Presentasi berjudul: "Akuntansi untuk Perusahaan Dagang"— Transcript presentasi:
1 Akuntansi untuk Perusahaan Dagang In this chapter, we will learn how to record purchases and returns of inventory and how to record sales discounts and returns.
2 Tujuan Pembelajaran Menjelaskan aktivitas perusahaan dagang Akuntansi untuk transaksi pembelianAkuntansi untuk transaksi penjualanJurnal penutup perusahaan dagangBentuk laporan laba rugi
3 Examples: Accounting firms, law firms and plumbing services Aktivitas Usaha JasaPerusahaan JasaExamples: Accounting firms, law firms and plumbing servicesRevenuesExpensesMinusNet incomeEqualsSo far, we have been using examples that mainly consist of service companies, like accounting firms, law firms, and plumbing services. These companies all sell different services, but they have one thing in common: They do not sell inventory.This makes their income statements rather simple. The income statements of a service organization typically consist of revenues minus expenses to arrive at net income.
4 Aktivitas Usaha Dagang Perusahaan DagangManufacturerWholesalerRetailerCustomerMerchandising companies are different from service organizations because they sell inventory. Merchandising companies can sell inventory in the wholesale market or to final customers in the retail market.
5 Pelaporan Income Usaha Dagang Perusahaan Dagang menjual produk untuk mendapatkan revenue.Contoh: Giant, Matahari, IndomartCost of Goods SoldNet SalesMinusEqualsMinusGross ProfitExpensesEqualsNet IncomeBecause merchandising companies sell inventory, their income statements will have an additional expense item called Cost of Goods Sold. The Cost of Goods Sold account represents the cost of the merchandise sold during the period to help earn revenue.Cost of Goods Sold is presented as a separate expense item on the income statement. Net Sales minus Cost of Goods Sold equals Gross Profit. Gross Profit is the amount left, after subtracting the cost of the inventory sold, to cover all other expenses and a profit.
6 Operating Cycle for a Merchandiser Dimulai dengan membeli barang dan berakhir dengan diterimanya kas sebagai hasil penjualan. Penjualan bisa secara tunai atau secara kreditPenjualan KreditPenjualan TunaiCash collectionPurchasesPurchasesMerchandise inventoryCash salesThe operating cycle of a business is the time it takes the business to start with cash, purchase inventory, sell the inventory, and finally collect the cash from customers.The operating cycle of a business that sells inventory on credit is typically longer than that of a business that sells only on a cash basis. This additional time is due to time between when the customer buys the inventory and the time the customer pays off the account receivable.Account receivableCredit salesMerchandise inventory
7 Merchandise available for sale Cost FlowBeginning inventoryNet cost of purchases+Merchandise available for sale=This slide illustrates the flow of costs in an inventory system. If we take what we start the period with and add the net purchases during the period, we have the total merchandise available for sale during the period. At the end of the period, one of two things must happen to the merchandise available for sale. It is either still in inventory or it is sold. If it is in inventory, the cost will appear on the balance sheet as Ending Inventory. If it is sold, the cost will appear on the income statement as Cost of Goods Sold.Learning this flow of inventory costs will help you apply new material you will learn later.Ending inventoryCost of goods sold+
8 Pembelian Barang Dagang – Perpetual System June 20, Jason, Inc. membeli $14,000 barang dagang secara tunai.Let’s make the entry to record this purchase Merchandise Inventory.Part TwoWhen we purchase inventory, we debit the asset account Merchandise Inventory for the cost of the inventory purchased. This entry is similar to the entry we would make if we purchased any asset, like a truck or land.
9 Trade Discounts Contoh Diskon yang diterima jika membeli dalam jumlah besar.Langsung dicatat sebesar jumlah bersihnyaContohMatrix, Inc. menawarkan tradediscount 30% untuk setiappembelian 1,000 units product.Harga per unit produk $5.25.Trade discounts are offered based on quantities purchased. In this example, a trade discount of thirty percent is offered when a customer orders one thousand units or more.Trade discounts are not recorded in the accounting records. This transaction would be recorded at the price of three thousand six hundred seventy-five dollars, which reflects the trade discount given.
