Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Training Asisten – Effective Teaching Method Dwi Martani Ketua Departemen Akuntansi FEUI Pembekalan Asisten dan Asisten Lab Baru Departemen Akuntansi.

Presentasi serupa


Presentasi berjudul: "Training Asisten – Effective Teaching Method Dwi Martani Ketua Departemen Akuntansi FEUI Pembekalan Asisten dan Asisten Lab Baru Departemen Akuntansi."— Transcript presentasi:

1

2 Training Asisten – Effective Teaching Method Dwi Martani Ketua Departemen Akuntansi FEUI Pembekalan Asisten dan Asisten Lab Baru Departemen Akuntansi 2012

3 Agenda Karir Akuntansi 1 Kurikulum dan Kompetensi 2 3 Bagaimana Efektif Mengajarkan

4 Karir Asisten  Asisten Lab  Asisten Dosen  Dosen  Syarat Dosen  S2 bidang Akuntansi – luar negeri  Diangkat untuk menjadi dosen tetap  S3  Dosen UI  Karir untuk menjadi dosen tetap  kurang jelas  Dosen full time  basis di UI namun tetap dapat menjalankan kegiatan lain tetapi tidak full time

5 Dosen  Aktivitas dosen  melaksanakan tridarma perguruan tinggi  Pendidikan  mengajar, menguji, membimbing, menulis buku ajar, mendampingi kegiatan mahasiswa  Penelitian  publikasi jurnal, conference, tulisan ilmiah lain  Pengabdian masyarakat  training, konsultasi, kajian regulasi negara  Kegiatan lain  panitia, peserta seminar

6 Kepangkatan Dosen  Jenjang jabatan akademik  Asisten ahli  Lektor  Lektor Kepala  Profesor  850  Jenjang kepangkatan  IIIB, IIIC, IIID  IVA, IVB, IVC, IVD

7 Strategi SDM Departemen  Persyaratan dosen  S2 Luar Negeri  Kondisi tertentu   S2 DN, S3 LN  S2 DN dan S3 DN dengan reputasi sangat baik  Kualifikasi   Berkinerja baik dalam menjalankan Tri Darma PT  Memiliki pengalaman praktik melalui PPA, training, pengabdian masyarakat  Memberikan kontribusi pada organisasi profesi, negara  Dosen tidak tetap dipertahankan dengan jumlah minimal, memiliki reputasi praktik / riset

8 Proses Menjadi Dosen  Asisten lab  Asisten Dosen  Dosen  Asisten dosen  sekolah LN  Dosen  Lulus  bekerja  sekola LN  Dosen  Sekolah LN  proses kompetisi beasiswa  Proses menunggu sekolah  bekerja di dalam kampus, atau bekerja di luar kampus  Setelah sekolah  full time di kampus

9 Asistensi  Mengembangkan kemampuan analisis dan aplikasi suatu pengetahuan  relevan dengan praktik.  Membantu mengembangkan proffesional skill a)Intellectual skills b)Technical and functional skills  numeracy decision modeling and risk analysis, measurement, reporting, compliance with legislation c)Personal skills  self management, professional skepticism, decision making, initiative. d)Interpersonal and communication skills e)Organizational and business management skills

10 Asistensi  Tidak mengulang teori yang diajarkan  cukup buatkan mind map / chart rangkuman materi yang harus dikuasai  Berikan tips aspek teknis yang perlu pendalaman  silabus, bedakan yang penting dan kurang penting atau sekedar perlu.  Fokus pada proses bukan hasil akhir  Berikan kebebasan dalam melakukan proses  dipengaruhi oleh kemampuan mahasiswa  Jalin komunikasi dengan dosen dan juga asisten  Koordinasi dengan asisten yang lain termasuk dengan koordinator lab asisten

11 Tips  Buat suasana kelas menarik  Siapkan penguasaan materi – mahasiswa pengin mengetahui sesuatu yang lain  Pilih strategi di setiap pertemuan sehingga asistensi menjadi menarik  Biarkan mahasiswa belajar dan mengerjakan sendiri  Berperan sebagai fasilitator / teman  Berikan penghargaan kepada mahasiswa  sopan, keinginan untuk membantu

12 KURIKULUM : SOFTWARE INPUT PROSES BM INPUT MAHASISWA OUTPUT LULUSAN SOFTWARE INPUT HARDWARE INPUT EXTERNAL INPUT PENDIDIKAN SEBAGAI SISTEM

