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Vitamin larut lemak Ilmu gizi dasar Afriyana Siregar.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Vitamin larut lemak Ilmu gizi dasar Afriyana Siregar."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Vitamin larut lemak Ilmu gizi dasar Afriyana Siregar

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3 Vitamin adalah zat-zat organik (mikronutrien) yang diperlukan tubuh dalam jumlah yang sangat kecil. Zat-zat tersebut sangat dibutuhkan untuk pertumbuhan dan pemeliharaan tubuh. Zat-zat ini tidak dapat dibuat oleh tubuh, jadi harus ada di dalam makanan yang kita makan.

4 Vitamin dibagi menjadi 2 yaitu : Vitamin larut dalam air : vitamin C dan vitamin B Vitamin larut dalam lemak : vitamin A, D, E, K

5 Associated with fat absorption Needed in small amounts Stored in fatty tissues Excess intake has toxic consequences Fat Soluble Vitamins

6 Vitamin A (Preformed and Provitamin) Preformed: Three preformed compounds that are metabolically active and found in animal products – retinol – alcohol form – retinal or retinaldehyde – aldehyde form – retinoic acid – acid form Provitamin: Carotenoids (  -carotene) and cryptoxanthin can yield retinoids when metabolized in the body These are from plant sources

7 SATUAN VIT A & EKIVALENNYA 1 RE = 1,0 UG RETINOL = 6,0 UG BETA KAROTEN = 3,3 SI (SATUAN INTERNASIONAL) RETINOL = 9,9 SI BETA-KAROTEN

8 Vitamin A Vitamin A atau retinol Macam vitamin A: A1 atau retinol A2 (dehidroretinol) Dalam tumbuh-tumbuhan terdpt senyawa yg mpunyai struktur & sifat spt vit A dan di sebut KAROTEN, dlm tubuh dpt diubah mjd vit A

9 Vitamin A Fungsi: - struktur dan fungsi normal mata, mempertahankan diferensiasi jaringan epithelial, pertumbuhan sel dan ketahanan terhadap infeksi, menjaga ikan berada dalam kondisi prima untuk memijah Defisiensi: - pertumbuhan terhambat, gangguan penglihatan, GG IMUNITAS, Difrensiasi sel, antioksidan (kanker & jantung), k- nafsu makan Kebutuhan: IU/kg

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11 Kelebihan vit A Hal 166, sunita alt

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13 Vitamin Vit D/ kalsiferol Vit D termsk kelompok senyawa sterol yaitu ergosterol yg ada dlm tumbuh2an yg diubah mjd ergokalsiferol atau vit D2 oleh UV, jk terkena sinar UV akn diubah mjd kolekalsiferol atau Vit D Rachitis atau ricketsia

14 Vitamin D Also known as calciferol, 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D (calcitriol), vitamin D 3 or cholecalciferol, vitamin D 2 or ergocalciferol Vitamin D is a nonessential nutrient that acts like a hormone in the body. The body can make vitamin D with help from sunlight. The plant version of vitamin D is called vitamin D 2 or ergocalciferol. The animal version of vitamin D is called vitamin D 3 or cholecalciferol. Once the vitamin enters the body it must become activated. Activation occurs through the action of the liver and the kidneys.

15 © 2008 Thomson - Wadsworth

16 Fungsi: - calcium homeostasis, Calcium binding protein, Mobilisasi, transport, absorpsi dan penggunaan Ca dan P Defisiensi: - penurunan berat badan, rendah Ca dan P Kebutuhan: IU/kg

17 Sumber vit D

18 Vitamin D Functions Many uses in the body – Promotes absorption of calcium from the small intestine – Maintain blood levels of calcium and phosphate for bone formation, mineralization, growth, and repair – Improves muscle strength and immune function – Reduces inflammation

19 Vitamin D Deficiency At risk populations – Breastfed infants – Older adults – People with limited sun exposure – Darker skin pigments – Certain religious groups

20 Vitamin D Related Diseases – Rickets – Osteomalacia – Osteoporosis

21 Vitamin D and Cancer How it prevents – Promotes cellular differentiation – Decreases cancer cell growth – Stimulates cell deaths

22 Vit E/ tokoferol/ Kuning muda hingga kcoklatan Alfa, beta, gamma, delta tokoferol & tokotreinol

23 FUNCTIONS vitamin E The main function of vitamin E is anti oxidant. It intercepts free radicals & prevents destruction of cell membrane. It protects the fat in LDL from oxidation. It inhibits platelets aggregation. It enhances vasodilatation. It inhibits the activity of protein kinase C.

24 Defisiensi: anemia dan pertumbuhan terhambat Kebutuhan: IU/kg

25 Vitamin E deficiency Severe vitamin E deficiency causes:Severe vitamin E deficiency causes:  Neurological symptoms (impaired coordination) & muscle weakness.  Increased risk of cardiovascular diseases  Hemolytic anemia in children

26 RISK FACTORS  Severe PEM  Genetics defects affecting the transfer protein of  -tocopherol  Fat malabsorption syndrome

27 TOXICITY vitamin E Excess vitamin E may cause: Impaired blood clotting leading to increased risk of bleeding in some persons. It is recommended that vitamin E supplements to be stopped one month before elective surgery.

28 Sumber vitamin E

29 Sumber vit E

30 VITAMIN K The K is derived from the German word Koagulation. There are 2 naturally occurring forms of vitamin K. Plants synthesize phylloquinone (vitamin K1) & bacteria synthesize menaquinone-3 (vit K2). Menaquinone-4 is produced in animals from vit K1, but its function is yet to be discovered.

31 Vitamin K Fungsi: Transport electron, Phosphorilasi oxidative, Cofactor dalam proses pembekuan darah Kebutuhan: 10 IU/kg

32 Sumber vit K

33 Table 10-4, p. 361

34 Deficiency: rare in adults; newborns, chronic antibiotic administration, and malabsorption can result in deficiency Bleeding episodes Osteoporosis Toxicity: none known

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