10 Seller Invoice date Purchaser Order number Credit termsFreight terms GoodsInvoice amountThis is an example of an invoice that would support the purchase of merchandise inventory. Notice all the different information on the invoice such as the seller, purchaser, credit terms, items purchased, and amount of the purchase.The invoice helps provide much of the information needed when recording the entry to purchase inventory.
11 Purchase DiscountsDiskon yang diterima dari supplier jika membayar lebih cepat (dalam periode diskon)Periode KreditPeriode DiskonPurchase discounts are provided to customers as an incentive for them to pay early.The credit period is the normal period of time the company allows for customers to extend their account receivable, typically thirty or sixty days. The discount period is a much shorter period of time, typically ten or fifteen days. If payment is received during the discount period, a discount may be taken. If payment is made after the discount period expires, then the full payment is due on or before the end of the credit period.Invoice price minusdiscountFull Invoice PriceTanggal Invoice
12 Terminologi - Purchase Discounts Perusahaan diberi diskon 2% jika melakukan pembayaran dalam 10 hari, dengan periode kredit 30 hari2/10,n/30Persentase DiskonJumlah hari maksimal diskon diberikanPeriode KreditPurchase discount terms are typically written as this slide shows. This particular discount term would be read as “two ten net thirty.”The first number represents the discount percentage.The second number represents the discount period.The letter “n” stands for the word net.The last number represents the entire credit period.In this case, if the customer pays within ten days, then a two percent discount may be taken. If not, then all of the amount is due within thirty days.
13 Purchase DiscountsMay 7, Jason, Inc. membeli barang secara kredit $27,000, credit terms 2/10, n/30.Now, let’s see how a purchase discount works. On May seventh, Jason, Incorporated purchased twenty-seven thousand dollars of merchandise on account.In this entry we debit Merchandise Inventory and credit Accounts Payable for twenty-seven thousand dollars.
14 Purchase DiscountsMay 15, Jason, Inc. melunasi hutang atas pembelian tanggal May 7.If Jason, Incorporated pays the bill on May fifteenth, that would qualify for the discount of two percent because it is within the ten-day discount period.In this entry, the entire Accounts Payable of twenty-seven thousand dollars is paid off with a cash payment of twenty-six thousand four hundred sixty dollars. The difference of five hundred forty dollars is the purchase discount, and it is recorded as a reduction in the cost of the Merchandise Inventory.*$27,000 × 2% = $540 diskon
15 Purchase Discounts Setelah di-posting maka akun tampak sbb: Merchandise InventoryAccounts Payable5/ ,0005/7 27,0005/5/ ,000Bal. 26,460BalIf we look at the accounts after posting the payment entry, we can see that the current balance in Accounts Payable is zero, indicating that the total liability has been satisfied. We can also see that the current balance of twenty-six thousand four hundred sixty dollars in the Merchandise Inventory account reflects the actual cash price of the merchandise purchased.
16 Purchase Returns and Allowances Barang dikembalikan kepada supplier.Purchase Allowance . . .Pengurangan harga yang diterima dari supplier karena barang yang dibeli / diterima rusak.In addition to purchase discounts, merchandisers also have to deal with returns of inventory and allowances. An allowance is a price reduction granted to the customer because of some quality issue. An allowance may be given because of a slight defect in the merchandise or because a shipment was late. In these cases, the customer keeps the merchandise and just receives a price reduction as the allowance.
17 Purchase Returns and Allowances May 9, Matrix, Inc. membeli $20,000 barang dagang secara kredit, dengan syarat 2/10, n/30.Let’s look at an example and see how purchase returns and allowances are recorded.On May ninth, Matrix, Incorporated purchased twenty thousand dollars of Merchandise Inventory on credit.In this entry we debit Merchandise Inventory and credit Accounts Payable for twenty thousand dollars.
