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Geografi Teknologi dan Politik-Ekonomi

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Presentasi berjudul: "Geografi Teknologi dan Politik-Ekonomi"— Transcript presentasi:

1 Geografi Teknologi dan Politik-Ekonomi
Mata Kuliah Geografi Ekonomi Dept. Geografi FMIPA UI

2 Kehidupan (ekonomi) Manusia; Geographical Knowledge and Enlightenment
Apalagi yang akan datang ? Information Communication Technology Geographical Knowledge and Enlightenment Perdagangan regional baru GIS/ GPS / GPRS/ what else ? Foto Udara Pemetaan awal dan ensiklopedia (Ptolemy,Columbus , Ratzel, dll) Export/ import Tata dunia baru (metanasional) Mental maps Globalisasi Berdagang / transaksi benda berharga (uang) Berdagang / barter Berburu dan bertani Jaman imperialisme > Imperialisme gaya baru Hidup dari lingkungan Spatial Dynamics: Global Regional National Local Site Trans -Continent Lokal Regional Global Enlightenment: as “related to theoeitical matters: to (objective) rational knowledge and to (subjective) facility in rational reflection about matters of human life” (Livingstone, David N, 1999)

3 Long Wave Cycles of Innovation
Water power Textiles Iron Steam Rail Steel Electricity Chemicals Internal-combustion engine Petrochemicals Electronics Aviation Digital networks Software New Media Pace of innovation 1st Wave 2nd Wave 3rd Wave 4th Wave 5th Wave Source: Adapted from the Economist, Feb 20th 1999. 1785 60 years 1845 55 years 1900 50 years 1950 40 years 1990 30 years Waktu perubahan (siklus) semakin pendek/singkat

4 Kumulatif Sumbangan Moda Transportasi terhadap Peluang Ekonomis
Revolusi Industrial Produksi Massal Globalisasi Telekomunikasi Udara Jalan darat Peluang Ekonomis Kereta Api Source: adapted from HOP Associates (2005) “Time, mobility and economic growth”, Kapal Penyeberangan Kapal Laut Kuda 1750 1775 1800 1825 1850 1875 1900 1925 1950 1975 2000 2025 2050

5 Konvergensi Spatial Jarak Metrik Jarak Sosial Jarak waktu Jakarta
Surabaya Alat transportasi: kuda Jakarta Surabaya Alat transportasi: kereta api Jakarta Surabaya Alat transportasi: pesawat udara Jakarta Surabaya Internet

6 Perubahan Landscape di Perkotaan
Urban Places (based on buildings, Urban electronic spaces (constructed ‘inside’ telematics network using computer software Teritory Network Fixity Motion/flux Embedded Dis-embedded Visible Invisible Tangible Intangible Actual Virtual/abstract Euclidean  social space Logical space

7 New concept approaches for the Telecommunication based city
Old Characterisations New Characterisation Space of places Space of flows (Castells, 1989) Physical presence Telepresence (CEC, 1992) Physical Mediation Telemediation (Richardson, 1994) Geography Telegeography (Staple, 1992) Distance Speed and Time (Mulgan, 1991) Closure Openness and exposure (Virilio, 1987) Locality Globality (Knight and Gappert, 1989) “Modern space” Post-Modern ‘Hyperspace’ (Jameson, 1984) Data spaces (Murdock, 1993) Electronics spaces (Robbins & Hepworth, 1988) Cyberspace (Gibson, 1984) Netscape (Hemrick, 1992) Networld (Harasim, 1993)

8 Pemahaman Virtual Geography
Dari Navigable space conceptual space within ICTs (Information Communication Technology) rather technology itself (Martin Dodge, 1999) Pemanfaatan studi tentang lokasi dan tempat dengan memanfaatkan info spatial dijital Pengembangan kajian yang dibagi atas 2 tahapan: Makro: fokus pada perbedaan karakteristik lokasi dan tempat (konvensional Mikro: fokus pada pengaruh perubahan karakteristik lokasi dan tempat terhadap individu ataupun masyarakat

