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Mata Kuliah Geografi Pemasaran (GP-5) Triarko nurlambang 2007.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Mata Kuliah Geografi Pemasaran (GP-5) Triarko nurlambang 2007."— Transcript presentasi:

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2 Mata Kuliah Geografi Pemasaran (GP-5) Triarko nurlambang 2007

3 The aim of marketing is to meet and satisfy target customers’ needs and wants. The field of consumer behavior studies how individuals, groups, and organizations select, buy, use and dispose of goods, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy their needs and desires. Understanding consumer behavior and “knowing customers” are never simple. (Kotler, 2000, p.160)

4 Sebagai tindakan yang langsung terlibat dalam mendapatkan, mengkonsumsi, dan menghabiskan produk dan jasa, termasuk proses keputusan yang mendahului dan mengikuti tindakan ini. (Engel, 1992) The study of the buying units and the exchange processes involved in acquiring, consuming and disposing of goods. (Moven and Minor, 2000)

5 Definition of Consumer Behavior The study of processes involved when individuals or groups select, purchase, use, or dispose of products, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy needs and desires  Process  Exchange  Players

6 1. Perilaku konsumen adalah pondasi bagi manajemen pemasaran. Dapat dimanfaatkan untuk: a. Merancang marketing mix b. Merumuskan segment marketplace c. Merumuskan analisa lingkungan d. Mengembangkan riset pasar tingkat lanjut 2. Dapat dikembangkan sebagai bahan penting bagi penetapan kebijakan publik 3. Pemahaman akan perilaku konsumen akan memberi peluang untuk dapat lebih memantapkan penanganan konsumen 4. Analisa konsumen memberikan pengetahuan bagi pemahaman akan perilaku konsumen secara keseluruhan 5. Pemahaman perilaku konsumen akan memberikan 3 jenis informasi: a. Orientasi konsumen b. Fakta seputar tingkah laku manusia c. Teori yang dapt membimbing seseorang fokus pada proses berpikir

7 Perspektif Pengambilan Keputusan Perspektif Eksperiental Perspektif Pengaruh Perilaku

8 Interdisciplinary Influences on Consumer Behavior

9 The Wheel of Consumer Behavior

10 CUSTOMER VALUE HIERARCHY MODEL Desired Customer Value Customer Satisfaction With Received Value Customer goals And purposes Implementation Through legislation Desired policy Attributes and manifesto Promises Attribute-based satisfaction Consequence-based satisfaction Goal-based satisfaction

11 Hierarchy of Effects Model Related Behaviors dimensions Movement Toward purchase Example of type of Promotion or advertising Relevant to various steps Co native: the realm of motives. Ads stimulate or direct desires Affective: the realm of emotion Ads change attitudes and feelings Cognitive: the realm of thoughts. Ads provide information and facts. Point-of-purchase Retail store ads deals “last chance" offers price appeals Testimonial Competitive ads argumentative copy “Image” copy Status glamour appeals Announcements Descriptive copy Classified ads Slogans Jingles Skywriting Teaser campaigns Purchases Conviction Preference Liking Knowledge Awareness Robert J. Lavidge and Gary A. Steiner, journal of Marketing (October 1961):51

12 Mendorong Pelanggan Untuk Memilih (Model Hipotesis) Tahap Model AIDA Model Hirarki Efek Model Inovasi Adopsi Model Komunikasi Tahap kognitif Perhatian Kesadaran Pengetahuan Kesadaran Keterbukaan Penerimaan Respon kognitif Tahap Pengaruh/ Sikap Minat Keinginan Kesukaan Preferensi Keyakinan Minat Evaluasi Sikap Maksud Tahap perilaku Tindakan Pembelian Percobaan Adopsi Perilaku Pelanggan

13 Consumer Evolution QuestionIs there a new economy? What’s really changed? Who do customers think they are? What is today ‘s business cycle? Who’s in control? What’s your REAL value proposition Topic Use of technology changes our psychology Our perception of time and space has changed Your products must help people do things better Business is cycleEverything is global Commodities aren’t sustainable proportions Theme Basic business rules still apply We are in a period of concentration You can’t separate yourself from your customer Your business must operate in tune with your customers cycles Scalable business can’t survive in niche markets Don’t sell products, sell something that meets a need Old psychology The future is predictable Unlimited growth was the goal of business Producers controlled product development Business cycles were a few years long Your could survive in inches Market competitiveness is based primarily on price New psychology We live in an uncertain world We can’t waste resources and we must be future oriented Customers need products which make them more effective There are several cycles of change running simultaneously To be sustainable you must be global Customers demand products which are effective when they use them Business strategy Don’t bet on tomorrow Retreat to your core competency Redo your brandGet your cycles in sync with cultural change Define a global market Find a universal need; not a fad. Sumber: Grantham dan Judith, 2002