18 Purchase Returns and Allowances May 10, Matrix, Inc. mengembalikan barang yang rusak senilai $500 kepada supplier.What would be the entry on May tenth if Matrix, Incorporated returned five hundred dollars of the merchandise to the supplier?This entry would include a debit to Accounts Payable for five hundred dollars to reduce it and a credit to Merchandise Inventory for five hundred dollars to reduce it.
19 Purchase Returns and Allowances May 18, Matrix, Inc. melunasi hutang atas pembelian tanggal May 9.Now, on May eighteenth, which is within the discount period, Matrix, Incorporated paid the amount owed to the supplier. In this case, Martix, Incorporated can take a purchase discount of two percent on the amount due of nineteen thousand five hundred dollars.The entry would include a debit to Accounts Payable for the total due of nineteen thousand five hundred dollars, a credit to Cash for nineteen thousand one hundred ten dollars, which is the amount due less the discount, and a credit to Merchandise Inventory for three hundred ninety dollars, which is the amount of the discount.
20 Transportation Costs Pembeli Penjual Merchandise FOB destination (seller pays)MerchandiseFOB shipping point(buyer pays)Transportation costs are sometimes included in the cost of Merchandise Inventory. For example, when buyers pay transportation costs to get merchandise inventory to them, the transportation costs are included in the Merchandise Inventory cost.FOB terms designate when title passes and who pays the transportation cost. FOB stands for Free On Board. So, if the shipping terms are Free On Board shipping point, that means that ownership transfers from the seller to the buyer when the seller provides the goods to the carrier. It also means that the buyer will pay the transportation cost.On the other hand, if the shipping terms are Free On Board destination, that means that ownership transfers from the seller to the buyer when the buyer receives the goods. It also means that seller will pay the transportation cost.So, if goods are shipped FOB Shipping Point, then the buyer owns the goods in transit and will pay the transportation costs. This transportation cost will be added to the merchandise inventory account.
21 Transportation CostsMay 12, Jason, Inc. membeli $8,000 barang dagang secara tunai dan juga membayar $100 transportation costs.Let’s look at an example. On May twelfth, Jason, Incorporated purchased eight thousand dollars of Merchandise Inventory and paid one hundred dollars in transportation costs. What is the total cost of the merchandise purchased?The total cost of the merchandise purchased is the purchase price of eight thousand dollars plus the one hundred dollars in transportation cost.The entry would include a debit to Merchandise Inventory for eight thousand one hundred dollars and a credit to Cash for eight thousand one hundred dollars.
22 Cost of Merchandise Purchased To determine the total cost of merchandise inventory purchased, we can start with the invoice price and subtract purchase discounts and purchase returns and allowances and add transportation costs.
23 PenjualanSales discounts and returns and allowances adalah Contra Revenue accounts.Now, let’s change our focus and see how discounts and returns and allowances are recorded on the seller’s side of the transactions.Both Sales Discounts and Sales Returns and Allowances are contra revenue accounts. This means they have a normal debit balance and are subtracted from the Sales account to arrive at Net Sales on the income statement.
24 Penjualan – Perpetual System March 18, Diamond Store menjual $25,000 barang dagang secara kredit. Cost barang yang terjual tersebut adalah $18,000.First, let’s see how to record a sale of merchandise inventory.On March eighteenth, Diamond Store sold twenty-five thousand dollars of merchandise on account. The merchandise had a cost of eighteen thousand dollars.Whenever a sale is made, the seller must make two entries: one at retail and one at cost. The retail entry includes a debit to Accounts Receivable (or Cash if it is a cash sale) and a credit to Sales. This entry is made for the sales price charged the customer. The cost entry includes a debit to Cost of Goods Sold and a credit to Merchandise Inventory. This entry is made for the cost of the goods sold to the customer.Unit terjual x Selling PriceUnit terjual x Cost of Purchase
25 Sales DiscountsDiskon yang diberikan kepada Customer jika membayar dalam periode diskon.June 8, Barton Co. menjual barang dengan cost $3,500 seharga $6,000 secara kredit. Syarat 2/10, n/30.Let’s record a sale of merchandise inventory for Barton Company on June eighth. The inventory was sold on credit for six thousand dollars and had a cost of three thousand five hundred dollars. The credit terms are two ten net thirty.Remember that two entries are required to record a sale: one at retail and one at cost.