9 Cyberspace – Perkembangan IPTEK Geografi terkini
Karya Martin Dodge Oct. 2001 Sept. 2000

10 4 hal kajian rinci Cyberspace
Place Space Space Computer or Cspace Nodes Place Nets Cyberplace Cyberspace Place/space: domain geografi dg metode konvensional; menterjemahkan place menjadi karakteristik space Cspace: abstraksi suatu space menjadi computer space Cyberspace: space-space yg baru munculstlh dikonversi melalui cspace Cyberplace: pengaruh infrastruktur cyberspace terhadap infrastruktur tradisional di suatu tempat (place)

11 Peta dari masa ke masa

12 Social spaces Information spaces Infrastructure

13 Tempat kita selalu berubah
Tempat (place) : suatu lokasi sebagai wujud dari integrasi masyarakat, budaya dan bentang alamnya  ada satu hubungan yang sistematis antara individu dan komponen landscape (Lowenthal, 1989) Pemahaman landscape dapat dibagi dalam 4 perspektif paradigma: The Expert Paradigm  applications design for use by managers and planners The Psychological Paradigm  meaning in the perception of landscapes (value stimulation) The Cognitive Paradigm  meaning in landscape in human terms (construct of human mind) The Experiential Paradigm  meaning of human landscape interactions (human environment interaction)

14 Environmental Structure
The Human-Environment Behavioral Interface Environmental Structure I n t e r f a c e Change in the system Perception Cognition Attitudes Learning Behavior with the system changes the interface Spatial behavior Golledge, 1997

15 Westerners Orientation
Perubahan Paradigma dan Proses Pengaruh Kognisi (pengetahuan dan pengalaman) Sosial How Asians and Westerners Think Differently and WHY (Richard E. Nisbett, 2003) Ecology Ecology Economy Economy Social Structure Social Structure Attention Metaphysics Attention Epistemology Metaphysics Cognitive Process Epistemology Cognitive Process Asians Orientation Westerners Orientation

16 Apa itu Perubahan ? Perubahan kepemilikan
Sebagai obyek t t’ Event/kejadian + proses Berubah ukurannya (bertambah besar/kecil – meningkat/menurun Event/kejadian + proses Berubah bentuk Event/kejadian + proses Berubah isi Berubah karena skala (pengamatan) Sebagai kata benda Perubahan kepemilikan Perubahan nilai, fungsi, peran

17 Konteks Geografi Ekonomi-Politik

18 Permasalahan Politik Ekonomi Internasional
Internal Politik Ekonomi Internasional

19 The meaning of the ‘political’
Politics: struggles for power to exercise: control over others and self satisfy interests express or gain recognition for identities Power: force/coercion manipulation (tricks) consent (legitimate authority/persuasion) Politics expressed through: competition, conflict, and cooperation What is political? Difference with the cultural and the economic?

20 Political perspectives
Statist: state is singular source of identities and interests, with people ‘serving’ the collective enterprise that represents the state The political is the arena of authority in which absolute decisions are made and control is exercised => National-security politics => risk of authoritarianism and totalitarianism Liberal: state only manages and adjudicates between private interests The political is not about control or identity but about discussion/negotiation procedures to accommodate distinctive interests of individuals and groups => risk of unbalanced negotiating power privileging some over others Political economy critique: the political is mostly functional for the economic => legitimation of capitalism and social order Politics exist whenever power is exercised in struggles over collective goods and identities

21 Political constituents
Historical configurations of power give rise to hegemonies (mixes of coercion and consent) exercised by, and serving the interests of social groups or states (e.g. aristocracy, Bush junior) This historical bias is built in specific places (geographical distribution of types of political regimes) => idea of ‘revolution’: break from this bias (e.g. independence and revolution in Cuba) Knowledge/discourse providing the logic and language for practical reasoning This intellectual bias is also geographically specific (language, type and access of media) => idea of exposing the interests served by words and reasoning (e.g. deconstructing discourse) Networks of actors (persons, institutions, technologies, things) that connect, entrain, and shape all social activities (e.g. political parties, unions, marketing channels): power is the resource that these networks provide to actors.

