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1 ETIKA BISNIS ETIKA BISNIS Peranan ETIKA BISNIS.

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Presentasi berjudul: "1 ETIKA BISNIS ETIKA BISNIS Peranan ETIKA BISNIS."— Transcript presentasi:

1 1 ETIKA BISNIS ETIKA BISNIS Peranan ETIKA BISNIS

2 2 TUJUAN PEMBAHASAN Mahasiswa mampu menjelaskan pengertian,pendekatan, prinsip, peran dan manfaat etika bisnis dan penyebab pebisnis tidak beretika dalam berbisnis SUB POKOK BAHASAN 1. Isu General Etika Bisnis 2. Isu Teoritis Etika Bisnis Isu-isu etika dan Pendekatannya POKOK BAHASAN ISU-ISU ETIKA BISNIS

3 3  Bagian etika bisnis ini tumpangtindih dengan falsafah bisnis (Philosophy of business) dimana salahsatu tujuannya adalah menentukan maksud-maksud dasar dari suatu perusahaan.  Jika maksud utama suatu perusahaan adalah memaksimisasi keuntungan bagi pemegang saham/shareholders, maka kemudian dapat dilihat sebagai tidak-etis (unethical) untuk suatu perusahaan di dalam konteks mempertimbangkan kepentingan dan hak-hak pihak lainnya Isu-isu General dalam Etika Bisnis

4 4 Isu-1: Corporate Social Responsibility atau CSR CSR merupakan suatu istilah dimana letak hak dan kewajiban yang bersifat etika antara perusahaan dan masyarakat diperdebatkan, Isu-isu General dalam Etika Bisnis Isu-2: Professional ethics Etika profesional mencakup keragaman/banyak masalah dan fenomena praktik etika bisnis yang timbul dari area fungsi-fungsi yang spesifik atau dalam relasi dengan profesi bisnis yang dikenal (accounting scandals).

5 5  Etika dari Human Resource Management (HRM) mencakup isu-isu yang muncul disekitar relasi antara the employer-employee (majikan-pegawai), seperti hak-hak dan kewajiban yang dimiliki oleh masing- masing. Isu-3: Ethics of human resource management CONTOH:  isu-isu discrimination termasuk diskiminasi berdasar usia (ageism), gender, ras, agama, disability people/penyandang cacat, berat badan dan penampilan, sexual harrassment.  Isi-isu yang terkait dengan representasi dari pekerja dan demokrasi di tempat kerja: union busting, strike breaking.  Isu-isu yang mempengaruhi privacy karyawan/pekerja >> workplace surveillance, drug testing.

6 6 Isu-4: Ethics of (sales and) marketing (Pricing: price fixing, price discrimination, price skimming). Etika pemasaran tumpangtindih secara ketat dengan media ethics, karena pemasaran menggunakan media besar-besaran. Namun, media ethics adalah suatu topik besar dan di luar cakupan etika bisnis (Pricing: price fixing, price discrimination, price skimming). Pemasaran yang jauh melampaui informasi utama tentang produk dan akses ke suatu produk akan mencari celah memanipulasi nilai-nilai dan perilaku orang/konsumen Pada taraf tertentu masyarakat dapat menerimanya, tapi dimana garis etika ditetapkan?

7 7 Isu-5: Ethics of production  Daerah etika bisnis terkait dengan kewajiban suatu perusahaan untuk menjamin bahwa produk dan proses produksi tidak menyebabkan kerusakan.  Beberapa dilema yang parah dalam area ini muncul dari fakta bahwa selamanya ada suatu derajad bahaya dalam suatu produk atau proses produksi dan sangat sulit untuk mendefinisikan suatu derajat yang dapat dibenarkan, atau derajad pembenaranyya akan tergantung pada perubahan kondisi dari teknologi atau perubahan persepsi sosial atau penerimaaan tingkat resiko.

8 8 Isu-6: Ethics of intellectual property, knowledge & skills  Pengetahuan dan keterampilan merupakan sesuatu yang sangat berharga tetapi tidak mudah menjadi obyek yang dimiliki/kepemilikan.  Tidak selalu jelas siapa yang memiliki hak lebih besar terhadap suatu ide/gagasan: perusahaan yang melatih karyawan atau karyawan itu sendiri.  Negara dimana tanaman tumbuh atau perusahaan yang menemukan dan mengembangkan potensi medis dari tanaman tersebut yang memiliki hak inelektual?  Sebagai akibat, upaya untuk memperoleh hak kepemilikan dan etika bisnis menimbulkan perselisihan tentang kepemilikan tersebut (HAKI) Batik, Tempe, Tahu, patung bali.

9 9 Isu-isu Teoritis dalam Etika Bisnis 1. Konflik Kepentingan  Etika Bisnis dapat diamati/diuji dari beragam perspektif, termasuk perspektif karyawan, perusahaan komersial, dan masyarakat sebagai suatu keseluruhan.  Tidak jarang, muncul situasi dimana ada konflik antara satu atau lebih pihak, dimana pelayanan terhadap kepentingan satu pihak adalah merugikan/merusak kepentingan pihak lain.  sebagai contoh, suatu luaran hasil tertentu mungkin sangat menguntungkan karyawan, tetapi berdampak buruk bagi perusahaan atau bagi masyarakat, atau kebalikannya  Menurut beberapa ahli etika/ethicists “PERAN UTAMA DARI SUATU ETIKA ADALAH SEBAGAI PENYEIMBANG dan REKONSILIASI KONFLIK KEPENTINGAN ( Henry Sidgwick)

