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F EDERAL DAN K ESATUAN Harsanto nursadi 1 (C) HN 2012.

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Presentasi berjudul: "F EDERAL DAN K ESATUAN Harsanto nursadi 1 (C) HN 2012."— Transcript presentasi:

1 F EDERAL DAN K ESATUAN Harsanto nursadi 1 (C) HN 2012

2 U NITARY, F EDERAL AND C ONFEDERATION UNITARY Pada saat dibentuknya ada keinginan berbentuk kesatuan; terdapat persatuan ( union ) maupun ( unity ). Bersusun tunggal Dibawah satu pemerintah pusat Pemerintahan subnasional mendapatkan kewenangannya untuk memerintah dari pemerintah pusat Pemerintahan daerah dibentuk dan diberikan kekuasaan oleh pemerintah pusat; tidak ada pembagian kedaulatan 2 (C) HN 2012

3 Hanya ada satu badan pembentuk undang- undang The supremacy of the central parliament and The absence of the subsidiary sovereign bodies Pemerintah daerah tidak boleh membentuk peraturan yang bertentangan dengan perundang-undangan pusat Parlement yang dimiliki tidak selalu menganut dua kamar ( bicameral ) 3 (C) HN 2012

4 FEDERAL Pada saat dibentuk menginginkan persatuan ( union ) tetapi tidak menginginkan kesatuan ( unity ) Terdapat sejumlah Canton (Suisse); Coloni-State (USA); Province (Canada); Lander (Jerman) yang sangat terkait dengan lokalitas sejarah, ras dan lainnya sehingga membawa rasa kebangsaan yang sama Berasal dari bahasa latin foedus yang berarti perjanjian; berjanji bersatu dalam satu kesatuan politik; tertuang dalam konstitusi federal. Bersusun bertingkat: Federal (negara) dan Kesatuan-kesatuan politik yang bergabung Terdapat dua badan legislatif ( legislature ) badan legislatif federal dan badan legislatif negara bagian 4 (C) HN 2012

5 Kekuasaan negara bagian diberikan-diatur oleh-pada konstitusi federal. Pembagian kekuasaan dengan cara Konstitusi federal merinci kekuasaan pemerintah federal, sisanya yang disebut reserve powers dimiliki oleh negara bagian Konstitusi federal merinci kekuasaan Negara Bagian, reserve powers -nya ada pada pemerintah federal Terdapat lembaga yang dapat menyelesaikan konflik yang timbul antar negara bagian atau atar negara bagian dengan pemerintah federalnya Negara federal berdaulat dalam lingkungannya sendiri yang ditentukan dan dibatasi Negara bagian bukan korporasi bawahan dari pemerintah federal Parlement selalu dianut sistem dua kamar 5 (C) HN 2012

6 CONFEDERERASI Ikatan dari beberapa negara berdaulat Dibentuk berdasarkan suatu perjanjian internasional diantara negara-negara yang berdaulat Tidak dimaksudkan untuk membentuk negara baru yang berdaulat Komponen-komponen negara konfederasi tetap suatu negara utuh, tidak menghilangkan kedaulatan negara-negara anggotanya Warga negara yang bergabung dalam konfederasi tidak langsung terikat dengan peraturan organ-organ yang ada. 6 (C) HN 2012

7 F EDERAL -K ESATUAN Lijphart (1984, dalam Work 2002: 7, Baldi 1999: 12) Federalisme sering diikuti dengan desentralisasi, Federalisme bukan prasyarat untuk desentralisasi. Federalisme maupun sistem negara kesatuan dapat berkarakter desentralisasi ataupun sentralisasi. Desentralisasi dapat terjadi pada sistem kenegaraan yang tidak mengenal federalisme. Azfar et.al., (1999: 8) negara federal tidak selamanya lebih terdesentralisasi. terdapat kecenderungan bahwa di negara federal derajat sentralisasinya lebih rendah dibanding negara kesatuan. 7 (C) HN 2012

8 Work (2002: 11): There is no broad-based generalisation that can be made about the correlation of federal/unitary states and decentralisation. Smith (1985, dalam Azfar et.al., 1999: 8) Negara kesatuan dapat melakukan devolusi terhadap urusan-urusan penting, yang memunculkan bentuk baru negara yakni semi- federal (quasi-federal arrangement). Model ini dapat bersifat seragam (uniform ) atau tidak seragam (asymmetrical). 8 (C) HN 2012