22 Some concepts in political geography
Location, Space, Place Distance, Distribution, Diffusion Scale, Hierarchies Territory, Territoriality Boundaries, Frontiers State, Nation Sphere of influence, Core and Periphery

23 Location Absolute Relative Location theory
longitude, latitude, altitude Relative with regard to physical features or to other political units Location theory seeks to account for the location of economic activities ‘rational’ economic behavior historical particularity of different phases of capitalist development global context of these phases of development structural interdependencies between commodity production , social reproduction, and urbanisation

24 Space Absolute or objective space: distinct physical entity (location, area). Relational or social space: sites in which social practices take place (space exists through social practices) => ‘social production of space’

25 Place Portion of geographical space occupied by a person or a thing
Elements of a place: Locale, the setting in which social relations are constituted (e.g. street corner, state territory) Location, the geographical area encompassing the settings for social interaction in absolute terms and relative terms Sense of place, the local “structure of feeling” (e.g. sense of ‘belonging’ to a region or a country => identity) (see Agnew, J. (1987) Place and Politics: the geographical mediation of state and society. Boston: Allen and Unwin)

26 Place and politics Characteristics shaping political activity in particular places: 1) spatial division of labour effecting class and social structures, and community affiliations 2) communications technology and patterns of accessibility to it 3) characteristics of local and central states 4) expression of class, gender, ethnic divisions through local culture, work authority, and history 5) predominant local bases for collective identity formation (class, ethnic, gender divisions), and place-based identities oriented to the local, regional, or national level 6) microgeography of everyday life through which patterns of social interaction are spatially structured

27 Distance Absolute or physical distance (e.g. km) and relative distance (e.g. telecommunications and air travel transform physical distance by reducing it in relative terms) ‘Socio-cultural’ distance among and between different people (e.g. social classes; e.g. accessibility of air travel, visas; but also interpersonal relations and sense of ‘community’ and social proximity Functional distance: intensity of exchanges e.g. circulation of goods (material or cultural) between two places Effects of distance: Friction or inhibiting effect of distance (time and cost / distance) Distance decay: attenuation of a pattern or process with distance => proximity and greater human interaction can result from: physical proximity or its technological reduction; socio-cultural homogeneity; functional complementarity

28 Distribution Location of people, things, ideas, or events
Distribution of interactions and attributes can differentiate between ‘Functional’ or ‘Formal’ areas (or regions): Functional areas constituted by interactions (e.g. commercial or social exchanges) Formal areas constituted by homogeneity of attributes (e.g. corn belt), characteristics (e.g. administrative unit)

29 Diffusion Transmission across space and over time of a phenomenon (changes in its distribution) - e.g. diffusion of industrial technology and processes, democracy, epidemics … An analysis of diffusion is not only interested in its spatial manifestation over time (especially the barriers through which change is slowed down, or the pathways through which change is channeled or operated), but also in the social processes driving this change e.g. diffusion of AIDS epidemics along transport/trucking lanes in Southern Africa, phenomenon of wage labour, prostitution, as well as cultural and political resistance and weak capacity for prevention by local authorities

30 Combination of Expansion and Relocation
Contoh Aplikasi Perspektif Geografi Sejarah dalam Memahami Dinamika Konflik (Pendekatan Spatial Diffuision) t3 t3 t2 t2 t1 t1 Expansion Diffusion Relocation Diffusion Combination of Expansion and Relocation

31 Spatial analysis

32 Scale Level of representation (e.g. resolution level in cartography)
Politics of scale, and political economy of scale: production of space at different scales (e.g. global organization of capital and location of energy sources, national justification of nuclear energy use, local experience of proximity to nuclear power stations). Local, national, regional, global/international ‘Globalization’, ‘Nationalism’ Complex relations across scales Everything is ‘local’

33 Territory and territoriality
General term used to describe a portion of space occupied by a person, group or political unit Territoriality: practice by different social groups occupying or using a space and resulting in the creation of bounded social space => the field of power exercised over space by (dominant) institutions (e.g. ‘unsafe’ neighborhoods, gated communities) Territoriality put in practice: Popular acceptance of classifications of space (identity, exclusion, …) Communication of a sense of place (boundary markers,...) Enforcing control over space (surveillance, policing, …) => concept of territorial sovereignty: claim of exclusive legitimate control over a given area (e.g. territorial basis of state sovereignty; or territorial jurisdiction of a court).