13 Kurikulum  Kurikulum merupakan rambu-rambu untuk menjamin mutu dan kemampuan sesuai dengan program yang ditempuh.  Seperangkat rencana pengaturan berdasarkan standar pendidikan tentang kemampuan dan sikap serta pengalaman belajar dan penilaian yang berbasis pada potensi dan kondisi peserta didik. (SK Mendiknas 045U/2002)  Seperangkat rencana dan pengaturan mengenai tujuan, isi bahan pelajaran serta cara yang digunakan sebagai pedoman penyelenggaraan kegiatan pembelajaran untuk mencapai tujuan pendidikan tertentu UU 20/2003 Sisdiknas

14 Kurikulum  Alat untuk mencapai tujuan pendidikan  Kurikulum dirancang fleksibel agar tujuan pendidikan dapat dicapai dan mengantisipasi perubahan lingkungan.  Bersumber pada visi, misi, tujuan dan strategi program studi.  Bukan hanya komposisi dan susunan mata ajar tetapi meliputi tujuan, kompetensi yang akan dicapai, materi, metodologi dan evaluasi.  Kurikulum dijabarkan dalam:  Profil lulusan  Kompetensi apa akan dicapai  Susunan mata ajar dan peta mata ajar  Buku rancangan pengajaran  silabus (untuk mahasiswa)  Satuan Acara pengajaran

15 Pendekatan dalam Kurikulum Content- based approach Structure of subject matter Content transmission

16 Pendekatan dalam Kurikulum Content- based approach Lulusan harus menguasai subjek keilmuan, dengan asumsi akan menunjukkan kinerja yang lebih komprehensif setelah menguasai subjek ilmu Berorientasi pada penguasaan bidang ilmu Seringkali terjadi kesenjangan antara teori dan aplikasi praktek Kurikulum disusun berdasarkan asumsi dasar disiplin ilmu bukan berdasarkan kebutuhan dan harapan masyarakat

17 Pendekatan Kompetensi dalam Kurikulum Competency -based approach Integration Students/ professional needs Contextual Active learning

18 Pendekatan dalam Kurikulum Competency -based approach Disusun berdasarkan tuntutan kompetensi lulusan yg dibutuhkan profesi dalam setting tertentu Asumsi : kemampuan kinerja tertentu dapat dicapai jika kualitas intelektual dibangun dengan dukungan materi tertentu Pendidikan : “eksperimen”, atau pengalaman belajar dalam setting (situasi dan kondisi) tertentu untuk mencapai kompetensi yang diharapkan.

19 PENILAIAN OLEH PERGURUAN TINGGI SENDIRI PENILAIAN DILAKUKAN OLEH MASYARAKAT PEMANGKU KEPENTINGAN KOMPETENSI SESEORANG UNTUK DAPAT MELAKUKAN TINDAKAN CERDAS, PENUH TANGGUNG JAWAB SEBAGAI SYARAT UNTUK DIANGGAP MAMPU OLEH MASYARAKAT DALAM MELAKSANAKAN TUGAS-TUGAS DI BIDANG PEKERJAAN TERTENTU KEMAMPUAN MINIMAL PENGUASAAN PENGETAHUAN, KETRAMPILAN DAN SIKAP SESUAI SASARAN KURIKULUM PROGRAM STUDINYA

20 Ciri-ciri Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi  Menyatakan kompetensi secara jelas dari proses pembelajaran  Proses pembelajaran memberi bekal kepada tercapainya kompetensi dan berfokus pada mahasiswa (Student Centered Learning)  Mengutamakan kesatuan penguasaan ranah kognitif, psikomotorik dan afektif.  Proses penilaian lebih ditekankan pada kemampuan untuk mendemonstrasikan kognitif, psikomotorik dan afektif.

