Demokrasi Modern Apa itu Demokrasi? –From,by,for the people (Aristotle) –free (and fair) elections (Schumpeter) –political equality (Hutington) –Balance.
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Presentasi berjudul: "Demokrasi Modern Apa itu Demokrasi? –From,by,for the people (Aristotle) –free (and fair) elections (Schumpeter) –political equality (Hutington) –Balance."— Transcript presentasi:
Demokrasi Modern Apa itu Demokrasi? –From,by,for the people (Aristotle) –free (and fair) elections (Schumpeter) –political equality (Hutington) –Balance of Power (Montesque, Roseau) –Civil Liberties, Freedom to organise political parties and pressure groups (Robert Dahl) –Demokrasi universal value (amartya sen)
Sen’s Argument What is the main point of Sen’s argument? - democracy is a universal value What does S understand by democracy? - majority rule and elections - respect for liberties and freedoms - respect for legal entitlements - free discussion
Sen’s Argument (contd) What does S mean by a ‘universal value’? - people anywhere may have reason to see it as valuable. What evidence does S use to assert universal value of democracy? - people choose it when they can get it Why does S value democracy? - intrinsic value - instrumental value - constructive value
Non-democracies What is the opposite of democracy? dictatorship authoritarian government totalitarian government What is ‘incomplete’ democracy? elections but aspects of authoritarianism
Waves of Democracy 1. Continuous Development. Start from 17-18 centuries with strong modern state/institution, stay strong 2.Establish democracies then breakdown in 20 th centuries 3. Start at 20 th centuries democracies with out strong institution/modern state
Waves of Democracy What are the three ‘waves’ of democracy? one: continuous development from 18 th /19th C England : in 17 Centuries Crown accountable to parliament develop modern state U.S, Scandinavian countries two: from 19 th C but breakdown in 20th C German, Italy, Spain three: established late 20th century Korea, Indonesia, Russia, Republic Korea
Third wave democracies Ada free and fair elections (Schumpeter) but –Satu institusi bergerak mayoritas dan sulit dikontrol –Kurang transparansi dan accountabilitas –Kurangnya Peran Masyarakat dalam demokrasi
Democracy and the Modern State (Institution) Webber Sehingga tidak diragukan lagi bahwa demokrasi membutuhkan: –Modern State (Weber) –Democratic Institution (Hutington) –Pilar-Pilar Demokrasi (Sri Bintang Pamungkas)
Democracy and the Modern State (Institution) Webber What are the three aspects of the ‘modern state’? rule of law : The central creation of modern state. Tidak ada/berjalanya rule of law belum modern state Mengkonfirmasi hak2 dasar warga negara Mengatur hubungan antar semua elemen negara civil society. accountability Mengurangi korupsi. Klitgard Corruption= Monopoly + Discretion - Accountability Is the ‘modern state’ necessary for democracy? Can the ‘modern state’ exist without democracy?
Human Rights Four categories of Human Right (UN Declaration): civil – eg fair trial, free speech, property political – eg voting, form political party economic – eg work, fair income social – eg education, health
What is Civil Society? Definition Cohen and Arato : “a sphere of social interaction between economy and state, composed of the intimate sphere (especially the family), the sphere of associations (especially voluntary associations), social movements and forms of public communication”
Definition Michael Walzer “The words civil society name the space of uncoerced human association and also the set of relational networks-formed for the sake of family, faith, interest, and ideology-that fill this space”
Definition Iris Young “It includes a vast array of activities, institutions, and social networks outside state and economy, from informal clubs to religious organizations, to non-profit service providers, to cultural producers, to political action groups”.
Characteristics Located between state and economy Non Profit The sphere of associations (from private to political) Voluntarism Communicative action (oriented to cooperation) Plurality in membership Localism & Global Creative movement
History became popular in the course of the struggle against totalitarianism in Central and Eastern Europe during 1980s. Yet, its roots date back as far as Ancient Greece –Political society in which citizens actively involved in shaping the institutions and policies of their society
Socrates advocated that public issues in the city states be resolved via public argument joined by all citizens (active citizenship)
Aristotle individuals should have the opportunity to participate in decision- making. Laws should be the result of public deliberation among average citizens rather than experts. people through discourse enhance their collective practical intelligence and ensure optimal satisfaction of all parties in the society.
Adam Ferguson First named and discussed the idea of civil society in his “An Essay on the History of Civil Society” in the 18 th century. (Scottish Enlightenment) tried to resurrect the Roman ideal of civic virtue (active citizenry) in a society where capitalism was taking the place of feudalism
Hegel further developed Ferguson’s concept by separating it from the state Civil society as men trading and interacting socially, but separate from government and law
Gramsci went a step further than Hegel and divorced the notion of civil society from economic interactions Included cultural institutions, notably the church but also schools, associations, trade unions revolutionary potential
Why Civil Society? Important to appreciate and investigate different forms of democratic governance A breathing space away from state control A space for self-expression Better communication Creativity
strengthening democracy and enabling conflict resolution through Fostering civic culture and social capital (Putnam) Greater self-control and self-legislation Increasing participation into decision-making, hence the legitimacy of the regime Giving voice to marginalized groups (inclusive) Ability to resist oppression
Civil society, state and economy “kinds of activities” rather than different spheres (Iris Young) Private associations; families, social clubs or religious organizations; more self interest less public concern civic associations, such as a community art centre, a crime watch group or a women’s right organization, serve not only to their members but also to wider community. Unlike private associations, they are open to everyone. Political associations focus on the principles of social life and make suggestions about what should be done about specific issues; bring the issues of public concern to political arena.