9 Prasojo (2008) Tidak mungkin terdapat suatu negara yang sangat bersifat unitaris atau sebaliknya sangat bersifat federalis. Elemen hubungan antara pusat dan daerah tidak bersifat monosentris, melainkan polisentris bergerak dari satu kontinuum ke kontinuum lainnya, dari kontinuum unitaris ke kontinuum federalis dan sebaliknya. Bodo Denewitz (dalam Prasojo, 2008) federalisme dan unitarisme adalah dua konsep kembar yang tidak mungkin membicarakan satu tanpa membicarakan yg lainnya. Basta (tanpa tahun: 29) there is no completely unitary state. Every state is at least composed of municipalities as decentralized units. Korelasi antara konsep negara kesatuan dengan negara federal tidak bersifat dikhotomis, melainkan membentuk sebuah hubungan matriks / kontinuum 9 (C) HN 2012

10 ConfederationFederationUnitary State 1.Weak Centralization 2.Sovereignty in the constituent units 3.Acts directly on constituent units, not on individuals 4.Usually a formal right to secession 5.Central government can be overruled by constituent unit government-so-called nullification 6.Central government funded by contributions from constituent units 7.Example: USA before 1789; Germany before 1871; Suisse; 1.Moderate Centralization 2.Sovereignty divides between central government and constituent units 3.Acts both on constituent units and individuals 4.Generally no right to secession 5.National law supreme in its sphere; constituent units in theirs 6.Dual taxation system for both levels of government 7.Exp: USA since 1789; Canada; West Germany; Australia; Suisse; India; Brazil; Mexico 1.High Centralization 2.Undivided sovereignty 3.Acts directly on individuals 4.No right to secession 5.National law supreme; local ordinance clearly subordinate 6.Single taxation system; local variations must be approve by central authority 7.Exp: United Kingdom; France; Spain; Poland; Israel; Algeria; Indonesia 10 (C) HN 2012

11 11 NEGARA-NEGARA FEDERAL Terdapat 24 negara Federal di Dunia (C) HN 2012

12 F EDERAL REPUBLICS Federal republicsFederal republics are federal states in which the administrative divisions (states or provinces) theoretically retain a degree of autonomy which is constitutionally protected, and cannot be revoked unilaterally by the national government.federal statesadministrative divisions 1. Republic of Argentina (since 1852) Republic of Argentina Republic of Austria Republic of Austria 3. Federative Republic of Brazil (since November 15th, 1889) Federative Republic of Brazil 4. Bosnia and Herzegovina (since 1995) Bosnia and Herzegovina 5. Federal Republic of Cameroon ( ) Federal Republic of Cameroon 6. Commonwealth of England ( ) Commonwealth of England Czechoslovakia (Czech and Slovak Federative Republic) ( ) CzechoslovakiaCzech and Slovak Federative Republic 8. Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (unitary republic ; federal republic since 1994) Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia 9. Federal Republic of Germany (since 1918) Federal Republic of Germany Republic of Colombia ( ), known as Great Colombia from 1819 to 1831, when it included present-day Ecuador, Venezuela and Panama. Republic of ColombiaGreat ColombiaEcuador VenezuelaPanama 11. Republic of India (since January 26, 1950) Republic of India 12. United States of Indonesia ( ) United States of Indonesia 13. United Mexican States [20] (since 1917) United Mexican States [20] Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (since 2007) Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal 15. Federal Republic of Nigeria (1963 – 66:1st Republic, 1979 – 83: 2nd Republic, 1993: 3rd Republic, 1999 – present: 4th Republic) Federal Republic of Nigeria1st Republic2nd Republic3rd Republic4th Republic 16. Islamic Republic of Pakistan (since 1956, Declaration of the Islamic Republic ) Islamic Republic of Pakistan Islamic Republic 17. Russian Federation (since November 7, 1917; up to 1991 it was named Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic ) Russian FederationNovember 7, 1917 Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic 18. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ( ) Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 19. Swiss Confederation (since 1848) Swiss Confederation Union of Myanmar Union of Myanmar 21. United Provinces of Central America ( ) United Provinces of Central America 22. United States of America(since 1789) United States of America Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela 24. Yugoslavia: Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia ( ), Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ( ), Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ( ) YugoslaviaFederal People's Republic of YugoslaviaSocialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 12 (C) HN 2012

