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Tata Letak Fasilitas Bab 9-10. Penjadwalan Menentukan kapan tenaga kerja, peralatan, fasilitas yang diperlukan untuk menghasilkan suatu produk atau memberikan.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Tata Letak Fasilitas Bab 9-10. Penjadwalan Menentukan kapan tenaga kerja, peralatan, fasilitas yang diperlukan untuk menghasilkan suatu produk atau memberikan."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Tata Letak Fasilitas Bab 9-10

2 Penjadwalan Menentukan kapan tenaga kerja, peralatan, fasilitas yang diperlukan untuk menghasilkan suatu produk atau memberikan layanan Tahap terakhir dari perencanaan sebelum produksi terjadi

3 Tujuan Fasilitas Tata Letak Meminimalkan biaya penanganan material Memanfaatkan ruang secara efisien Memanfaatkan tenaga kerja secara efisien menghilangkan hambatan Memfasilitasi komunikasi dan interaksi antara pekerja, antara pekerja dan supervisor mereka, atau antara pekerja dan pelanggan Reduce manufacturing cycle time or customer service time

4 Tujuan Fasilitas Tata Letak Menghilangkan limbah yang berlebihan Memfasilitasi masuk, keluar, dan penempatan material, produk, atau orang- orang menggambungkan ukuran keselamatan dan keamanan Mempromosikan produk dan layanan berkualita Mendorong kegiatan perawatan yang tepat Memberikan kontrol visual operasi atau kegiatan Memberikan fleksibilitas untuk beradaptasi dengan perubahan kondisi Meningkatkan kapasitas

5 Jenis dasar Layouts Process Layout Mesin dikelompokkan berdasarkan proses yang mereka lakukan Product Layout Susunan linear dari workstation untuk menghasilkan produk tertentu Fixed Position Layout Digunakan dalam proyek di mana produk tersebut tidak dapat dipindahkan

6 Process Layout pada Jasa Women’s lingerie Women’s dresses Women’s sportswear Shoes Cosmetics and jewelry Entry and display area Housewares Children’s department Men’s department Figure 5.1

7 Manufacturing Process Layout L L L L L L L L L L M M M M D D D D D D D D G G G G G G A AA Receiving and Shipping Assembly Painting Department Lathe Department Milling Department Drilling Department Grinding Department P P Figure 5.2

8 Manufacturing Process Layout L L L L L L L L L L M M M M D D D D D D D D G G G G G G A AA Receiving and Shipping Assembly Painting Department Lathe Department Milling Department Drilling Department Grinding Department P P Figure 5.2

9 Manufacturing Process Layout L L L L L L L L L L M M M M D D D D D D D D G G G G G G A AA Receiving and Shipping Assembly Painting Department Lathe Department Milling Department Drilling Department Grinding Department P P Figure 5.2

10 A Product Layout In Out Figure 5.3

11 Comparison Of Product And Process Layouts 1.DescriptionSequential arrangementFunctional grouping of machines of machines of machines of machines 2.Type of ProcessContinuous, mass Intermittent, job shop production, mainly batch production, production, mainly batch production, assembly mainly fabrication assembly mainly fabrication 3.ProductStandardizedVaried, made to stock made to order made to stock made to order 4.DemandStableFluctuating 5.VolumeHighLow 6.EquipmentSpecial purposeGeneral purpose 7.WorkersLimited skillsVaried skills PRODUCT LAYOUTPROCESS LAYOUT Table 5.1

12 Comparison Of Product And Process Layouts 8. InventoryLow in-process,High in-process, 8. InventoryLow in-process,High in-process, high finished goods low finished goods high finished goods low finished goods 9. Storage spaceSmallLarge 9. Storage spaceSmallLarge 10. MaterialFixed pathVariable path handling (conveyor) (forklift) handling (conveyor) (forklift) 11. AislesNarrowWide 12. SchedulingPart of balancingDynamic 13. Layout decisionLine balancingMachine location 14. GoalEqualize work atMinimize material each station handling cost each station handling cost 15. AdvantageEfficiencyFlexibility PRODUCT LAYOUTPROCESS LAYOUT Table 5.1