14 Simulasi Pemasaran Lainnya Produk Ekonomi Harga Teknologi Tempat Politik Promosi Budaya Karakteristik Proses Pengambilan Pembeli keputusan Pembeli Budaya Masalah pengenalan Sosial Mencari Informasi Personal Alternatif Evolusi Psikologi Pengambilan keputusan Membeli Purnabeli Pengambilan Keputusan Pembeli Pilihan Produk Pilihan merk Pilihan pemasok Pilihan waktu pembelian Pilihan jumlah harga

15 Budaya Sub-Budaya Klas Sosial Sosial Kelompok Acuan Keluarga Personal Umur dan gaya hidup Situasi ekonomi dan pekerjaan Psikologi Motivasi Persepsi Belajar Kepercayaan dan sikap

16 Kebiasaan membeli yang kompleks Ada tiga tahapan proses, yaitu pertama membangun keyakinan akan produk, kedua membangun sikap terhadap produk yang bersangkutan dan terakhir menentukan pilihan secara seksama. MIsalnya membeli barang mahal dan bermerk (branded item) Dissonance- Reducing Buyer Behavior Membutuhkan kajian/perhatian yang seksama walaupun tidak/ sedikit sekali ditentukan oleh merk, misalnya membeli karpet. Kebiasaan belanja sehari-hari (Habitual Buying Behavior) Tidak membutuhkan kajian khusus dan tidak terlalu terpengaruh oleh merk, misalnya belanja rempah-rempah, garam. Kebiasaan belanja yang dipengaruhi oleh merk (Variety- Seeking Buy Behav) Tidak membutuhkan kajian khusus tetapi sangat dipengaruhi oleh merk, misalnya membeli alat kosmetik, barang-barang fashion. High Involvement Low Involvement Significant Differences Complex Buying Behav. Variety- seeking Buying Behav. between brands Few Differences Dissonance-reducing Habitual Buying Behavior Between brands Buying Behavior

17 Suspects Prospects First Time Customers Repeat Customers Clients Members Advocates Partners Inactive or ex- customers Disqualified prospect

18 Suspects Prospects Customers Clients Advocates Partners Profit Starts here Includes all buyers of the product/ service (anaware of your organization Potential customers who attraction on your organization A one-off purchase of your product who has no feelings of your company A repeat customers who have positive feelings of loyality of your organization Clients who actively support your organization by recommending it to others Stronger form of customer – supplier relationship (create mutual benefit)

19 Pengenalan problem (kebutuhan) Mencari informasi Pengenalan problem (kebutuhan) Evaluasi alternatif Keputusan membeli Purnabeli IBM Apple Dell HP Toshiba Compaq NEC Sony, dll IBM Apple Dell HP Toshiba Compaq IBM Apple Dell ?

20 Place B erkaitan dengan lokasi dan integrasi antara masyarakat, budaya dan alam Setiap manusia (normalsense) memiliki sense of place Perkembangan sense of place seseorang: Fisik Jenis kelamin, umur, kesehatan, kemampuan finansial Psikologis Nilai/kepercayaan, keturunan, keperibadian Pengalaman/ pengetahuan Tingkat pendidikan, sosialisasi

21 Declarative component Declarative component : pengetahuan akan makna obyek dan tempatnya Relational and configurational hubungan keruangan (spatial relationship) diantara pengembangan obyek dan tempatnya Procedural knowledge menggambarkan proses perkembangan perubahan obyek dalam konteks keruangan

22 Environmental cognition Spatial Cognition Cognitive mapping Mental Maps Suatu proses transformasi psikologis yang diharapkan, disimpan, recalls dan decodes information tentang lokasi dan atribut dari satu fenomena kejadian kehidupan sehari-hari. Social Mapping Sense of Place

23 Spatial Imagination Values Cognitive Space Affective Space Conative Psychologi cal transforma tion Cognitive Affective Conative Spatial Behavior Practices Spatial arrangement / Tata Ruang