21 Lulusan Perguruan tinggi diharapkan mempunyai kompetensi ( 5 elemen kompetensi ) yang sesuai kebutuhan stakeholders, berupa : Kebutuhan masyarakat (societal needs)Kebutuhan masyarakat (societal needs) Kebutuhan dunia kerja (industrial needs)Kebutuhan dunia kerja (industrial needs) Kebutuhan profesional (professional needs)Kebutuhan profesional (professional needs) Kebutuhan generasi masa depan (aspek vision)Kebutuhan generasi masa depan (aspek vision) Kebutuhan ilmu pengetahuan (aspek scientific)Kebutuhan ilmu pengetahuan (aspek scientific) Analisis Kebutuhan

22  Kelompok MPK (Pengembangan Kepribadian)  Kelompok bahan kajian dan pelajaran untuk mengembangkan manusia Indonesia yang beriman dan bertaqwa terhadap Tuhan Yang Maha Esa dan berbudi pekerti luhur, berkepribadian mantap, dan mandiri serta mempunyai rasa tanggung jawab kemasyarakatan dan kebangsaan.  Kelompok MKK (Keilmuan dan Keterampilan)  Kelompok bahan kajian dan pelajaran yang ditujukan terutama untuk memberikan landasan penguasaan ilmu dan keterampilan tertentu.  Kelompok MKB (Keahlian Berkarya)  Kelompok bahan kajian dan pelajaran yang bertujuan menghasil-kan tenaga ahli dengan kekaryaan berdasarkan dasar ilmu dan keterampilan yang dikuasai. KEPMENDIKNAS No. 232/U/2000 Pasal 1 dan 8:

23  Kelompok MPB (Perilaku Berkarya)  Kelompok bahan kajian dan pelajaran yang bertujuan membentuk sikap dan perilaku yang diperlukan seseorang dalam berkarya menurut tingkat keahlian berdasarkan dasar ilmu dan keterampilan yang dikuasai.  Kelompok MBB (Berkehidupan Bermasyarakat)  Kelompok bahan kajian dan pelajaran yang diperlukan seseorang untuk dapat memahami kaidah berkehidupan bermasyarakat sesuai dengan pilihan keahlian dalam berkarya. KEPMENDIKNAS No. 232/U/2000 Pasal 1 dan 8:

24 ELEMEN KOMPETENSI KURIKULUM INTI KURIKULUM INSTITUSIONAL Kompetensi Utama Kompetensi Pendukung Kompetensi Lainnya 1. Landasan kepribadian. 40% - 80 %20% - 40%0% - 30% 2. Penguasaan ilmu dan ketrampilan. 3. Kemampuan berkarya. 4. Sikap dan perilaku dalam berkarya. 5. Pemahaman kaidah berkehidupan bermasyarakat. Tim KBK DIKTI KOMPETENSI UTAMA ditetapkan oleh kalangan Perguruan Tinggi, masyarakat profesi dan pengguna lulusan. KOMPETENSI PENDUKUNG & KOMPETENSI LAINNYA ditetapkan oleh Institusi penyelenggara program studi SK. MENDIKNAS RI NO. 045/U/2002 TENTANG KURIKULUM INTI PENDIDIKAN TINGGI 23

25 24 International Education Standard

26 25 International Education Standard  IES 1: ENTRY REQUIREMENTS TO A PROGRAM OF PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTING EDUCATION  IES 2: CONTENT OF PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTING EDUCATION PROGRAMS  IES 3: PROFESSIONAL SKILLS  IES 4: PROFESSIONAL VALUES ETHICS AND ATTITUDES  IES 5: PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE REQUIREMENTS  IES 6: ASSESSMENT OF PROFESSIONAL CAPABILITIES AND COMPETENCE  IES 7: CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT: A PROGRAM OF LIFELONG LEARNING AND CONTINUING DEVELOPMENT OF PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE

27 26 International Education Standard Tujuan: Meyakinkan bahwa calon akuntan profesional memiliki pengetahuan profesional akuntansi yang memadai utk menjalankan fungsinya dalam menghadapi lingkungan yang kompleks dan berubah

28 27 IES 2 Tiga bidang utama:  Accounting, finance, and related knowledge  Organizational and business knowledge  Information technology knowledge and competence

29 28 Accounting, finance, and related knowledge a.financial accounting and reporting; b.management accounting and control; c.taxation; d.business and commercial law; e.audit and assurance; f.finance and financial management; and g.professional values and ethics.

30 29 Organizational and business knowledge a.economics; b.business environment; c.corporate governance; d.business ethics; e.financial markets; f.quantitative methods; g.organizational behavior; h.management and strategic decision making; i.marketing; and j.international business and globalization.

31 30 Information technology knowledge and competence a.general knowledge of IT; b.IT control knowledge; c.IT control competences; d.IT user competences; and e.one of, or a mixture of, the competences of, the roles of manager, evaluator or designer of information systems.

