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Geografi Teknologi dan Politik-Ekonomi Mata Kuliah Geografi Ekonomi Dept. Geografi FMIPA UI.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Geografi Teknologi dan Politik-Ekonomi Mata Kuliah Geografi Ekonomi Dept. Geografi FMIPA UI."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Geografi Teknologi dan Politik-Ekonomi Mata Kuliah Geografi Ekonomi Dept. Geografi FMIPA UI

2 Hidup dari lingkungan Berburu dan bertani Berdagang / barter Berdagang / transaksi benda berharga (uang) Export/ import Perdagangan regional baru Apalagi yang akan datang ? Information Communication Technology Jaman imperialisme > Imperialisme gaya baru Globalisasi Tata dunia baru (metanasional) Geographical Knowledge and Enlightenment Enlightenment: as “related to theoeitical matters: to (objective) rational knowledge and to (subjective) facility in rational reflection about matters of human life” (Livingstone, David N, 1999) Mental maps Pemetaan awal dan ensiklopedia (Ptolemy,Colum bus, Ratzel, dll) Foto Udara GIS/ GPS / GPRS/ what else ? LokalRegional Trans - Continent Global Spatial Dynamics: Global Regional National Local Site

3 Long Wave Cycles of Innovation st Wave2 nd Wave3 rd Wave4 th Wave5 th Wave Water power Textiles Iron Steam Rail Steel Electricity Chemicals Internal-combustion engine Petrochemicals Electronics Aviation Digital networks Software New Media 60 years55 years50 years40 years30 years Pace of innovation Waktu perubahan (siklus) semakin pendek/singkat

4 Kumulatif Sumbangan Moda Transportasi terhadap Peluang Ekonomis Kuda Kapal Laut Kapal Penyeberangan Kereta Api Jalan darat Udara Telekomunikasi Peluang Ekonomis Revolusi Industrial Produksi Massal Globalisasi

5 Jarak Metrik Jarak Sosial Jarak waktu Jakarta Surabaya Alat transportasi: kuda Alat transportasi: kereta api Alat transportasi: pesawat udara Jakarta Surabaya JakartaSurabaya Internet

6 Urban Places (based on buildings, Urban electronic spaces (constructed ‘inside’ telematics network using computer software Teritory Network Fixity Motion/flux Embedded Dis-embedded Visible Invisible Tangible Intangible Actual Virtual/abstract Euclidean  social space Logical space

7 Old Characterisations New Characterisation Space of places Space of flows (Castells, 1989) Physical presence Telepresence (CEC, 1992) Physical Mediation Telemediation (Richardson, 1994) Geography Telegeography (Staple, 1992) Distance Speed and Time (Mulgan, 1991) Closure Openness and exposure (Virilio, 1987) Locality Globality (Knight and Gappert, 1989) “Modern space” Post-Modern ‘Hyperspace’ (Jameson, 1984) Data spaces (Murdock, 1993) Electronics spaces (Robbins & Hepworth, 1988) Cyberspace (Gibson, 1984) Netscape (Hemrick, 1992) Networld (Harasim, 1993)

8 Dari Navigable space conceptual space within ICTs (Information Communication Technology) rather technology itself (Martin Dodge, 1999) Pemanfaatan studi tentang lokasi dan tempat dengan memanfaatkan info spatial dijital Pengembangan kajian yang dibagi atas 2 tahapan: a.Makro: fokus pada perbedaan karakteristik lokasi dan tempat (konvensional b.Mikro: fokus pada pengaruh perubahan karakteristik lokasi dan tempat terhadap individu ataupun masyarakat

9 Sept Oct. 2001

10 PlaceSpace Nodes Nets Space Place Computer or Cspace Cyberplace Cyberspace Place/space: domain geografi dg metode konvensional; menterjemahkan place menjadi karakteristik space Cspace: abstraksi suatu space menjadi computer space Cyberspace: space-space yg baru munculstlh dikonversi melalui cspace Cyberplace: pengaruh infrastruktur cyberspace terhadap infrastruktur tradisional di suatu tempat (place)

