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Geografi Teknologi dan Politik-Ekonomi Mata Kuliah Geografi Ekonomi Dept. Geografi FMIPA UI.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Geografi Teknologi dan Politik-Ekonomi Mata Kuliah Geografi Ekonomi Dept. Geografi FMIPA UI."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Geografi Teknologi dan Politik-Ekonomi Mata Kuliah Geografi Ekonomi Dept. Geografi FMIPA UI

2 Hidup dari lingkungan Berburu dan bertani Berdagang / barter Berdagang / transaksi benda berharga (uang) Export/ import Perdagangan regional baru Apalagi yang akan datang ? Information Communication Technology Jaman imperialisme -------> Imperialisme gaya baru Globalisasi Tata dunia baru (metanasional) Geographical Knowledge and Enlightenment Enlightenment: as “related to theoeitical matters: to (objective) rational knowledge and to (subjective) facility in rational reflection about matters of human life” (Livingstone, David N, 1999) Mental maps Pemetaan awal dan ensiklopedia (Ptolemy,Colum bus, Ratzel, dll) Foto Udara GIS/ GPS / GPRS/ what else ? LokalRegional Trans - Continent Global Spatial Dynamics: Global Regional National Local Site

3 Long Wave Cycles of Innovation 17851845190019501990 1 st Wave2 nd Wave3 rd Wave4 th Wave5 th Wave Water power Textiles Iron Steam Rail Steel Electricity Chemicals Internal-combustion engine Petrochemicals Electronics Aviation Digital networks Software New Media 60 years55 years50 years40 years30 years Pace of innovation

4 Kumulatif Sumbangan Moda Transportasi terhadap Peluang Ekonomis Kuda Kapal Laut Kapal Penyeberangan Kereta Api Jalan darat Udara Telekomunikasi 1750177518001825185018751900192519501975200020252050 Peluang Ekonomis Revolusi Industrial Produksi Massal Globalisasi

5 Jarak Metrik Jarak Sosial Jarak waktu Jakarta Surabaya Alat transportasi: kuda Alat transportasi: kereta api Alat transportasi: pesawat udara Jakarta Surabaya JakartaSurabaya Internet

6 Urban Places (based on buildings, Urban electronic spaces (constructed ‘inside’ telematics network using computer software Teritory Network Fixity Motion/flux Embedded Dis-embedded Visible Invisible Tangible Intangible Actual Virtual/abstract Euclidean  social space Logical space

7 Old Characterisations New Characterisation Space of places Space of flows (Castells, 1989) Physical presence Telepresence (CEC, 1992) Physical Mediation Telemediation (Richardson, 1994) Geography Telegeography (Staple, 1992) Distance Speed and Time (Mulgan, 1991) Closure Openness and exposure (Virilio, 1987) Locality Globality (Knight and Gappert, 1989) “Modern space” Post-Modern ‘Hyperspace’ (Jameson, 1984) Data spaces (Murdock, 1993) Electronics spaces (Robbins & Hepworth, 1988) Cyberspace (Gibson, 1984) Netscape (Hemrick, 1992) Networld (Harasim, 1993)

8 Dari Navigable space conceptual space within ICTs (Information Communication Technology) rather technology itself (Martin Dodge, 1999) Pemanfaatan studi tentang lokasi dan tempat dengan memanfaatkan info spatial dijital Pengembangan kajian yang dibagi atas 2 tahapan: a.Makro: fokus pada perbedaan karakteristik lokasi dan tempat (konvensional b.Mikro: fokus pada pengaruh perubahan karakteristik lokasi dan tempat terhadap individu ataupun masyarakat

9 Sept. 2000 Oct. 2001

10 PlaceSpace Nodes Nets Space Place Computer or Cspace Cyberplace Cyberspace Place/space: domain geografi dg metode konvensional; menterjemahkan place menjadi karakteristik space Cspace: abstraksi suatu space menjadi computer space Cyberspace: space-space yg baru munculstlh dikonversi melalui cspace Cyberplace: pengaruh infrastruktur cyberspace terhadap infrastruktur tradisional di suatu tempat (place)