32 Skill – IES 3  The skills professional accountants require are grouped under five main headings: a)Intellectual skills b)Technical and functional skills  numeracy decision modeling and risk analysis, measurement, reporting, compliance with legislation c)Personal skills  self management, professional skepticism, decision making, initiative. d)Interpersonal and communication skills e)Organizational and business management skills

33 Value & Ethic – IES 4  the public interest and sensitivity to social responsibilities;  continual improvement and lifelong learning;  reliability, responsibility, timeliness, courtesy and respect; and  laws and regulations.

34 33 KEAHLIAN SEORANG AKUNTAN  Analytical/critical thinking4,53  Written communication4,39  Oral communication4,22  Computing technology4,10  Decision making4,03  Interpersonal skills3,94  Continuous learning3,82  Teamwork3,81  Business decision modeling3,65  Professional demeanor3,64  Leadership3,58 Risk Analysis3,42 Measurement3,32 Project management3,26 Customer orientation3,23 Change management3,13 Negotiation3,13 Research3,08 Entrepreneurship2,99 Resources Management2,98 Salesmanship2,61 Foreign language2,60

35 34 Taksonomi Bloom

36 35 Taksonomi Bloom

37 36 Taksonomi Bloom

38 37 Effective Teaching

39 Reading Hearing words Looking at picture Looking at an exhibition Participating in a discussion Watching video Watching a demonstration Seeing it done on location Giving a talk Doing a Dramatic Presentation Simullating the Real Experience Doing the Real Thing 90% 70% 50% 30% 20% 10% PASSIVE ACTIVE TINGKAT MEMORISASI Verbal reciving Visual reciving Partici- pating Doing TINGKAT KETERLIBATAN MODEL PEMBELAJARAN

40 39 “ The aim of teaching is simple: it is to make student learning possible” Paul Ramsden, Learning to Teach in Higher Education, London, Routledge, 1992:5

41 40 Social Context Of Learning Learning Is A Form Of Social Interaction Learning Takes Place Within Learning Communities Learning Communities Consist Of Formal Dimensions Informal Dimensions

42 Strategies for Successful Trainings  Principles of Adult Learning.  Active Learning.  Instructional Strategies.

43 Principles of Adult Learning  Need to know how adults learn best.  Adult learners have special needs.  Six characteristics of adult learners. Are autonomous and self-directed. Have a foundation of life experiences and knowledge. Are goal-oriented. Are relevancy-oriented. Are practical. Need to be shown respect.

44 43 Learning Pyramid* * National Training Laboratories for Applied Behavioral Sciences, Alexandria, VA.

45 Instructional Strategies  Quiz.  Games.  Role-playing.  Brainstorming.  Group problem-solving.  Lecture.  Simulation.  Case Study

46 45 The Learning Environment “I know I cannot teach anyone anything. I can only provide the environment in which he can learn…” Carl Rogers (1969)

47 46 Defining Student-Centred Learning  Brandes & Ginnis (1986:12)  “with student-centred learning, students are responsible for planning the curriculum or at least they participate in the choosing…the individual is 100% responsible for his own behaviour, participation and learning”  SCL also known as  flexible learning  independent learning  open/distance learning  participative learning  self-managed learning

48 47 Differences between SCL & Traditional Learning TRADITIONALSTUDENT-CENTRED  Tutors seen as ‘fountains of all knowledge’  Tutor's seen as having ‘facilitator’ role  Students adopt passive role  Students adopt active role  Tutor led  Student led  Student taught to set syllabus  Negotiated curriculum  Fixed semesters/terms  Flexible study pattern  Learning restricted to classroom  Learning not restricted to classroom: time, pace, place  Set classes each week  Group learning via action learning  Didactic  Utilise range of teaching methods

49 48 Benefits of Student-Centred Learning  Students  can work alone or in small groups, on and off campus  have access to range of learning resources other than the tutor  can take exams at own convenience  can enrol at flexible times of the year  take ownership of their learning; become reflective learners and be empowered  are more motivated and committed towards learning because they become partners in the learning process  can work and learn in partnership Source: McLean (1997) & Educational Initiative Centre (2004)

50 49 Benefits of Student-Centred Learning  Tutors  act as facilitators, guides, mentors  work in teams and draw on the help from technicians, librarians, etc  are able to work with students to determine teaching and learning strategies  develop student’s ability to become a ‘researcher’, accessing multiple sources of information  Institutions  able to attract non-traditional students & students from diverse backgrounds  widen HE participation into the community  more ‘bums on seats’!!!  opportunity to improve ‘bottom line’ performance  gain international reputation  tutor time can be freed up to spend on research and attracting research funding Source: McLean (1997) & Educational Initiative Centre (2004)

