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PROPAGAND A FAKULTAS ILMU KMUNIKASI UNIVERSITAS GUNADARMA.

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Presentasi berjudul: "PROPAGAND A FAKULTAS ILMU KMUNIKASI UNIVERSITAS GUNADARMA."— Transcript presentasi:

1 PROPAGAND A FAKULTAS ILMU KMUNIKASI UNIVERSITAS GUNADARMA

2 Propaganda How it sounds? Source: Black, Jay Semantics and Ethics of Propaganda. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 16(2&3), 121–137

3 The Early Stage of Propaganda In 1622, Vatican (Pope Gregory XV) established the Congregatio de Propaganda Fide

4 Classic Definitions  Lasswell wrote, is “the control of opinion by significant symbols, or, so to speak, more concretely and less accurately, by stories, rumors, reports, pictures, and other forms of social communications” (1927, p. 627).  in 1842 W. T. Brande, propaganda is something “applied to modern political language as a term of reproach to secret associations for the spread of opinions and principles which are viewed by most governments with horror and aversion”

5 Education VS Propaganda Education aims at independence of judgment. Propaganda offers ready- made opinions for the unthinking herd. Education and propaganda are directly opposed both in aim and method. The educator aims at a slow process of development ; the propagandist, at quick results. The educator tries to tell people how to think ; the propagandist, what to think. The educator strives to develop individual responsibility ; the propagandist, mass effects. The educator fails unless he achieves an open mind ; the propagandist unless he achieves a closed mind. (Everett Martin, p. 145)

6 Propaganda in Mass Media Who says what to whom via which channels with what effects? (lasswell, 1927)

7 NAZI PROPAGANDA

8 The Characteristics of Propaganda (Uudelepp, 2008) Author Altering attitudes/ Behavior Manipulating reality Target group Walter LipmannAltering attitudes Forming social patterns People Edward BernaysAltering attitudesAltering relationsPublic Harold LasswellAltering both Manipulation of representations People Jacques EllulAltering both Psychological manipulations Organized group Garth Jowett & Victoria O ́Donnell Altering both Manipulate cognitions People

9 Model of Contemporary Propaganda, (Uudelepp, 2005)

10 Strategy of Propaganda  Name Calling  Glittering Generalities  Transfer  Testimonial  Plain Folks  Card Stacking  Bandwagon

11 Propaganda Bases, Instruments and Techniques Bases of instruments Propaganda instruments Classic propaganda devices Propaganda techniques Possible indicators Symbols and stereotypes Cognitive propaganda instruments (CPI) Name calling 1. Ad hominem arguments Greedy, unintelligent etc 2. Ridiculing Comparison with animal etc Glittering generalities 3. Selection of emotionally appealing words Best, new, future etc 4. Selection of emotionally appealing images Children, animals, sun etc 5. Calls for altruism Claiming that person is good etc Transfer 6. Referring to accepted symbols University, church, flag etc 7. Referring to accepted professions Doctors, judges, teachers etc 1

12 Propaganda Bases, Instruments and Techniques Bases of instrument s Propaganda instruments Classic propaganda devices Propaganda techniques Possible indicators Influence of elite or social group Social propaganda instruments (SPI) Testimonial 1. Emphasizing on authority Scientist, minister etc 2. Emphasizing on celebrity Sports star, singer etc Plain Folks 3. Image based on target audience Clothing, haircut etc 4. Behavior based on target audience Visiting same market etc Band wagon 5. Creation of confident image Lots of followers on image etc 6. Utilization of absolutes Always, everybody etc 2

13 Propaganda Bases, Instruments and Techniques Bases of instruments Propaganda instruments Classic propaganda devices Propaganda techniques Possible indicators Distortion of reality Technological propaganda instruments (TPI) Card stacking 1. False inductivity Sample too small etc 2. False causality Switching cause and effect 3. Oversimplification Creating false dichotomy 4. Manipulating with numbers Mixing percentages etc 3

14 Budaya Politik Tingkahlaku individu dan orientasi terhadap kehidupan politik yang dihayati oleh para anggota suatu sistem politik. Budaya Orientasi Politik Prilaku Politik Budaya yang melekat pada individu atau masyarakat akan memberikan orientasi umum dalam diri inidividu tersebut untuk menentukan sikap politik (Mendukung, apati, tidak peduli,dll)

15 Tipe Budaya Politik Budaya Politik ParokialBudaya Politik KaulaBudaya Politik Partisipan

16 Budaya Politik Parokial  Cenderung bersifat Tradisional  Orientasi peminatan Terbatas pada wilayah  Tidak tertarik pada obyek-obyek politik yang lebih luas bahkan tidak secara holistik.  Pemusatan kekuasaan dan kewenangan lebih terasa bagi masyarakat.  Apatis;  Pengetahuan politik rendah;  kesadaran dalam berpolitik rendah;  Tidak peduli dan menarik diri dari kehidupan politik.

17 Budaya Politik Kaula  Berorientasi pada keseluruhan sistem hingga outputnya,  Tetapi berorientasi lemah dalam merefleksikan dirinya sebagai aktor politik aktif.  Sangat pasif dalam sirkulasi sistem politik  Memiliki pengetahuan dalam bidang politik yang cukup  Partisipasi politik minim  Kesadaran dalam berpolitik rendah.

18 Budaya Politik Partisipan  Berperan aktif dalam sistem politik  Berorientasi pada keseluruhan sistem  Pengetahuan tentang politk tinggi;  kesadaran dalam berpolitik tinggi;  Partisipasi dalam berpolitik aktif;  Kontrol Politik aktif.

19 Referensi  Brian Mcnair. (2011). An Introduction to Political Communication. Routledge. London & New York.  Dan Nimmo. (2011). Komunikasi Politik; Komunikator, Pesan, dan Media (terjemahan). Pengantar; Jalaluddin Rakhmat. PT. Remaja Rosdakarya. Bandung.  Henry Subiakto & Rahmah Ida. (2012). Komunikasi Politik,Media,dan Demokrasi. Kencana Prenada Media Grup.Jakarta.  Prof.Hafied Canggara.(2011). Komunikasi Politik; Konsep, Teori dan Strategi. Rajawali Pers.  Richard West & Lynn H.Turner. (2008). Pengantar Teori Komunikasi; Analisis dan Aplikasi. Terjemahan. Salemba Humanika.Jakarta.


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