14 Information spaces Social spaces Infrastructure

15 Tempat (place) : suatu lokasi sebagai wujud dari integrasi masyarakat, budaya dan bentang alamnya  ada satu hubungan yang sistematis antara individu dan komponen landscape (Lowenthal, 1989) Pemahaman landscape dapat dibagi dalam 4 perspektif paradigma: a.The Expert Paradigm  applications design for use by managers and planners b.The Psychological Paradigm  meaning in the perception of landscapes (value stimulation) c.The Cognitive Paradigm  meaning in landscape in human terms (construct of human mind) d.The Experiential Paradigm  meaning of human landscape interactions (human environment interaction)

16 Attitudes Perception Cognition Learning Spatial behavior Environmental Structure I n t e r f a c e Change in the system Behavior with the system changes the interface Golledge, 1997

17 How Asians and Westerners Think Differently and WHY (Richard E. Nisbett, 2003) Ecology Economy Social Structure Attention Metaphysics Epistemology Cognitive Process Westerners Orientation Cognitive Process Epistemology Metaphysics Attention Social Structure Economy Ecology Asians Orientation

18 Apa itu Perubahan ? Sebagai obyek Sebagai kata benda tt’ Berubah ukurannya (bertambah besar/kecil – meningkat/menurun Berubah bentuk Berubah isi Berubah karena skala (pengamatan) Event/kejadian + proses Event/kejadian + proses Event/kejadian + proses Perubahan kepemilikan Perubahan nilai, fungsi, peran

19 Konteks Geografi Ekonomi- Politik

20 Permasalahan Politik Ekonomi Internasional Internal Internasional EkonomiPolitik

21 The meaning of the ‘political’ Politics: struggles for power to exercise: –control over others and self –satisfy interests –express or gain recognition for identities Power: –force/coercion –manipulation (tricks) –consent (legitimate authority/persuasion) Politics expressed through: –competition, conflict, and cooperation What is political? Difference with the cultural and the economic?

22 Political perspectives Statist: state is singular source of identities and interests, with people ‘serving’ the collective enterprise that represents the state –The political is the arena of authority in which absolute decisions are made and control is exercised => National-security politics => risk of authoritarianism and totalitarianism Liberal: state only manages and adjudicates between private interests –The political is not about control or identity but about discussion/negotiation procedures to accommodate distinctive interests of individuals and groups => risk of unbalanced negotiating power privileging some over others Political economy critique: the political is mostly functional for the economic => legitimation of capitalism and social order Politics exist whenever power is exercised in struggles over collective goods and identities

23 Political constituents Historical configurations of power give rise to hegemonies (mixes of coercion and consent) exercised by, and serving the interests of social groups or states (e.g. aristocracy, Bush junior) –This historical bias is built in specific places (geographical distribution of types of political regimes) => idea of ‘revolution’: break from this bias (e.g. independence and revolution in Cuba) Knowledge/discourse providing the logic and language for practical reasoning –This intellectual bias is also geographically specific (language, type and access of media) => idea of exposing the interests served by words and reasoning (e.g. deconstructing discourse) Networks of actors (persons, institutions, technologies, things) that connect, entrain, and shape all social activities (e.g. political parties, unions, marketing channels): power is the resource that these networks provide to actors.