11 Information spaces Social spaces Infrastructure CONTOH PRODUK KAJIAN IPTEK GEOGRAFI TERKINI

12 Tempat (place) : suatu lokasi sebagai wujud dari integrasi masyarakat, budaya dan bentang alamnya  ada satu hubungan yang sistematis antara individu dan komponen landscape (Lowenthal, 1989) Pemahaman landscape dapat dibagi dalam 4 perspektif paradigma: a.The Expert Paradigm  applications design for use by managers and planners b.The Psychological Paradigm  meaning in the perception of landscapes (value stimulation) c.The Cognitive Paradigm  meaning in landscape in human terms (construct of human mind) d.The Experiential Paradigm  meaning of human landscape interactions (human environment interaction)

13 Attitudes Perception Cognition Learning Spatial behavior Environmental Structure I n t e r f a c e Change in the system Behavior with the system changes the interface Golledge, 1997

14 How Asians and Westerners Think Differently and WHY (Richard E. Nisbett, 2003) Ecology Economy Social Structure Attention Metaphysics Epistemology Cognitive Process Westerners Orientation Cognitive Process Epistemology Metaphysics Attention Social Structure Economy Ecology Asians Orientation

15 Apa itu Perubahan ? Sebagai obyek Sebagai kata benda tt’ Berubah ukurannya (bertambah besar/kecil – meningkat/menurun Berubah bentuk Berubah isi Berubah karena skala (pengamatan) Event/kejadian + proses Event/kejadian + proses Event/kejadian + proses Perubahan kepemilikan Perubahan nilai, fungsi, peran

16 Konteks Geografi Ekonomi- Politik

17 Permasalahan Politik Ekonomi Internasional Internal Internasional EkonomiPolitik

18 The meaning of the ‘political’ Politics: struggles for power to exercise: –control over others and self –satisfy interests –express or gain recognition for identities Power: –force/coercion –manipulation (tricks) –consent (legitimate authority/persuasion) Politics expressed through: –competition, conflict, and cooperation What is political? Difference with the cultural and the economic?

19 Some concepts in political geography Location, Space, Place Distance, Distribution, Diffusion Scale, Hierarchies Territory, Territoriality Boundaries, Frontiers State, Nation Sphere of influence, Core and Periphery

20 Location –Absolute longitude, latitude, altitude –Relative with regard to physical features or to other political units –Location theory seeks to account for the location of economic activities –‘rational’ economic behavior –historical particularity of different phases of capitalist development –global context of these phases of development –structural interdependencies between commodity production, social reproduction, and urbanisation

21 Space –Absolute or objective space: distinct physical entity (location, area). –Relational or social space: sites in which social practices take place (space exists through social practices) => ‘social production of space’

22 Place –Portion of geographical space occupied by a person or a thing –Elements of a place: Locale, the setting in which social relations are constituted (e.g. street corner, state territory) Location, the geographical area encompassing the settings for social interaction in absolute terms and relative terms Sense of place, the local “structure of feeling” (e.g. sense of ‘belonging’ to a region or a country => identity) (see Agnew, J. (1987) Place and Politics: the geographical mediation of state and society. Boston: Allen and Unwin)

23 Place and politics Characteristics shaping political activity in particular places: 1) spatial division of labour effecting class and social structures, and community affiliations 2) communications technology and patterns of accessibility to it 3) characteristics of local and central states 4) expression of class, gender, ethnic divisions through local culture, work authority, and history 5) predominant local bases for collective identity formation (class, ethnic, gender divisions), and place-based identities oriented to the local, regional, or national level 6) microgeography of everyday life through which patterns of social interaction are spatially structured