51 50 Student-Centered Learning Toolbox Constructivist Learning Collaborative Learning Tools Cognitive learning theory Motivational strategies Michele Hampton/Gordon Haley

52 51 Michele Hampton/Gordon Haley Driscoll (2000) describes constructivism as the notion that knowledge exists outside of learners and the act of learning consists of transferring that knowledge from outside to within the learner Consequently, learning occurs as learners attempt to make sense of their experiences New information is related to the knowledge and experience already possessed and is used to construct or build new knowledge Learners take an active role in their learning experience (Villalba & Romiszowski, 2001) Student-Centered Learning Toolbox Constructivist Learning

53 52Michele Hampton/Gordon Haley Student-Centered Learning Toolbox Online courses can be used to assess information that learner’s possess through the use of online pre-tests By determining learner knowledge and experience level, instructors may be able to modify instruction to account for those levels For example, a module could be added that reviews prerequisite skills to help students refresh their memory and to ascertain if students are at the appropriate skill level assumed by the current instruction design Constructivist Learning

54 Michele Hampton/Gordon Haley Student-Centered Learning Toolbox Cognitive learning theory Cognitive learning theory provides the foundation for developing effective, credible, and robust distance education instruction. Clark & Mayer (2003) assert “many e-learning courses ignore human cognitive processes and as a result do not optimize learning”. Villalba & Romiszowski (2001) also purports cognitive psychology should be a basis for designing instruction Helping the learner select information that is important to the learning process, minimizing extraneous items that do not add to learning, and integrating words and pictures are techniques that can be used to manage cognitive load

55 Michele Hampton/Gordon Haley Specific examples include: listing learning objectives upfront so the lesson can provide a framework that assists learners in focusing their efforts minimizing visuals, audio, and text that do not add to the learning experience frees up working memory to rehearse information provided in the lesson presenting related pictures and words in close proximity of each other Student-Centered Learning Toolbox Cognitive learning theory

56 Michele Hampton/Gordon Haley Student-Centered Learning Toolbox Collaborative Learning Tools Some common collaborative tools are:  Chats  Threaded discussion boards  Online conferencing   Interactive tutorials  Degree of learner concurrency and the learning goal are the primary factors that can determine which, if any, of the collaborative tools will enhance learning Research shows that learners who study together in an online environment often learn more than those who study alone (Clark & Mayer, 2003)

57 56 Michele Hampton/Gordon Haley Student-Centered Learning Toolbox Motivational strategies Keller (1999) offers the ARCS instructional model as a means of integrating motivational tactics into instruction ARCS is an acronym for what Keller (1999) describes as the four dimensions of motivation – Attention (A), Relevance (R), Confidence (C), and Satisfaction (S).

58 Michele Hampton/Gordon Haley  Attention (A)  Addresses student interest levels and whether student curiosity is aroused and sustained over a period of time Gaining and maintaining student attention can be achieved through using novel and/or surprising events in instruction, stimulating information-seeking behavior by posing or having students generate questions and then varying the elements of instruction to maintain student interest (Penn State University, 2000). Student-Centered Learning Toolbox Motivational strategies

59 Michele Hampton/Gordon Haley Student-Centered Learning Toolbox Motivational strategies  Relevance (R)  Addresses relating instruction to learners experience and values to help them construct knowledge. Adapting instruction to meet learner needs can include the following to help learners integrate new knowledge with previous knowledge and experience :  using concrete language  using examples and concepts that are related to the learner’s experience and values

60 59March 21, 2006Michele Hampton/Gordon Haley Confidence (C)  refers to students’ expectations and perceptions regarding the likelihood of their success and who controls that success — the students or the instructor  addresses relating instruction to learners experience and values to help them construct knowledge. Informing students of the instructional learning outcomes and providing multiple achievement levels and performance opportunities that allow students to set personal goals and standards to increase the probability of experiencing success positively impacts student confidence Student-Centered Learning Toolbox Motivational strategies