26 Sales DiscountsJune 17, Barton Co. Menerima pelunasan atas penjualan tanggal 8 JuneOn June seventeenth, Barton Company received a check in full payment of the account.This entry includes a debit to Cash of five thousand eight hundred eighty dollars, which is the amount due of six thousand dollars less the two percent discount of one hundred twenty dollars, a debit to Sales Discount of one hundred twenty dollars, which is the amount of the two percent discount, and a credit to Accounts Receivable for the total sales price of six thousand dollars.After this entry is posted, the balance in Accounts Receivable will be zero, indicating that the account has been paid in full. On the income statement, the Sales Discounts account of one hundred twenty dollars will be deducted from the Sales account of six thousand dollars, to reflect the actual amount earned of five thousand eight hundred eighty dollars from this sale.
27 Sales Returns and Allowances June 12, Barton Co. menjual barang dengan cost $4,000 seharga $7,500 secara kredit. Syarat 2/10, n/30.Here we have another sale of merchandise inventory for Barton Company. This sale is on June twelfth. The inventory was sold on credit for seven thousand five hundred dollars and had a cost of four thousand dollars. The credit terms are two ten net thirty.Did you remember the two entries that were needed to record this sale?
28 Sales Returns and Allowances June 14, barang dengan harga jual $800 dan cost $470 dikembalikan.On June fourteenth, Barton receives some inventory back from the customer. Similar to a sales entry, a return of merchandise requires two entries: one at retail and one at cost.The retail entry includes a debit to Sales Returns and Allowances and a credit to Accounts Receivable for the sales price of eight hundred dollars.The cost entry includes a debit to Merchandise Inventory and a credit to Cost of Goods Sold for four hundred seventy dollars, which is the cost of the returned inventory. This entry is a straight reversal of the cost entry that is made when the sale occurred.
29 Sales Returns and Allowances June 20, Barton menerima pelunasanOn June twentieth, Barton Company received a check in full payment of the account.This entry includes a debit to Cash of six thousand five hundred sixty-six dollars, which is the amount due of six thousand seven hundred dollars less the two percent discount of one hundred thirty-four dollars, a debit to Sales Discount of one hundred thirty-four dollars, which is the amount of the two percent discount, and a credit to Accounts Receivable for the total amount due of six thousand seven hundred dollars.After this entry is posted, the balance in Accounts Receivable will be zero, indicating that the account has been paid in full. On the income statement, the Sales Discounts account of one hundred thirty-four dollars and the Sales Returns account of eight hundred dollars will be deducted from the Sales account of seven thousand five hundred dollars, to reflect the actual amount earned of six thousand five hundred sixty-six dollars from this sale.
30 Jurnal Penutup (closing entries ) Now, let’s complete the accounting cycle by preparing the closing entries for Barton Company.
31 1: Menutup saldo kredit Temporary Accounts ke Income Summary. Step One is to close Sales to Income Summary. Since Sales has a credit balance, we will debit it to close it and credit Income Summary.After this entry, the Income Summary account has a credit balance that reflects the sales for the period.
32 2: Menutup saldo Debet Temporary Accounts ke Income Summary. Step Two is to close all accounts with a debit balance to Income Summary. This includes all expense accounts as well as Sales Discounts and Sales Returns. Since these accounts have a debit balance, we will credit them and debit Income Summary for their total.After this entry the balance in the Income Summary represents the Net Income.
33 3: Menutup Income Summary ke Owner’s Capital Step Three is close Income Summary to Owner’s Capital. In this case Income Summary had a credit balance of twelve thousand nine hundred dollars, so we need to debit Income Summary to close it and credit the Owner’s Capital account.Now, the balance in Income Summary is zero.