10 10  Philosophers and others disagree about the purpose of a business in society.  For example, some suggest that the principal purpose of a business is to maximize returns to its owners, or in the case of a publicly-traded concern, its shareholders.  Thus, under this view, only those activities that increase profitability and shareholder value should be encouraged.  Some believe that the only companies that are likely to survive in a competitive marketplace are those that place profit maximization above everything else.  However, some point out that self interest would still require a business to obey the law and adhere to basic moral rules, because the consequences of failing to do so could be very costly in fines, loss of licensure, or company reputation.  The economist Milton Friedman was a leading proponent of this view. Ethical issues and approaches (1)

11 11 Other theorists contend that a business has moral duties that extend well beyond serving the interests of its owners or stockholders, and that these duties consist of more than simply obeying the law. They believe a business has moral responsibilities to so- called stakeholders, people who have an interest in the conduct of the business, which might include employees, customers, vendors, the local community, or even society as a whole. They would say that stakeholders have certain rights with regard to how the business operates, and some would even suggest that this even includes rights of governance. Ethical issues and approaches (2)

12 AVSH - EB MM IPB  Some theorists have adapted social contract theory to business, whereby companies become quasi-democratic associations, and employees and other stakeholders are given voice over a company's operations.  This approach has become especially popular subsequent to the revival of contract theory in political philosophy, which is largely due to John Rawis' A Theory of Justice, and the advent of the consensus-oriented approach to solving business problems, an aspect of the “quality movement" that emerged in the 1980s. Ethical issues and approaches (3)

13 AVSH - EB MM IPB Contract Theory  Professors Thomas Donaldson and Thomas Dunfee proposed a version of contract theory for business, which they call Integrative Social Contracts Theory.  They posit that conflicting interests are best resolved by formulating a "fair agreement" between the parties, using a combination of:  macro-principles that all rational people would agree upon as universal principles, and,  micro-principles formulated by actual agreements among the interested parties. Critics say the proponents of contract theories miss a central point, namely, that a business is someone's property and not a mini-state or a means of distributing social justice.

14 AVSH - EB MM IPB  Ethical issues can arise when companies must comply with multiple and sometimes conflicting legal or cultural standards, as in the case of multinational companies that operate in countries with varying practices.  The question arises, for example, ought a company to obey the laws of its home country, or should it follow the less stringent laws of the developing country in which it does business?  To illustrate, United States law forbids companies from paying bribes either domestically or overseas; however, in other parts of the world, bribery is a customary, accepted way of doing business. Similar problems can occur with regard to child labor, employee safety, work hours, wages, discrimination, and environmental protection laws.

15 AVSH - EB MM IPB Business ethics in the field Corporate ethics policies  As part of more comprehensive compliance and ethics programs, many companies have formulated internal policies pertaining to the ethical conduct of employees.  These policies can be simple exhortations in broad, highly- generalized language (typically called a corporate ethics statement), or they can be more detailed policies, containing specific behavioral requirements (typically called corporate ethics codes).  They are generally meant to identify the company's expectations of workers and to offer guidance on handling some of the more common ethical problems that might arise in the course of doing business.  It is hoped that having such a policy will lead to greater ethical awareness, consistency in application, and the avoidance of ethical disasters.

16 AVSH - EB MM IPB To be successful, most ethicists would suggest that an ethics policy should be:  Given the unequivocal support of top management, by both word and example.  Explained in writing and orally, with periodic reinforcement.  Doable....something employees can both understand and perform (able to be done or achieved).  Monitored by top management, with routine inspections for compliance (aggreeing to do something) and improvement.  Backed up by clearly stated consequences in the case of disobedience.  Remain neutral and nonsexist.

17 AVSH - EB MM IPB Ethics officers  Ethics officers (sometimes called "compliance" or "business conduct officers") have been appointed formally by organizations since the mid-1980s. One of the catalysts for the creation of this new role was a series of fraud, corruption and abuse scandals that afflicted the U.S. defense industry at that time.  This led to the creation of the Defense Industry Initiative (DII), a pan-industry initiative to promote and ensure ethical business practices. The DII set an early benchmark for ethics management in corporations. In 1991, the Ethics & Compliance Officer Association (ECOA) -- originally the Ethics Officer Association (EOA)-- was founded at the Center for Business Ethics (at Bentley College, Waltham, MA) as a professional association for those responsible for managing organizations' efforts to achieve ethical best practices. The membership grew rapidly (the ECOA now has over 1,100 members) and was soon established as an independent organization.

18 AVSH - EB MM IPB Stakeholders concept vs Sharegolder concept. 2. Hostile take-overs vs Industrial espionage (Ethical issues concerning relations between different companies) 3. Corporate governance vs Political Contributions made by corporations (Leadership issues) 4. Corporate Manslaughter ( Law reform, such as the ethical debate over introducing a crime of) 5. The misuse of corporate ethics policies as marketing instruments TUGAS KELOMPOK Issues regarding the moral rights and duties between a company and its shareholders The misuse of corporate ethics policies as marketing instruments

19 AVSH - EB MM IPB Amartya Sen On Ethics & Economics. Basil Blackwell Ltd. UK A.Sonny Keraf Etika Bisnis. Pustaka Filsafat. Penerbit Kanisius. Jakarta Ketut Rinjin Etika Bisnis dan Implementasinya. Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Jakarta Laura Hartman, Burr Ridge, Perspectives in Business Ethics,, IL: McGraw-Hill Robby I.Chandra Etika Dunia Bisnis. Penerbit Kanisius, Yogyakarta Sterling Harwood, Belmont, CA, Business as Ethical and Business as Usual, : Wadsworth Publishing Sudiro Suprapto Etika : Rahasia Sukses Manajer Masa Depan. Progres. Jakarta. BAHAN BACAAN


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