13 13 NEGARA-NEGARA UNITARY Terdapat 148 negara Unitary di Dunia (C) HN 2012

14 UNITARY REPUBLIC 1.Republic of Acre (1st: ; 2nd: 1900; 3rd: 1903)Republic of Acre 2.Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (republic since 1973)Islamic Republic of Afghanistan 3.Republic of Albania (since 1946)Republic of Albania 4.People's Democratic Republic of AlgeriaPeople's Democratic Republic of Algeria 5.Republic of Armenia (1st: May 28, 1918; Current: December 25, 1991)Republic of Armenia 6.Republic of Azerbaijan (1st: 28 May 1918; Re- established: 18 October 1991)Republic of Azerbaijan 7.People's Republic of BangladeshPeople's Republic of Bangladesh 8.Republic of BeninRepublic of Benin 9.Plurinational State of BoliviaPlurinational State of Bolivia 10.Republic of BotswanaRepublic of Botswana 11.Republic of Bulgaria (since 1946)Republic of Bulgaria 12.Burkina FasoBurkina Faso 13.Republic of Burundi (since 1966)Republic of Burundi 14.Republic of Cameroon (unitary republic and 1972-present; federal republic )Republic of Cameroon 15.Republic of Cape VerdeRepublic of Cape Verde 16.Central African Republic ( ; restored 1979)Central African Republic 17.Republic of ChadRepublic of Chad 18.Republic of ChileRepublic of Chile 19.People's Republic of ChinaPeople's Republic of China 20.Republic of Colombia (unitary republic since 1886)Republic of Colombia 21.Republic of the CongoRepublic of the Congo 22.Democratic Republic of the CongoDemocratic Republic of the Congo 23.Corsican Republic ( ) [8]Corsican Republic [8] 24.Cospaia ( )Cospaia 25.Republic of Costa RicaRepublic of Costa Rica 26.Republic of Côte d'IvoireRepublic of Côte d'Ivoire 27.Republic of CroatiaRepublic of Croatia 28.Republic of CubaRepublic of Cuba 29.Republic of CyprusRepublic of Cyprus 30.Czech RepublicCzech Republic 31.Republic of DjiboutiRepublic of Djibouti 32.Commonwealth of DominicaCommonwealth of Dominica 33.Dominican Republic ( , 1844-present)Dominican Republic 34.Democratic Republic of Timor-LesteDemocratic Republic of Timor-Leste 35.Republic of EcuadorRepublic of Ecuador 36.Arab Republic of Egypt (since 1953)Arab Republic of Egypt 37.Republic of El SalvadorRepublic of El Salvador 38.Republic of Equatorial GuineaRepublic of Equatorial Guinea 39.State of EritreaState of Eritrea 40.Republic of Ezo ( )Republic of Ezo 41.Republic of the Fiji Islands (since 1987)Republic of the Fiji Islands 42.Finnish Democratic Republic (1 December 1939 to 12 March 1940)Finnish Democratic Republic 43.Republic of Finland (since 1919)Republic of Finland 14(C) HN 2012