24 Some concepts in political geography Location, Space, Place Distance, Distribution, Diffusion Scale, Hierarchies Territory, Territoriality Boundaries, Frontiers State, Nation Sphere of influence, Core and Periphery

25 Location –Absolute longitude, latitude, altitude –Relative with regard to physical features or to other political units –Location theory seeks to account for the location of economic activities –‘rational’ economic behavior –historical particularity of different phases of capitalist development –global context of these phases of development –structural interdependencies between commodity production, social reproduction, and urbanisation

26 Space –Absolute or objective space: distinct physical entity (location, area). –Relational or social space: sites in which social practices take place (space exists through social practices) => ‘social production of space’

27 Place –Portion of geographical space occupied by a person or a thing –Elements of a place: Locale, the setting in which social relations are constituted (e.g. street corner, state territory) Location, the geographical area encompassing the settings for social interaction in absolute terms and relative terms Sense of place, the local “structure of feeling” (e.g. sense of ‘belonging’ to a region or a country => identity) (see Agnew, J. (1987) Place and Politics: the geographical mediation of state and society. Boston: Allen and Unwin)

28 Place and politics Characteristics shaping political activity in particular places: 1) spatial division of labour effecting class and social structures, and community affiliations 2) communications technology and patterns of accessibility to it 3) characteristics of local and central states 4) expression of class, gender, ethnic divisions through local culture, work authority, and history 5) predominant local bases for collective identity formation (class, ethnic, gender divisions), and place-based identities oriented to the local, regional, or national level 6) microgeography of everyday life through which patterns of social interaction are spatially structured

29 Distance Absolute or physical distance (e.g. km) and relative distance (e.g. telecommunications and air travel transform physical distance by reducing it in relative terms) ‘Socio-cultural’ distance among and between different people (e.g. social classes; e.g. accessibility of air travel, visas; but also interpersonal relations and sense of ‘community’ and social proximity Functional distance: intensity of exchanges –e.g. circulation of goods (material or cultural) between two places Effects of distance: –Friction or inhibiting effect of distance (time and cost / distance) –Distance decay: attenuation of a pattern or process with distance => proximity and greater human interaction can result from: physical proximity or its technological reduction; socio-cultural homogeneity; functional complementarity

30 Distribution Location of people, things, ideas, or events Distribution of interactions and attributes can differentiate between ‘Functional’ or ‘Formal’ areas (or regions): –Functional areas constituted by interactions (e.g. commercial or social exchanges) –Formal areas constituted by homogeneity of attributes (e.g. corn belt), characteristics (e.g. administrative unit)

31 Diffusion Transmission across space and over time of a phenomenon (changes in its distribution) - e.g. diffusion of industrial technology and processes, democracy, epidemics … An analysis of diffusion is not only interested in its spatial manifestation over time (especially the barriers through which change is slowed down, or the pathways through which change is channeled or operated), but also in the social processes driving this change –e.g. diffusion of AIDS epidemics along transport/trucking lanes in Southern Africa, phenomenon of wage labour, prostitution, as well as cultural and political resistance and weak capacity for prevention by local authorities

32 t1 t2 t3 Expansion Diffusion t1 t2 t3 Relocation Diffusion Combination of Expansion and Relocation

33 Spatial analysis

34 Scale Level of representation (e.g. resolution level in cartography) Politics of scale, and political economy of scale: production of space at different scales (e.g. global organization of capital and location of energy sources, national justification of nuclear energy use, local experience of proximity to nuclear power stations). Local, national, regional, global/international –‘Globalization’, ‘Nationalism’ –Complex relations across scales –Everything is ‘local’

35 Territory and territoriality General term used to describe a portion of space occupied by a person, group or political unit Territoriality: practice by different social groups occupying or using a space and resulting in the creation of bounded social space => the field of power exercised over space by (dominant) institutions (e.g. ‘unsafe’ neighborhoods, gated communities) –Territoriality put in practice: Popular acceptance of classifications of space (identity, exclusion, …) Communication of a sense of place (boundary markers,...) Enforcing control over space (surveillance, policing, …) => concept of territorial sovereignty: claim of exclusive legitimate control over a given area (e.g. territorial basis of state sovereignty; or territorial jurisdiction of a court).