61 60March 21, 2006Michele Hampton/Gordon Haley Satisfaction (S)  focuses on the “learner’s intrinsic motivation and response to extrinsic awards” (Mory, 2003, p.769) Includes the following:  providing opportunities for students to practice newly learned skills  providing feedback and reinforcements that will sustain the desired behavior  maintaining consistent standards and consequences for task accomplishment (Penn State University, 2000) Student-Centered Learning Toolbox Motivational strategies

62 61 Research Findings: McLean (1997) Table 1: Factors that Encouraged Students to Undertake a Flexible Learning Programme Study whenever have the time100 Personal development79 Flexibility: own time, place, pace76 Inability to attend set courses each week64 Request a tutorial at own convenience46 Take examinations in any order45 Flexible start dates36 Under no pressure to complete course to deadline33 Take modules in any sequence15

63 Another Teaching Method  PRACTICAL EXAMPLES Connecting Theory with Applications  SHOW AND TELL Reversing Student Roles  CASE STUDIES Bringing “Real-Life” Scenarios into the Classroom  GUIDED DESIGN PROJECTS Introducing Practical Design Experience in Classrooms  OPEN-ENDED LABS Making Students Think Deeper  THE FLOWCHART TECHNIQUE Organizing the Flow of Thought  OPEN-ENDED QUIZZES Moving Students Away From Memorization  BRAINSTORMING Encouraging Creativity  QUESTION-AND-ANSWER METHOD Encouraging Student Participation  SOFTWARE Increasing Teaching Efficiency

64 Teaching Improvement Plan Concept - The concept that you plan to teach Strategy - The teaching strategy that you plan to use Date - The day you plan to use the strategy Materials Needed - The teaching materials that you will need Time Needed - Plan your teaching activity so that you can accomplish all your goals Feedback - Decide on a strategy to obtain student feedback. Consider fast feedback, written reports and observing students’ reactions Do: Execute your plan Check: Review student evaluations Act: Decide on what you would do next time. Stick with the strategy? Change?

65 64

66 Michele Hampton/Gordon Haley Clark, R.C and Mayer, R.E. (2003). Learning together on the web. In e-learning and the science of instruction (p ). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Pfeiffer. Driscoll, M. P. (2000). Constructivism. In Psychology of Learning for Instruction [Electronic version]. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Keller, J.M. (1999). Using the ARCS motivational process in computer-based instruction and distance education. New Directions for Teaching and Learning (78), Retrieved July 14, 2005, from Academic Search Premier database ( ). Land, S. M. and Hannafin, M. J. (2000). Student-centered learning environments. In Jonassen, D.H. & Land, S.M. (Eds.), Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments (p. 1-23). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates. Lorenzetti, J. P. (2005). Secrets of online success: Lessons from the community colleges. Distance Education Report, (9)11, 3-5. Retrieved August 11, 2005, from Academic Search Premier database ( X). Macdonald, J. (2004). Developing competent e-learners: The role of assessment. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher education (29)2, Retrieved November 7, 2005, from Academic Search Premier database ( ). Mory, E. H. (2003). Feedback research revisited. Chapter 29. In Handbook of Research for Educational Communications. Retrieved July 28, 2005, from Penn State University (2000). College of Education – Innovations in Distance Education. Integrating Instructional Design and Distance Education: ARCS – Motivation Theory. Retrieved October 26, 2005, from Villalba, C. and Romiszowski, A. J. (2001). Current and ideal practices in designing, developing, and delivering web-based training. In B.H. Khan (Ed.), Web-based training (pp ). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications. References

67 66 References Brandes, D. & Ginnis, P. (1986). A Guide to Student-Centred Learning’. Simon & Schuster Education, Hemel Hempstead Cannon, R. & Newble, D. (2000). A Guide to Improving Teaching Methods: A Handbook for Teachers in Universities and Colleges’. Kogan Page, London Educational Initiative Centre (2004). ‘What is Student Centred Learning’. University of Westminster McLean, J. (1997). ‘Flexible Learning and the Learning Organisation’. MSc Management Dissertation, Staffordshire University McLean, J., Hall, L. & Muir, J. (2003). ‘Thee Flexible Tutor: From Lecturer to Facilitator’. British Academy of Management Conference, Edinburgh, September 2000 Rogers, C. (1969). Freedom to Learn. Charles Merrill, Ohio


Download ppt "Training Asisten – Effective Teaching Method Dwi Martani Ketua Departemen Akuntansi FEUI Pembekalan Asisten dan Asisten Lab Baru Departemen Akuntansi."

Presentasi serupa


Iklan oleh Google