24 Distance Absolute or physical distance (e.g. km) and relative distance (e.g. telecommunications and air travel transform physical distance by reducing it in relative terms) ‘Socio-cultural’ distance among and between different people (e.g. social classes; e.g. accessibility of air travel, visas; but also interpersonal relations and sense of ‘community’ and social proximity Functional distance: intensity of exchanges –e.g. circulation of goods (material or cultural) between two places Effects of distance: –Friction or inhibiting effect of distance (time and cost / distance) –Distance decay: attenuation of a pattern or process with distance => proximity and greater human interaction can result from: physical proximity or its technological reduction; socio-cultural homogeneity; functional complementarity

25 Distribution Location of people, things, ideas, or events Distribution of interactions and attributes can differentiate between ‘Functional’ or ‘Formal’ areas (or regions): –Functional areas constituted by interactions (e.g. commercial or social exchanges) –Formal areas constituted by homogeneity of attributes (e.g. corn belt), characteristics (e.g. administrative unit)

26 Diffusion Transmission across space and over time of a phenomenon (changes in its distribution) - e.g. diffusion of industrial technology and processes, democracy, epidemics … An analysis of diffusion is not only interested in its spatial manifestation over time (especially the barriers through which change is slowed down, or the pathways through which change is channeled or operated), but also in the social processes driving this change –e.g. diffusion of AIDS epidemics along transport/trucking lanes in Southern Africa, phenomenon of wage labour, prostitution, as well as cultural and political resistance and weak capacity for prevention by local authorities

27 t1 t2 t3 Expansion Diffusion t1 t2 t3 Relocation Diffusion Combination of Expansion and Relocation

28 Spatial analysis

29 Scale Level of representation (e.g. resolution level in cartography) Politics of scale, and political economy of scale: production of space at different scales (e.g. global organization of capital and location of energy sources, national justification of nuclear energy use, local experience of proximity to nuclear power stations). Local, national, regional, global/international –‘Globalization’, ‘Nationalism’ –Complex relations across scales –Everything is ‘local’

30 Isu Geografi Ekonomi Politik Indonesia Disparitas pembangunan dan kesejahteraan: Kawasan Barat vs Kawasan Timur, Kota vs Desa, Pesisir vs Pedalaman, daerah inti pertambangan vs non-pertambangan Pemekaran Wilayah atau Aneksasi? Kepentingan Pusat vs Daerah, sentralisasi vs desentralisasi (otonomi daerah) Pulau besar vs pulau-pulau kecil

31 Konflik Geografis Konflik Contiguity  bersifat vertikal Konflik Teritorial  bersifat horizontal Konflik Gabungan  vertikal + horizontal Satu otorita daerah memiliki wilayah pengelolaan yang tumpang tindih dengan otoritas daerah yang lebih tinggi. Contoh kasus Pemda Batam dan Otoritas Batam., Pemda Tk 2 dan Tk 1 atau Perda Pariwisata dan UU Suaka Alam Satu otorita daerah yang konflik dengan otorita daerah lain yang setara. Contoh kasus konflik batas negara, konflik pengelolaan sumberdaya ikan laut antar Propinsi/ kabupaten Sebagai contoh adalah pembentukan atau pemekaran Daerah baru. Contoh lain (potensial) adalah penerapan konsep Megapolis di Jabodetabek

32 Garis batas awal Kabupaten A Garis batas pemekaran Daerah Kabupaten A1: setelah pemekaran Kabupaten A2: setelah pemekaran Tipikal Konflik: ) Konflik antara pusat dengan daerah (konflik vertikal) Antara Prop A1 dg prop A2 (konflik horizontal Banyak keterkaitan fungsional pembangunan yang “terpotong” oleh akibat batas admnistrasi baru dan menimbulkan resiko masalah pengambilan keputusan sampai pelaksanaan di lapangan

33 ManfaatResiko Terjadi Peningkatan Kesejahteraan (sesuai Tujuan) Timbul Peluang Kerja Rentang Kendali mengecil Konflik sosial-ekonomi (masalah lokalitas nilai) disparitas sosial- ekonomi Biaya tinggi dan tambah rentang birokrasi, khusus untuk aktifitas pembangunan yang lintas batas  inefisiensi; daya saing melemah


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