13 Fixed-Position Layouts Tipe proyek Peralatan, pekerja, bahan, sumber informasi lainnya dibawa ke situs Tingginya Tenaga kerja terampil Sering rendah tetap Biaya Tipe biaya variabel biasanya tinggi

14 Designing Process Layouts Meminimalkan biaya material handling Blok Diagram Minimize nonadjacent loads Minimalkan beban nonadjacent Gunakan ketika data kuantitatif yang tersedia avalaibel hubungan Diagram Berdasarkan preferensi lokasi antara area Gunakan ketika data kuantitatif tidak available

15 Process Layout Department12345 Load Summary Chart FROM/TODEPARTMENT 1— — — — — Example 5.1 CompositeMovementsCompositeMovements 2  3200 loads3  550 loads 2  4150 loads2  550 loads 1  3110 loads3  440 loads 1  2100 loads1  40 loads 4  560 loads1  50 loads

16 Process Layout Department12345 Load Summary Chart FROM/TODEPARTMENT 1— — — — — Example 5.1 CompositeMovementsCompositeMovements 2  3200 loads3  550 loads 2  4150 loads2  550 loads 1  3110 loads3  440 loads 1  2100 loads1  40 loads 4  560 loads1  50 loads

17 Process Layout Department12345 Load Summary Chart FROM/TODEPARTMENT 1— — — — — Example 5.1 CompositeMovementsCompositeMovements 2  3200 loads3  550 loads 2  4150 loads2  550 loads 1  3110 loads3  440 loads 1  2100 loads1  40 loads 4  560 loads1  50 loads Grid 1

18 Process Layout Department12345 Load Summary Chart FROM/TODEPARTMENT 1— — — — — Example 5.1 CompositeMovementsCompositeMovements 2  3200 loads3  550 loads 2  4150 loads2  550 loads 1  3110 loads3  440 loads 1  2100 loads1  40 loads 4  560 loads1  50 loads Grid 2

19 Computerized Layout Solutions CRAFT - block diagramming CRAFT - block diagramming CORELAP - relationship diagramming CORELAP - relationship diagramming Simulation Simulation

20 Service Layouts Usually process layouts due to customers needs Usually process layouts due to customers needs Minimize flow of customers or paperwork Minimize flow of customers or paperwork Retailing tries to maximize customer exposure to products Retailing tries to maximize customer exposure to products Computer programs consider shelf space, demand, profitability Computer programs consider shelf space, demand, profitability Layouts must be aesthetically pleasing Layouts must be aesthetically pleasing

21 Designing Product Layouts Product layouts or assembly lines Product layouts or assembly lines Develop precedence diagram of tasks Develop precedence diagram of tasks Jobs divided into work elements Jobs divided into work elements Assign work elements to workstations Assign work elements to workstations Try to balance the amount work of each workstation Try to balance the amount work of each workstation

22 Line Balancing Precedence diagram Precedence diagram Network showing order of tasks and restrictions on their performance Network showing order of tasks and restrictions on their performance Cycle time Cycle time Maximum time product spends at any one workstation Maximum time product spends at any one workstation

23 Line Balancing Precedence diagram Precedence diagram Network showing order of tasks and restrictions on their performance Network showing order of tasks and restrictions on their performance Cycle time Cycle time Maximum time product spends at any one workstation Maximum time product spends at any one workstation C d = production time available desired units of output Cycle time example C d = (8 hours x 60 minutes / hour) (120 units) C d = = 4 minutes

24 Flow Time vs Cycle Time Cycle time = max time spent at any station Cycle time = max time spent at any station Flow time = time to complete all stations Flow time = time to complete all stations

25 Flow Time vs Cycle Time Cycle time = max time spent at any station Cycle time = max time spent at any station Flow time = time to complete all stations Flow time = time to complete all stations minutes Flow time = = 12 minutes Cycle time = max (4, 4, 4) = 4 minutes