34 4: Menutup Withdrawals ke Owner’s Capital Step Four, the final step, is to close withdrawals account to the owner’s capital account. Since the withdrawals has a debit balance, we need to credit it to close it and debit the owner’s capital account.
35 Income Statement Formats Multiple-StepSingle-StepNow, let’s look at two formats for preparing an income statement: the multi-step format and the single-step format.
36 Multiple-Step Income Statement The multi-step format has multiple subtotals before arriving at net income. This format provides more detailed information for users. The main subtotals on this income statement are Net Sales, Gross Profit from Sales, and Net Income.
37 Single-Step Income Statement This is the same information presented as a single-step income statement. In a single-step income statement, all revenues are grouped together and totaled and all the expenses are grouped together and totaled. Then, a single step is needed to subtract total expenses from total revenues to arrive at Net Income.As you can see, the Net Income is the same whether the multi-step or the single-step is used. The only difference is in the amount of detail that is provided on the income statement.
38 Balance SheetOn the balance sheet, the merchandise company will have an account titled Merchandise Inventory. Merchandise Inventory is an asset.Service companies will not have this account since they do not sell inventory.
39 Latihan Soal - Pilihan Ganda 1. Pada tanggal 1 Juni 2009, perusahaan ABC membeli merchandise inventory sebesar $ 50,000 dengan syarat 2/10, n/30. Tanggal 8 Juni, perusahaan mengembalikan $ 10,000 merchandise karena rusak. Jika perusahaan membayar dalam periode discount, jumlah cash yang dikeluarkan adalah:$ 50,000$ 40,000$ 39,200$ 49,000Semua jawaban salah2. Jurnal yang harus dibuat perusahaan atas transaksi pelunasan utang di atas, jika perusahaan menggunakan perpetual system adalah:Account payable (debet) $ 50,000, cash (kredit) $ 50,000Account payable (debet) $ 50,000, merchandise inventory (kredit) $ 1,000, cash (kredit) $ 49,000Account payable ( debet) $ 50,000, purchase discount (kredit) $ 1,000, cash (kredit) $ 49,000Account payable (debet) $ 40,000, merchandise inventory (kredit) $ 800, cash (kredit) $ 39,200In this chapter we learned about recording purchases and sales of merchandise inventory and how to record discounts and returns and allowances. We also reviewed the closing process and were introduced to the multi-step income statement. Now we are ready for the next chapter which will help us learn how to cost inventory.
40 Merchandise inventory $ 1,500 c. Cash $ 2,000 3. Tanggal 10 Desember 2009, perusahaan menjual merchandise inventory 10 unit dengan harga per jual per unit $ 200 dan harga pokok perunit barang yang dijual $ 150. Syarat penjualan 2/10, n/30. Tanggal 15 Desember 2009, 2 unit dikembalikan karena rusak. Perusahaan menggunakan perpetual sistem. Jurnal pada tanggal 10 Desember adalah:a. Account receivable $ 2,000Sales $ 2,000b. Account receivable $ 2,000Cost of Goods Sold $ 1,500Merchandise inventory $ 1,500c. Cash $ 2,000d. Account receivable $ 2,000e. Semua jawaban salah
41 5. Perhatikan informasi keuangan di bawah ini: Sales $ 82,800 4. Jika perusahaan menerima pelunasan dalam periode discount, kas yang diterima perusahaan sebesar:$ 1,568$ 2,000$ 1,800$ 1,470Semua jawaban salah5. Perhatikan informasi keuangan di bawah ini:Sales $ 82,800Cost of goods soldMerchandise inventory beginning ,866Total cost of merchandise purchase ,439Merchandise inventory ending aCost of goods sold ,950Gross Profit bExpense ,000Net income cNilai a, b, dan c berturut-turut adalah:$ 489, $ 47,850, $ 38,850$ 489, $ 117,750, $ 108,750$ 489, $ 27,804, $ 18,084$ 489, $ 35,928, $ 26,928