36 Universitas Indonesia Triarko Nurlambang

37 Indonesia among other countries in the World Country competitiveness: 28/30 Macro economic in domestic economy 24/30 Govt policy toward competitiveness 27/30 Enterprise performing in innovative, profitable, and responsible manner 30/30 Basic technology, scientific, and human resources meet the needs of business 30/30 World Investment Report (2003) 138/140 Human Development Index 110/173 Country risk 150/185 PERC: highest corruption index 7/102 From various sources

38 Idealism: United in Diversity based on Pacasila (?) Hundreds of ethnic groups Unbalanced geodemographic distribution (less densed pop. in eastern) Dominated by muslim (concentrated in western and center) SocietyEconomy Environment Economic/business activities concentraed more in Western part Western part has better infrastructure and business support Western part is closer to international business center (Singapore-Malaysia and East Asia) Big gap between urban and rural economy Biodiversity; second richest in the world (land + sea) Heavy exploitation in western rather than eastern Scaterred Resources (tangibles and intangibles) Confusing Laws central vs local by sector

39 Isu Geografi Ekonomi Politik Indonesia Disparitas pembangunan dan kesejahteraan: Kawasan Barat vs Kawasan Timur, Kota vs Desa, Pesisir vs Pedalaman, daerah inti pertambangan vs non-pertambangan Pemekaran Wilayah atau Aneksasi? Kepentingan Pusat vs Daerah, sentralisasi vs desentralisasi (otonomi daerah) Pulau besar vs pulau-pulau kecil

40 Konflik Geografis Konflik Contiguity  bersifat vertikal Konflik Teritorial  bersifat horizontal Konflik Gabungan  vertikal + horizontal Satu otorita daerah memiliki wilayah pengelolaan yang tumpang tindih dengan otoritas daerah yang lebih tinggi. Contoh kasus Pemda Batam dan Otoritas Batam., Pemda Tk 2 dan Tk 1 atau Perda Pariwisata dan UU Suaka Alam Satu otorita daerah yang konflik dengan otorita daerah lain yang setara. Contoh kasus konflik batas negara, konflik pengelolaan sumberdaya ikan laut antar Propinsi/ kabupaten Sebagai contoh adalah pembentukan atau pemekaran Daerah baru. Contoh lain (potensial) adalah penerapan konsep Megapolis di Jabodetabek

41 Garis batas awal Kabupaten A Garis batas pemekaran Daerah Kabupaten A1: setelah pemekaran Kabupaten A2: setelah pemekaran Tipikal Konflik: ) Konflik antara pusat dengan daerah (konflik vertikal) Antara Prop A1 dg prop A2 (konflik horizontal Banyak keterkaitan fungsional pembangunan yang “terpotong” oleh akibat batas admnistrasi baru dan menimbulkan resiko masalah pengambilan keputusan sampai pelaksanaan di lapangan

42 ManfaatResiko Terjadi Peningkatan Kesejahteraan (sesuai Tujuan) Timbul Peluang Kerja Rentang Kendali mengecil Konflik sosial-ekonomi (masalah lokalitas nilai) disparitas sosial- ekonomi Biaya tinggi dan tambah rentang birokrasi, khusus untuk aktifitas pembangunan yang lintas batas  inefisiensi; daya saing melemah

43  Basis Proyek vs sustainable development (jangka pendek vs jangka panjang)  Arus Kas vs Porto-folio  ada apa dengan angka ajaib ‘0’ dan ‘5’ ?  Positivisme vs Relativisme POSITIVISME RELATIVISME Rasional Rasional + Irrasional Informasi terbatas Informasi tidak terbatas (open source) Plural  specifik Keatuan  holistik (cenderung fokus pd monodisiplin) (harus multidisiplin) Global/orientasi ke-barat (western) Kearifan dan keunikan Lokal

44 Cognitive Space Affective Space Sense of Place Spatial Attributes Physical Landscape Cultural Landscape Spatial Behavior Spatial Arrangement Regional Planning Process Positive Approach Relative Approach

45 Spatial Imagination Values Cognitive Space Affective Space Conative Psychologi cal transforma tion Cognitive Affective Conative Spatial Behavior Practices Spatial arrangement / Tata Ruang perencanaan wilayah SPACE VALUE ?

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