26 Efficiency of Line  i i = 1 titititi nC a E =E =E =E =  i i = 1 titititi CdCdCdCd N =N =N =N = Efficiency Minimum number of workstations where t i = completion time for element i j = number of work elements n = actual number of workstations C a = actual cycle time C d = desired cycle time

27 Line Balancing Process 1. Draw and label a precedence diagram. 2. Calculate the desired cycle time required for the line. 3. Calculate the theoretical minimum number of workstations. 4. Group elements into workstations, recognizing cycle time and precedence constraints. 5. Calculate the efficiency of the line. 6. Stop if theoretical minimum number of workstations on an acceptable efficiency level reached. If not, go back to step 4.

28 Line Balancing

29 WORK ELEMENTPRECEDENCETIME (MIN) APress out sheet of fruit—0.1 BCut into stripsA0.2 COutline fun shapesA0.4 DRoll up and packageB, C0.3 Example 5.2

30 Line Balancing WORK ELEMENTPRECEDENCETIME (MIN) APress out sheet of fruit—0.1 BCut into stripsA0.2 COutline fun shapesA0.4 DRoll up and packageB, C D B C A Example 5.2

31 Line Balancing WORK ELEMENTPRECEDENCETIME (MIN) APress out sheet of fruit—0.1 BCut into stripsA0.2 COutline fun shapesA0.4 DRoll up and packageB, C D B C A Example 5.2 C d = = = 0.4 minute 40 hours x 60 minutes / hour 6,000 units N = = = 2.5 workstations

32 Line Balancing WORK ELEMENTPRECEDENCETIME (MIN) APress out sheet of fruit—0.1 BCut into stripsA0.2 COutline fun shapesA0.4 DRoll up and packageB, C D B C A Example 5.2 C d = = = 0.4 minute 40 hours x 60 minutes / hour 6,000 units N = = = 2.5 workstations workstations

33 Line Balancing WORK ELEMENTPRECEDENCETIME (MIN) APress out sheet of fruit—0.1 BCut into stripsA0.2 COutline fun shapesA0.4 DRoll up and packageB, C D B C A Example 5.2 C d = 0.4 N = 2.5

34 Line Balancing D B C A Example 5.2 C d = 0.4 N = 2.5 REMAINING WORKSTATIONELEMENTTIMEELEMENTS

35 Line Balancing D B C A Example 5.2 C d = 0.4 N = 2.5 REMAINING WORKSTATIONELEMENTTIMEELEMENTS 1A0.3B, C

36 Line Balancing D B C A Example 5.2 C d = 0.4 N = 2.5 REMAINING WORKSTATIONELEMENTTIMEELEMENTS 1A0.3B, C B0.1C, D

37 Line Balancing D B C A Example 5.2 C d = 0.4 N = 2.5 REMAINING WORKSTATIONELEMENTTIMEELEMENTS 1A0.3B, C B0.1C, D 2C0.0D

38 Line Balancing D B C A Example 5.2 C d = 0.4 N = 2.5 REMAINING WORKSTATIONELEMENTTIMEELEMENTS 1A0.3B, C B0.1C, D 2C0.0D 3D0.1none

39 Line Balancing D B C A Example 5.2 C d = 0.4 N = 2.5 REMAINING WORKSTATIONELEMENTTIMEELEMENTS 1A0.3B, C B0.1C, D 2C0.0D 3D0.1none A, B C D Work station 1 Work station 2 Work station minute 0.4 minute 0.3 minute

40 Line Balancing D B C A Example 5.2 C d = 0.4 N = 2.5 REMAINING WORKSTATIONELEMENTTIMEELEMENTS 1A0.3B, C B0.1C, D 2C0.0D 3D0.1none A, B C D Work station 1 Work station 2 Work station minute 0.4 minute 0.3 minute E = = = = 83.3% (0.4)


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