42 Latihan 6-1Tanggal 3 Juli, Hokage Co. menjual persediaan dagang secara kredit kepada Konoha Co. senilai $1.000 dengan term 2/10, n/30. Cost persediaan tersebut $800. Tanggal 5 Juli Konoha Co. Mengembalikan persediaan karena rusak senilai $300. Tanggal 9 Juli Konoha melunasi pembeliannya. Hokage Co. menggunakan perpetual inventory system sedangkan Konoha Co. menggunakan periodic inventory systemBuat Jurnal untuk transaksi di atas; baik oleh Hokade Co, maupun Konoha Co
43 Latihan 6-2Buat jurnal untuk mencatat transaksi perusahaan dagang dari Flo Co. Yang menggunakan sistem pencatatan perpetual.1 Juli dibeli persediaan dagang secara kredit dari Beta Co $6.400, syarat 1/15, n/30, FOB shipping point2 Juli dijual persediaan dagang senilai $ 533 secara kredit kepada Drew Co dengan nilai penjualan $900, syarat 1/10, n/60, FOB destination3 Juli dibayar $130 ongkos angkut pembelian persediaan tanggal 1 Juli4 Juli dibayar ongkos angkut penjualan persediaan $ 120 untuk transaksi tanggal 2 Juli5 Juli Dikembalikan persediaan yang rusak kepada Beta Co, senilai $400. Beta Co, setuju atas pengembalian persediaan ini.8 Juli dijual persediaan dagang senilai $1.700 secara tunai dengan nilai penjualan $2.1009 Juli dibeli persediaan dagang secara kredit dari Kent Co $2.200, syarat 1/15, n/30, FOB destination10 Juli dibayar $100 ongkos angkut pembelian persediaan yang seharusnya menjadi tanggung jawab Kent Co.11 Juli dilunasi hutang usaha kepada Beta Co.12 Juli diterima pelunasan piutang dari Drew Co14 Juli dijual persediaan dagang senilai $ 600 secara kredit kepada Joan Co dengan nilai penjualan $1.000, syarat 1/10, n/60, FOB shipping point15 Juli dibayar ongkos angkut penjualan persediaan $ 200 untuk transaksi tanggal 14 Juli yang seharusnya menjadi tanggung jawab Joan Co.20 Juli Dilunasi hutang usaha kepada Kent Co.21 Juli Joan Co. mengembalikan persediaan yang rusak senilai $100. Flow menyetujui pengembalian persediaan ini.24 Juli Menerima pelunasan piutang dari Joan Co.Latihan 6-3Buat jurnal untuk transaksi pada soal 6.2 dengan menggunakan metode periodik.
44 Latihan 6-4Berikut adalah informasi keuangan PT Gadjah Mada untuk tahun yang berakhir pada 31 Desember 2010.Merchandise inventory $ 42,000R, Neal Capital ,400Sales ,300Sales discount ,200Sales return and allowances ,600Cost of goods sold ,000Depreciation expense ,000Salaries expense ,000Miscellaneous expense ,000Berdasarkan informasi keuangan tersebut di atas, hitunglah:Net salesgross profitOperating income
45 Latihan 6-5Informasi di bawah ini adalah trial balance perusahaan MicolaSales discount $ ,300Sales return and allowance $ ,000COGS $ 230,400Sales $ 321,000Depreciation expense $ ,700Salaries expense $ ,800Insurance expense $Rent expense $ ,000Supplies expense $ ,000Advertising expense $ ,300Berdasarkan trial baance tersebut di atas buatkan jurnal penutup untuk menutup account temprary
46 Latihan 6-6Berikut ini adalah sebagian dari neraca saldo PT Niagara:Merchandise inventory 31, December $ 40,000Merchandise inventory 31 December $ 15,000Purchased of merchandise inventory $ 40,000Purchase return and allowance $ 5,000Sales $ 200,000Sales discount $ 50,000Sales return and allowance $ 10,000Operating expense $ 50,000Purchased discount $ 15,000Dengan menggunakan informasi di atas, hitunglah nilai cost of goods sold dan net income