15 44.Republic of Formosa (1895)Republic of Formosa 45.Independent Commune of Franceville (1889) [9]Independent Commune of Franceville [9] 46.French Republic (1st: ; 2nd: ; 3rd: ; 4th: and 5th, since 1958) [citation needed]French Republic1st2nd3rd4th5thcitation needed 47.Gabonese RepublicGabonese Republic 48.Republic of The Gambia (since 1970)Republic of The Gambia 49.GeorgiaGeorgia 50.Republic of Ghana (since 1960)Republic of Ghana 51.Goust (since 1648)Goust 52.Hellenic Republic (1st: 1822–1832; 2nd: ; 3rd: since 1974)Hellenic Republic1st2nd3rd 53.Republic of GuatemalaRepublic of Guatemala 54.Republic of Guinea [citation needed]Republic of Guineacitation needed 55.Republic of Guinea-Bissau [citation needed]Republic of Guinea-Bissaucitation needed 56.Co-operative Republic of Guyana (since 1970) is a "Co- operative Republic" [citation needed]Co-operative Republic of Guyanacitation needed 57.Republic of Haiti ( ; restored 1859) [citation needed]Republic of Haiticitation needed 58.Republic of Hawaii ( )Republic of Hawaii 59.Republic of HondurasRepublic of Honduras 60.Republic of Hungary (since 1946)Republic of Hungary 61.Republic of Iceland (republic since 1944)Republic of Iceland 62.Republic of Indonesia (Unitary republic since August 1950)Republic of Indonesia 63.Islamic Republic of Iran (since 1979)Islamic Republic of Iran 64.Republic of Iraq (since 1958)Republic of Iraq 65.Ireland (republic since 1949)Ireland 66.Israel (since 1948) [10]Israel [10] 67.Italian Social Republic ( ) [11]Italian Social Republic [11] 68.Italian Republic (since 1946)Italian Republic 69.Republic of KazakhstanRepublic of Kazakhstan 70.Republic of Kenya (since 1964)Republic of Kenya 71.Republic of KiribatiRepublic of Kiribati 72.Kyrgyz RepublicKyrgyz Republic 73.Lao People's Democratic Republic (since 1975)Lao People's Democratic Republic 74.Republic of LatviaRepublic of Latvia 75.Republic of Lebanon (November 22, 1943)Republic of Lebanon 76.Republic of LiberiaRepublic of Liberia 77.Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (since 1969)Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya 78.Republic of LithuaniaRepublic of Lithuania 79.Lokot Republic ( )Lokot Republic 80.Republic of Macedonia (1991-)Republic of Macedonia 81.Republic of MadagascarRepublic of Madagascar 82.Republic of Malaŵi (since 1966)Republic of Malaŵi 83.Republic of Maldives (since 1968)Republic of Maldives 84.Republic of Mali (since 1960)Republic of Mali 85.Republic of Malta (since 1974)Republic of Malta 86.Republic of the Marshall IslandsRepublic of the Marshall Islands 87.Islamic Republic of MauritaniaIslamic Republic of Mauritania 88.Republic of Mauritius (since 1992)Republic of Mauritius 89.Menton and Roquebrune ( )MentonRoquebrune 90.Republic of MoldovaRepublic of Moldova 91.Mongolia (since 1924)Mongolia 92.Republic of Montenegro (since 2006)Republic of Montenegro 93.Republic of MozambiqueRepublic of Mozambique 94.State of Muskogee ( )State of Muskogee 95.Republic of NamibiaRepublic of Namibia 96.Republic of NauruRepublic of Nauru 97.Republic of NicaraguaRepublic of Nicaragua 98.Republic of NigerRepublic of Niger 99.Democratic People's Republic of Korea (since 1948)Democratic People's Republic of Korea 100.Islamic Republic of Pakistan (since 1956)Islamic Republic of Pakistan 101.Republic of PalauRepublic of Palau 102.Republic of PanamaRepublic of Panama 103.Republic of ParaguayRepublic of Paraguay 104.Republic of PeruRepublic of Peru 105.Republic of the Philippines (Thrice, two overlapping: First Philippine Republic ( ), Commonwealth of the Philippines to the Fifth Republic of the Philippines (1934- present), Second Philippine Republic ( ))Republic of the PhilippinesFirst Philippine RepublicCommonwealth of the PhilippinesFifth Republic of the PhilippinesSecond Philippine Republic 106.Republic of PolandRepublic of Poland 107.Republic of Portugal (since 1910)Republic of Portugal 108.Romania (since 1947)Romania 15(C) HN 2012

16 109.Republic of Rwanda (since 1961)Republic of Rwanda 110.Russian Republic (from September 14, 1917 up to November 7, 1917; de-facto - since February Revolution up to October Revolution)Russian Republic November 7, 1917de-factoFebruary RevolutionOctober Revolution 111.Independent State of Samoa (since 2007)Independent State of Samoa 112.Most Serene Republic of San Marino (since 301)Most Serene Republic of San Marino 113.Democratic Republic of São Tomé and PríncipeDemocratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe 114.Republic of SenegalRepublic of Senegal 115.Republic of SerbiaRepublic of Serbia 116.Republic of SeychellesRepublic of Seychelles 117.Republic of Sierra Leone (since 1971)Republic of Sierra Leone 118.Republic of Singapore (since 1965)Republic of Singapore 119.Slovak Republic (1939–1945) [15]Slovak Republic (1939–1945) [15] 120.Republic of SloveniaRepublic of Slovenia 121.Republic of SomaliaRepublic of Somalia 122.Republic of South Africa (since 1961)Republic of South Africa 123.Republic of Korea (since 1948)Republic of Korea 124.Spain (Twice: First Spanish Republic (1873–1874), Second Spanish Republic ( ))SpainFirst Spanish Republic Second Spanish Republic 125.Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (since 1972)Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka 126.Republic of the SudanRepublic of the Sudan 127.Republic of SurinameRepublic of Suriname 128.Syrian Arab RepublicSyrian Arab Republic 129.Republic of China (Taiwan) (established 1912, current Constitution since 1947)Republic of China (Taiwan)established current Constitution 130.Republic of TajikistanRepublic of Tajikistan 131.United Republic of TanzaniaUnited Republic of Tanzania 132.Republic of Texas ( ) [16]Republic of Texas [16] 133.Togolese RepublicTogolese Republic 134.Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (since 1976)Republic of Trinidad and Tobago 135.Tunisian Republic (since 1957)Tunisian Republic 136.Republic of Turkey (republic since 1923) [17]Republic of Turkey [17] 137.Republic of TurkmenistanRepublic of Turkmenistan 138.Republic of Uganda (since 1963)Republic of Uganda 139.UkraineUkraine 140.Oriental Republic of UruguayOriental Republic of Uruguay 141.Republic of UzbekistanRepublic of Uzbekistan 142.Republic of VanuatuRepublic of Vanuatu 143.Vermont Republic ( ) [18]Vermont Republic [18] 144.Socialist Republic of VietnamSocialist Republic of Vietnam 145.Republic of West Florida (1810)Republic of West Florida 146.Republic of Yemen (former People's Democratic Republic of Yemen and Yemen Arab Republic)Republic of YemenPeople's Democratic Republic of YemenYemen Arab Republic 147.Republic of ZambiaRepublic of Zambia 148.Republic of Zimbabwe, formerly Republic of Rhodesia ( )Republic of ZimbabweRepublic of Rhodesia 16(C) HN 2012