Can civil society function independent from the state and government? natural tension between the two: While civil society represents diversity and pluralism, the state aims to coordinate this pluralism under some overarching universal rules. Yet, the state is necessary to protect the freedom that civil society needs => reinforcement of law and order
“Only a democratic state can create a democratic civil society; only a democratic civil society can sustain a democratic state. The civility that makes democratic politics possible can only be learned in the associational networks; the roughly equal and widely dispersed capabilities that sustain the networks have to be fostered by the democratic state” (Michael Walzer)
The Public Sphere What is the public sphere: –““spaces within which public opinion and public judgments are formed through argument” (Mark Warren) –a network for communicating information and points of view (Habermas) –an intermediary structure between state and civil society identifying public problems, interests and needs.
Civil Society & NGO All NGO’s are civil societies But Civil Societies have ladder of participation
Levels of Participation Participation is a Continuum Manipulation; cooption; indoctrination = level terendah biasanya hanya dijadikan alat/dimanfaatkan Contribution to Inputs= memberikan masukan pada input Information Sharing Consultation Shared Decision Making Partnership/Equity Empowerment/Control = NGO (Known as Arnstein’s Ladder of Participation)
Participation Involvement of staff, partners and people (Stakeholders) affected by a project in planning and carrying out the activities of a project or in monitoring, reviewing or evaluating the project (NGO). Process through which stakeholders influence and share control over development initiatives and the decisions and resources which affect them (World Bank)
Why is Participation Important? Consent Relevance - Meeting Real Needs Appropriateness of activity to need and capability Cost effectiveness/efficiency - cost sharing; Ensuring Sustainability Taking Responsibility Transparency, Accountability and better information flow Determine Stakeholder Capacity Share Equity Gain Legitimacy - Govts et al.
Civil Society donor Self Funded = Independence Outside Donor = moderate independency Government and Market = Interdependency Depend on the civil society function and project
Perkembangan Civil Society di Indonesia Diambil dari: How and To What extent can civil society actors contribute to democracy? Study Case Indonesia and Malaysia
Peran Civil Societies Era Penjajahan Era incomplete democracies (Old&New Order) Era transition to complete democracies
Civil Societies dalam proses pergantian rezim auto-demo Peran civil society menjadi pressure penguasa untuk beralih menjadi demokrasi Kekuatanya akan berbanding lurus semakin banyak NGO maka semakin demokratis Semakin kuat government maka civil society akan bergerak bawah tanah dan atau cooperative dengan pemerintah
Cont Pada era penjajahan, civil societies yang terbentuk di Indonesia berbagai macam. Mempunyai tujuan satu Merdeka/mengganti pemerintahan Bergerak di berbagai bidang meski bisa berpindah fungsi –Politik : Boedoet,SI dll –Pend: Muhammadiyah,NU –Budaya: Paguyuban Masy Betawi
Cont Era Orde Lama dan Baru Secara karakter hampir sama seperti diatas tetapi sudah ada NGO’s yang mencoba mengisi bidang pembangunan –Lembaga riset independen –Lembaga konsultan non komersil
Kasus Indonesia Pemerintahan masih kuat dan enggan memberikan kebebasan NGO semakin banyak dan banyak pendukung –Serikat Buruh –Organisasi Mahasiswa –Ormas Keagamaan Apa yang terjadi? Benturan Sosial-Politik
Pemerintah VS Civil Societies Benturan ini semakin meruncing sehingga terjadilah Violance VS Non Violance Movement 1945 berhasil pemuda&tokoh NGO/ormas 1966 Mahasiswa dan Ormas lainnya 1998 Mahasiswa, LSM, Tokoh Politik
Kasus Malaysia beda Pemerintah VS NGO selalu berakhir dengan negotiation. Beda sejarah kemerdekaan, beda penyelesaian konflik
Pada era menuju complete democracies Apa peran civil societies? –Bringing plurality institution: Semakin banyak yang membantu berbagai problem masyarakat: YLKI,LBHI,Walhi –Check and Balance to the State Power: Lebih banyak suara rakyat terwakilkan, share power semakin besar: ICW –Sinergically working with the government: menjadi konsultan pemerintah, membantu proyek pemerintah: Walhi –Watch Dog: Pengawasan eksternal pemerintah
Kontradiksi NGO Promote DemocracyAnti democracy Bersifat pluralAnti pluralisme Rekrutmen terbukaRekrutmen tertutup Terbuka terhadap kritikMenolak kritik Memiliki struktur org yg demokratisStrukturnya tidak demokratis Menghargai hak2 orang lainMengacuhkan hak2 org lain Universal valueMengacuhkan universal value