Demokrasi Modern Apa itu Demokrasi? From,by,for the people (Aristotle)
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Presentasi berjudul: "Demokrasi Modern Apa itu Demokrasi? From,by,for the people (Aristotle)"— Transcript presentasi:
1Demokrasi Modern Apa itu Demokrasi? From,by,for the people (Aristotle) free (and fair) elections (Schumpeter)political equality (Hutington)Balance of Power (Montesque, Roseau)Civil Liberties, Freedom to organise political parties and pressure groups (Robert Dahl)Demokrasi universal value (amartya sen)
2Sen’s Argument What is the main point of Sen’s argument? - democracy is a universal valueWhat does S understand by democracy?- majority rule and elections- respect for liberties and freedoms- respect for legal entitlements- free discussion
3Sen’s Argument (contd) What does S mean by a ‘universal value’?- people anywhere may have reason to see it as valuable.What evidence does S use to assert universal value of democracy?- people choose it when they can get itWhy does S value democracy?- intrinsic value- instrumental value- constructive value
4Non-democracies What is the opposite of democracy? dictatorship authoritarian governmenttotalitarian governmentWhat is ‘incomplete’ democracy?elections but aspects of authoritarianism
5Waves of Democracy1. Continuous Development. Start from centuries with strong modern state/institution, stay strong2.Establish democracies then breakdown in 20th centuries3. Start at 20th centuries democracies with out strong institution/modern state
6Waves of Democracy What are the three ‘waves’ of democracy? one: continuous development from 18th/19th CEngland : in 17 Centuries Crown accountable to parliamentdevelop modern stateU.S, Scandinavian countriestwo: from 19th C but breakdown in 20th CGerman, Italy, Spainthree: established late 20th centuryKorea, Indonesia, Russia, Republic Korea
7Third wave democracies Ada free and fair elections (Schumpeter) butSatu institusi bergerak mayoritas dan sulit dikontrolKurang transparansi dan accountabilitasKurangnya Peran Masyarakat dalam demokrasi
8Democracy and the Modern State (Institution) Webber Sehingga tidak diragukan lagi bahwa demokrasi membutuhkan:Modern State (Weber)Democratic Institution (Hutington)Pilar-Pilar Demokrasi (Sri Bintang Pamungkas)
9Democracy and the Modern State (Institution) Webber What are the three aspects of the ‘modern state’?rule of law : The central creation of modern state.Tidak ada/berjalanya rule of law belum modern stateMengkonfirmasi hak2 dasar warga negaraMengatur hubungan antar semua elemen negaracivil society.accountabilityMengurangi korupsi. KlitgardCorruption= Monopoly + Discretion - AccountabilityCan the ‘modern state’ exist without democracy?Is the ‘modern state’ necessary for democracy?
10Human Rights Four categories of Human Right (UN Declaration): civil – eg fair trial, free speech, propertypolitical – eg voting, form political partyeconomic – eg work, fair incomesocial – eg education, health
11What is Civil Society? Definition Cohen and Arato: “a sphere of social interaction between economy and state, composed of the intimate sphere (especially the family), the sphere of associations (especially voluntary associations), social movements and forms of public communication”
12Definition Michael Walzer “The words civil society name the space of uncoerced human association and also the set of relational networks-formed for the sake of family, faith, interest, and ideology-that fill this space”
13Definition Iris Young“It includes a vast array of activities, institutions, and social networks outside state and economy, from informal clubs to religious organizations, to non-profit service providers, to cultural producers, to political action groups”.
14Characteristics movement Located between state and economy Non Profit The sphere of associations (from private to political)VoluntarismCommunicative action (oriented to cooperation)Plurality in membershipLocalism & GlobalCreativemovement
15Historybecame popular in the course of the struggle against totalitarianism in Central and Eastern Europe during 1980s.Yet, its roots date back as far as Ancient GreecePolitical society in which citizens actively involved in shaping the institutions and policies of their society
16Socratesadvocated that public issues in the city states be resolved via public argument joined by all citizens(active citizenship)
17Aristotleindividuals should have the opportunity to participate in decision-making.Laws should be the result of public deliberation among average citizens rather than experts.people through discourse enhance their collective practical intelligence and ensure optimal satisfaction of all parties in the society.
18Adam FergusonFirst named and discussed the idea of civil society in his “An Essay on the History of Civil Society” in the 18th century. (Scottish Enlightenment)tried to resurrect the Roman ideal of civic virtue (active citizenry) in a society where capitalism was taking the place of feudalism
19Hegelfurther developed Ferguson’s concept by separating it from the stateCivil society as men trading and interacting socially, but separate from government and law
20Gramsciwent a step further than Hegel and divorced the notion of civil society from economic interactionsIncluded cultural institutions, notably the church but also schools, associations, trade unionsrevolutionary potential
21Why Civil Society?Important to appreciate and investigate different forms of democratic governanceA breathing space away from state controlA space for self-expressionBetter communicationCreativity
22strengthening democracy and enabling conflict resolution through Fostering civic culture and social capital (Putnam)Greater self-control and self-legislationIncreasing participation into decision-making, hence the legitimacy of the regimeGiving voice to marginalized groups (inclusive)Ability to resist oppression
23Civil society, state and economy “kinds of activities” rather than different spheres (Iris Young) Private associations; families, social clubs or religious organizations; more self interest less public concerncivic associations, such as a community art centre, a crime watch group or a women’s right organization, serve not only to their members but also to wider community. Unlike private associations, they are open to everyone.Political associations focus on the principles of social life and make suggestions about what should be done about specific issues; bring the issues of public concern to political arena.