17 C ONFEDERAL REPUBLICS Confederal republicsConfederal republics are associations of sovereign states, usually having power over critical common issues such as defence and foreign affairs:defenceforeign affairs Confederate States of AmericaConfederate States of America ( ) State Union of Serbia and MontenegroState Union of Serbia and Montenegro (2003 – 2006) Swiss ConfederationSwiss Confederation (1848 – today)1848 – today United States of AmericaUnited States of America (under the Articles of Confederation, 1776 – 1789)Articles of Confederation Senegambia ConfederationSenegambia Confederation (1982 – 1989) 17 (C) HN 2012

18 R EPUBLIK I NDONESIA S ERIKAT Desember 1949 sampai dengan 17 Agustus 1950 (C) HN 2012

19 19 Negara BagianOtonom -non federasi 1.Negara Republik Indonesia 2.Negara Indonesia Timur 3.Negara Pasundan (termasuk distrik Federal Jakarta) 4.Negara Jawa Timur 5.Negara Madura 6.Negara Sumatera Timur 7.Negara Sumatera Selatan 1.Jawa Tengah 2.Kalimantan Barat (Daerah Istimewa) 3.Dayak Besar 4.Daerah Banjar 5.Kalimantan Tenggara 6.Kalimantan Timur (tidak termasuk ex Kesultanan Pasir) 7.Bangka 8.Belitung 9.Riau (C) HN 2012

20 P IAGAM K ONSTITUSI RIS DITANDATANGANI OLEH PARA P IMPINAN N EGARA /D AERAH DARI 16 N EGARA /D AERAH B AGIAN RIS 1. Mr. Susanto Tirtoprodjo dari Negara Republik Indonesia menurut perjanjian Renville.Susanto Tirtoprodjo 2. Sultan Hamid II dari Daerah Istimewa Kalimantan Barat Sultan Hamid II 3. Ide Anak Agoeng Gde Agoeng dari Negara Indonesia Timur Ide Anak Agoeng Gde Agoeng 4. R. A. A. Tjakraningrat dari Negara Madura R. A. A. Tjakraningrat 5. Mohammad Hanafiah dari Daerah Banjar Mohammad Hanafiah 6. Mohammad Jusuf Rasidi dari Bangka Mohammad Jusuf Rasidi 7. K.A. Mohammad Jusuf dari BelitungMohammad Jusuf 8. Muhran bin Haji Ali dari Dayak Besar Muhran bin Haji Ali 9. Dr. R.V. Sudjito dari Jawa TengahR.V. Sudjito 10. Raden Soedarmo dari Negara Jawa Timur Raden Soedarmo 11. M. Jamani dari Kalimantan Tenggara M. Jamani 12. A.P. Sosronegoro dari Kalimantan Timur A.P. Sosronegoro 13. Mr. Djumhana Wiriatmadja dari Negara PasundanDjumhana Wiriatmadja 14. Radja Mohammad dari Riau Radja Mohammad 15. Abdul Malik dari Negara Sumatera Selatan Abdul Malik dari 16. Radja Kaliamsyah Sinaga dari Negara Sumatera Timur Radja Kaliamsyah Sinaga 20 (C) HN 2012


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