24 LingkunganSituasi Perilkau Konsumen DemografisPerubahan populasi dan nilai-nilai budaya dari variasi kelompok demografis EkonomiFaktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi sentimen economi konsumen dan pola tabungan serta pengeluaran AlamReaksi konsumen terhadap perubahan cuaca, bencana alam, dsb. TeknologiDifusi inovasi teknologi dan reaksi konsumen terhadap perubahan teknologi; misalnya peralatan yang ‘user-friendly’. PolitikDampak penerapan hukum, aturan main dan peraturan bagi konsumen. BudayaRitual, nilai, kebiasaan, dan norma dari sebuah budaya. Bagaimana konsumen dipengaruhi oleh budaya tersebut

25 Creating Value Through Quality and Customer Satisfaction

26 Value and Satisfaction  What is value?  What are five things a marketer can do to increase the value of the offering?  Value is a ratio between what the customer gets and what he gives.  Raising benefits, reducing costs, raising benefits and reducing costs, raising benefits by more than the raise in costs, or lowering benefits by less than the reduction in costs.

27 Theory Segue: Buyer Readiness Stages Purchase Conviction Preference Liking Knowledge Awareness Attitude Behavior High versus low involvement?

28 Market Integrated marketing Profits through customer satisfaction Customer needs (b) The marketing concept Factory Existing products Selling and promotion Profits through sales volume Starting point FocusMeansEnds (a) The selling concept Customer Delivered Value

29 TYPICAL MARKETING EXCHANGE PROCESS Company Consumer ProductRevenue

30 Exchange and Transactions Exchange involves obtaining a desired product from someone by offering something in return. Transaction involves at least two things of value, agreed-upon conditions, a time of agreement, and a place of agreement.

31 Customer Delivered Value Total Customer Value Total Customer Cost Product Value Service Value Personnel Value Image value Monetary cost Time cost Energy cost Psychic Cost

32 If we want to know what a business is, we have to start with its purpose. And its purpose must lie outside the business itself. In fact, it must lie in society since a business enterprise is an organ of society. There is one valid definition of business purpose : to create a customer.* * Peter F. Drucker, The Practice of Management (New York: Harper & Row, 12954), p. 37.

33 Customer Equity How Much Is A Customer Worth

34 Customer Equity Lifetime Value of a Loyal Customer. Revenue Stream. Price/unit * Total expected lifetime purchases Income Stream. Margins/unit * Total expected lifetime purchases

35 Identifying customer needs Designing goods and services that meet those needs Communicating information about those goods and services to prospective buyers Making the goods or services available at times and places that meet customers’ needs Pricing goods and services to reflect costs, competition, and customers’ ability to buy Providing for the necessary service and follow-up to ensure customer satisfaction after the purchase* *Joseph P. Guiltianan and Gordon W. Paul, Marketing Management, 6th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996), pp How does an organization create a customer?

36 Quality Quality is the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. #1

37 Five Possible Definitions of Quality Innate Excellence. (You know it when you see it) Product-Based. (The more, the better) User-Based. (Quality is what the customer says it is) Manufacturing-Based. (Conformance to standards) Value-Based. (Excellence for the money)

38 Garvin’s 8 dimensions of quality Performance Features Reliability Conformance (to standards) Durability Serviceability Aesthetics Perceived quality (Image)

39 Satisfaction is a person’s feelings of pleasure or disappointment resulting from comparing a product’s perceived performance (or outcome) in relation to his or her expectations. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION

40 Service Quality Dimensions Tangibles : The physical facilities, equipment, and appearance of personnel. Reliability : Ability to perform the promised service dependably and accurately. Responsiveness : Willingness to help customers and provide prompt service. Assurance : Knowledge and courtesy of employees and their ability to inspire trust and confidence. Empathy : Caring, individualized attention the firm provides its customers.

41 Satisfied Customers: Are loyal longer Buy more (new products & upgrades) Spread favorable word-of-mouth Are more brand loyal (less price sensitive) Offer feedback Reduce transaction costs

42 Perceived Quality Customer Expectations Perceived Value Customer Satisfaction Customer Complaints Customer Loyalty Model of Customer Satisfaction

43 Customer Expectations Word of Mouth Personal Needs Past Experience External Communications HOW CUSTOMERS FORM EXPECTATIONS

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45 New Product Acceptance


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