24Can civil society function independent from the state and government? natural tension between the two: While civil society represents diversity and pluralism, the state aims to coordinate this pluralism under some overarching universal rules.Yet, the state is necessary to protect the freedom that civil society needs => reinforcement of law and order
25“Only a democratic state can create a democratic civil society; only a democratic civil society can sustain a democratic state.The civility that makes democratic politics possible can only be learned in the associational networks; the roughly equal and widely dispersed capabilities that sustain the networks have to be fostered by the democratic state” (Michael Walzer)
26The Public Sphere What is the public sphere: ““spaces within which public opinion and public judgments are formed through argument” (Mark Warren)a network for communicating information and points of view (Habermas)an intermediary structure between state and civil society identifying public problems, interests and needs.
27Civil Society & NGO All NGO’s are civil societies But Civil Societies have ladder of participation
28Levels of Participation Participation is a ContinuumManipulation; cooption; indoctrination = level terendah biasanya hanya dijadikan alat/dimanfaatkanContribution to Inputs= memberikan masukan pada inputInformation SharingConsultationShared Decision MakingPartnership/EquityEmpowerment/Control = NGO(Known as Arnstein’s Ladder of Participation)
29ParticipationInvolvement of staff, partners and people (Stakeholders) affected by a project in planning and carrying out the activities of a project or in monitoring, reviewing or evaluating the project (NGO).Process through which stakeholders influence and share control over development initiatives and the decisions and resources which affect them (World Bank)
30Why is Participation Important? ConsentRelevance - Meeting Real NeedsAppropriateness of activity to need and capabilityCost effectiveness/efficiency - cost sharing;Ensuring SustainabilityTaking ResponsibilityTransparency, Accountability and better information flowDetermine Stakeholder CapacityShare EquityGain Legitimacy - Govts et al.
31Civil Society donor Self Funded = Independence Outside Donor = moderate independencyGovernment and Market = InterdependencyDepend on the civil society function and project
32Perkembangan Civil Society di Indonesia Diambil dari:How and To What extent can civil society actors contribute to democracy? Study Case Indonesia and Malaysia
33Peran Civil Societies Era Penjajahan Era incomplete democracies (Old&New Order)Era transition to complete democracies
34Civil Societies dalam proses pergantian rezim auto-demo Peran civil society menjadi pressure penguasa untuk beralih menjadi demokrasiKekuatanya akan berbanding lurus semakin banyak NGO maka semakin demokratisSemakin kuat government maka civil society akan bergerak bawah tanah dan atau cooperative dengan pemerintah
35ContPada era penjajahan, civil societies yang terbentuk di Indonesia berbagai macam.Mempunyai tujuan satu Merdeka/mengganti pemerintahanBergerak di berbagai bidang meski bisa berpindah fungsiPolitik : Boedoet,SI dllPend: Muhammadiyah,NUBudaya: Paguyuban Masy Betawi
36Cont Era Orde Lama dan Baru Secara karakter hampir sama seperti diatas tetapi sudah ada NGO’s yang mencoba mengisi bidang pembangunanLembaga riset independenLembaga konsultan non komersil
37Kasus IndonesiaPemerintahan masih kuat dan enggan memberikan kebebasanNGO semakin banyak dan banyak pendukungSerikat BuruhOrganisasi MahasiswaOrmas KeagamaanApa yang terjadi? Benturan Sosial-Politik
38Pemerintah VS Civil Societies Benturan ini semakin meruncing sehingga terjadilahViolance VS Non Violance Movement1945 berhasil pemuda&tokoh NGO/ormas1966 Mahasiswa dan Ormas lainnya1998 Mahasiswa, LSM, Tokoh Politik
39Kasus Malaysia bedaPemerintah VS NGO selalu berakhir dengan negotiation.Beda sejarah kemerdekaan, beda penyelesaian konflik
40Pada era menuju complete democracies Apa peran civil societies?Bringing plurality institution: Semakin banyak yang membantu berbagai problem masyarakat: YLKI,LBHI,WalhiCheck and Balance to the State Power: Lebih banyak suara rakyat terwakilkan, share power semakin besar: ICWSinergically working with the government: menjadi konsultan pemerintah, membantu proyek pemerintah: WalhiWatch Dog: Pengawasan eksternal pemerintah
41Kontradiksi NGO Promote Democracy Anti democracy Bersifat plural Anti pluralismeRekrutmen terbukaRekrutmen tertutupTerbuka terhadap kritikMenolak kritikMemiliki struktur org yg demokratisStrukturnya tidak demokratisMenghargai hak2 orang lainMengacuhkan hak2 org lainUniversal valueMengacuhkan universal value