34 The Diversity of Indonesia; A country of tropical archipelago
Universitas Indonesia Triarko Nurlambang

35 Indonesia among other countries in the World
Country competitiveness: 28/30 Macro economic in domestic economy 24/30 Govt policy toward competitiveness 27/30 Enterprise performing in innovative, profitable, and responsible manner 30/30 Basic technology, scientific, and human resources meet the needs of business 30/30 World Investment Report (2003) 138/140 Human Development Index 110/173 Country risk 150/185 PERC: highest corruption index 7/102 From various sources

36 A simple way of understanding Indonesia
Society Economy Hundreds of ethnic groups Unbalanced geodemographic distribution (less densed pop. in eastern) Dominated by muslim (concentrated in western and center) Economic/business activities concentraed more in Western part Western part has better infrastructure and business support Western part is closer to international business center (Singapore-Malaysia and East Asia) Big gap between urban and rural economy Idealism: United in Diversity based on Pacasila (?) Scaterred Resources (tangibles and intangibles) Confusing Laws central vs local by sector Environment Biodiversity; second richest in the world (land + sea) Heavy exploitation in western rather than eastern

37 Isu Geografi Ekonomi Politik Indonesia
Disparitas pembangunan dan kesejahteraan: Kawasan Barat vs Kawasan Timur, Kota vs Desa, Pesisir vs Pedalaman, daerah inti pertambangan vs non-pertambangan Pemekaran Wilayah atau Aneksasi? Kepentingan Pusat vs Daerah, sentralisasi vs desentralisasi (otonomi daerah) Pulau besar vs pulau-pulau kecil

38 Tipikal Konflik Geografis/ Daerah
Satu otorita daerah memiliki wilayah pengelolaan yang tumpang tindih dengan otoritas daerah yang lebih tinggi. Contoh kasus Pemda Batam dan Otoritas Batam., Pemda Tk 2 dan Tk 1 atau Perda Pariwisata dan UU Suaka Alam Konflik Contiguity  bersifat vertikal Satu otorita daerah yang konflik dengan otorita daerah lain yang setara. Contoh kasus konflik batas negara, konflik pengelolaan sumberdaya ikan laut antar Propinsi/ kabupaten Konflik Geografis Konflik Teritorial  bersifat horizontal Sebagai contoh adalah pembentukan atau pemekaran Daerah baru. Contoh lain (potensial) adalah penerapan konsep Megapolis di Jabodetabek Konflik Gabungan  vertikal + horizontal

39 Garis batas pemekaran Daerah Garis batas awal Kabupaten A
Kabupaten A1: setelah pemekaran Tipikal Konflik: ) Konflik antara pusat dengan daerah (konflik vertikal) Antara Prop A1 dg prop A2 (konflik horizontal Kabupaten A2: setelah pemekaran Banyak keterkaitan fungsional pembangunan yang “terpotong” oleh akibat batas admnistrasi baru dan menimbulkan resiko masalah pengambilan keputusan sampai pelaksanaan di lapangan

40 Manfaat dan Resiko Pemekaran Daerah
Terjadi Peningkatan Kesejahteraan (sesuai Tujuan) Timbul Peluang Kerja Rentang Kendali mengecil Konflik sosial-ekonomi (masalah lokalitas nilai) disparitas sosial-ekonomi Biaya tinggi dan tambah rentang birokrasi, khusus untuk aktifitas pembangunan yang lintas batas  inefisiensi; daya saing melemah

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