAL – Seperti pasar tenaga kerja dan peraturan pemerintah 5.KEBIASAAN REKRUTER – seperti subyektivitas, pilih kasih, mengutamakan teman dan sejenisnya